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Cultural and language Considerations for Working with Interpreters

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Identify cultural issues when working with students and families from other cultures. Understand procedures for working and collaborating with interpreters during family interactions, speech and language assessment, and treatment. Finally learn to provide interpreters with appropriate vocabulary and scripts in Spanish that are culturally sensitive to explain the ARD/IEP paperwork and processes to parents.

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Cultural and language Considerations for Working with Interpreters

  1. 1. Lindsey Williams, M.S., CCC-SLP Marie Wirka, M.S., CCC-SLP Webinar Series October 4, 2013 Cultural and Language Considerations for Working with Interpreters Ellen Kester, PhD, CCC-SLP Phuong Lien Palafox, MS, CCC-SLP Region 13 Education Service Center 12.20.2013 Austin, TX
  2. 2. What’s the Goal?
  3. 3. Objectives 1.Cultural Challenges
  4. 4. Objectives • Describe cultural issues when working with students and families from other cultures. • Provide interpreters with appropriate vocabulary and scripts in Spanish that are culturally sensitive to explain the ARD/IEP paperwork and processes to parents. 2. Working and Collaborating with Interpreters
  5. 5. Objectives • Describe cultural issues when working with students and families from other cultures. • Understand procedures for working and collaborating with interpreters during family interactions, speech and language assessment, and treatment. 3. Provide Script and Vocabulary ARD Meetings ( Annual/Review/Dismissal) or IEP Meetings (Individual Educational Plan)
  6. 6. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  7. 7. The need for interpreters • According to the 2010 census, 34.4% of the Texas population spoke a language other than English, and of those, 14.4% spoke English “less than well” (US Census Bureau, 2010). The Need for Interpreters
  8. 8. ECI: 18% Primary Language of Spanish
  9. 9. 51% of children in Texas schools and 53% of ECI came from Hispanic/Latino Backgrounds
  10. 10. The need for interpreters • In 2012 51% of all children in Texas public schools and 53% of children in Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) programs came from Hispanic/Latino backgrounds ▫ Of the ECI participants, 18% were reported to have a primary language of Spanish. 34.4% Spoke Language Other Than English
  11. 11. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  12. 12. Selecting Personnel to Conduct Evaluations
  13. 13. 4 Level 1: trained (in CLD issues) bilingual speech-language pathologist fluent in the native language Level 2: trained (in CLD issues) monolingual speech-language pathologist assisted by trained bilingual ancillary examiner. Level 3: trained (in CLD issues) monolingual speech- language pathologist assisted by trained interpreter (ASHA)
  14. 14. Language Differences vs. Cultural Differences
  15. 15. 1. The ability to speak a 2nd language is not sufficient.
  16. 16. 2. Cultural Differences can Create Misunderstandings
  17. 17. 3. Cultural Perspectives and Nuances
  18. 18. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  19. 19. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  20. 20. Individualism versus collectivism Views of TIME and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  21. 21. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and SPACE Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  22. 22. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  23. 23. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  24. 24. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Value Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  25. 25. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  26. 26. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  27. 27. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  28. 28. Individualism versus collectivism Views of time and space Roles of men and women Concepts of class and status Values Language Rituals Significance of work Beliefs about health Nine Cultural Parameters
  29. 29. Why Study Culture?
  30. 30. Increased Accuracy of Decision Making
  31. 31. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) maintains that clinicians must recognize how a client’s cultural and linguistic characteristics will influence the clinical decision-making process and determine how communicative competence and impairment are evaluated. (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002).
  32. 32. ASHA: Evidenced-Based Practice Professional Judgment Family and Culture Research
  33. 33. • As Latino families are most often served by non-Latino speech-language pathologists, misunderstandings may frequently occur. Knowledge of common cultural characteristics may reduce these misunderstandings. Improved Outcomes and Reduction in Misunderstanding of Clients and Families
  34. 34. Knowledge and Skills Required of Interpreters (ASHA, 2004) • Ensure that the interpreter/translator has knowledge and skills in the following areas: ▫ Native proficiency in the child's language/dialect and the ability to provide accurate interpretation/translations. ▫ Familiarity with and positive regard for the child’s particular culture, and speech community or communicative environment. ▫ Understanding of the role of the interpreter on the team (not including their own opinion) Knowledge and Skills Required of Interpreters ASHA, 2004
  35. 35. Knowledge and Skills Required of Interpreters (ASHA, 2004) • Ensure that the interpreter/translator has knowledge and skills in the following areas: ▫ Familiarity with and positive regard for the child’s particular culture, and speech community or communicative environment. ▫ Understanding of the role of the interpreter on the team (not including their own opinion) 1. Native Proficiency
  36. 36. Knowledge and Skills Required of Interpreters (ASHA, 2004) • Ensure that the interpreter/translator has knowledge and skills in the following areas: ▫ Native proficiency in the child's language/dialect and the ability to provide accurate interpretation/translations. ▫ Familiarity with and positive regard for the child’s particular culture, and speech community or communicative environment. ▫ Understanding of the role of the interpreter on the team (not including their own opinion) 2. Positive Regard
  37. 37. 3. Role of Interpreter
  38. 38. 4. Interview Techniques
  39. 39. 5. Ethics
  40. 40. Knowledge and Skills Required of Interpreters (cont.) ▫ Knowledge of interview techniques, including ethnographic interviewing. ▫ Professional ethics and client/patient confidentiality. ▫ Professional terminology. ▫ Basic principles of assessment and/or intervention principles to provide context to understand objectives. 6. Professional Terminology Glossary of Special Education Terminology Dr. Criselda Guajardo Alvarado Karin Y. Marshall Jonathan K. Marshall Attached Handout: Very Important Words for Interpreters
  41. 41. 7. Principles of Assessment & Intervention
  42. 42. Be Aware of Potential Bias • It is human nature to want a member of your culture to perform well • An interpreter should: ▫ Maintain Neutrality ▫ Translate verbatim statements ▫ Maintain confidentiality Be Aware of Potential Bias
  43. 43. Be Aware of Potential Bias • It is human nature to want a member of your culture to perform well • An interpreter should: ▫ Maintain Neutrality ▫ Translate verbatim statements ▫ Maintain confidentiality Member of Culture to Do Well
  44. 44. Be Aware of Potential Bias • It is human nature to want a member of your culture to perform well • An interpreter should: ▫ Maintain Neutrality ▫ Translate verbatim statements ▫ Maintain confidentiality N E U T R A L I T Y
  45. 45. Be Aware of Potential Bias • It is human nature to want a member of your culture to perform well • An interpreter should: ▫ Maintain Neutrality ▫ Translate verbatim statements ▫ Maintain confidentiality Point to the first house. Pointez sur la première maison. Translate Verbatim Statements
  46. 46. Be Aware of Potential Bias • It is human nature to want a member of your culture to perform well • An interpreter should: ▫ Maintain Neutrality ▫ Translate verbatim statements ▫ Maintain confidentiality Maintain Confidentiality
  47. 47. InterpreterSLP Bias happens.
  48. 48. Bias Increases
  49. 49. How to find an interpreter • The Professional Community ▫ Bilingual SLP fluent in child’s native language ▫ Professional in education (e.g., teacher, paraprofessional) ▫ Professor or student at local university ▫ Nurses, healthcare professionals • Community Members ▫ Cultural centers ▫ Member of child’s church or community group • The family ▫ Extended members preferred • Online resources ▫ www.professionalinterpreters.com How to Find an Interpreter
  50. 50. How to find an interpreter • The Professional Community ▫ Bilingual SLP fluent in child’s native language ▫ Professional in education (e.g., teacher, paraprofessional) ▫ Professor or student at local university ▫ Nurses, healthcare professionals • Community Members ▫ Cultural centers ▫ Member of child’s church or community group • The family ▫ Extended members preferred • Online resources ▫ www.professionalinterpreters.com Professional Community
  51. 51. How to find an interpreter • The Professional Community ▫ Bilingual SLP fluent in child’s native language ▫ Professional in education (e.g., teacher, paraprofessional) ▫ Professor or student at local university ▫ Nurses, healthcare professionals • Community Members ▫ Cultural centers ▫ Member of child’s church or community group • The family ▫ Extended members preferred • Online resources ▫ www.professionalinterpreters.com Community Members
  52. 52. How to find an interpreter • The Professional Community ▫ Bilingual SLP fluent in child’s native language ▫ Professional in education (e.g., teacher, paraprofessional) ▫ Professor or student at local university ▫ Nurses, healthcare professionals • Community Members ▫ Cultural centers ▫ Member of child’s church or community group • The family ▫ Extended members preferred • Online resources ▫ www.professionalinterpreters.com Extended Family
  53. 53. Online Resources
  54. 54. Types of Interpreting
  55. 55. Types of Interpretation • Consecutive Interpreting ▫ The interpreter listens to a section and then the speaker pauses to give time to interpret ▫ Used in one-to-one and small group meetings • Simultaneous Interpreting ▫ The interpreter attempts to relay the meaning in real time. ▫ Used more for conferences and speeches to large groupsConsecutive Interpreting
  56. 56. Types of Interpretation • Consecutive Interpreting ▫ The interpreter listens to a section and then the speaker pauses to give time to interpret ▫ Used in one-to-one and small group meetings • Simultaneous Interpreting ▫ The interpreter attempts to relay the meaning in real time. ▫ Used more for conferences and speeches to large groups Simultaneous Interpreting
  57. 57. How to Work with an Interpreter BID(Langdon 2002) Briefing – Interaction - Debriefing
  58. 58. Briefing • Ask that they interpret consecutively (not concurrently) • Explain the format • Explain your job and what you are looking for Briefing
  59. 59. Characteristics of speech and language disorders Information about 1st and 2nd language acquisition Guidelines for distinguishing between language differences and disorders Special education terminology Strategies related to working with families Cultural differences and their impact on assessment Use of assessment results in placement decisions Briefing: Basic Principles
  60. 60. Characteristics of speech and language disorders Information about 1st and 2nd language acquisition Guidelines for distinguishing between language differences and disorders Special education terminology Strategies related to working with families Cultural differences and their impact on assessment Use of assessment results in placement decisions Briefing: Basic Principles
  61. 61. Provide interpreter with background information about student Show interpreter how to use tests Allow the interpreter time to organize test materials, read instructions, and clarify areas of concern Ensure that interpreter does not protect student by hiding extent of limitations/disabilities Try to work with the same interpreter for multiple assignments to save time in training and to build a relationship. Briefing: Considerations for Assessment & Therapy
  62. 62. Interaction • Introduce yourself and the interpreter • Describe your roles and clarify expectations • Plan your time carefully (may need twice the time) • Do not rush, speak slowly and clearly • Pause frequently to allow interpretation ▫ Limit the number of sentences ▫ Take breaks • Avoid use of jargon, idioms, and humor Interaction
  63. 63. Introduce yourself and the interpreter Describe your roles and clarify expectations Plan your time carefully (may need twice the time) Do not rush, speak slowly and clearly Pause frequently to allow interpretation • Limit the number of sentences • Take breaks Avoid use of jargon, idioms, and humor Interaction
  64. 64. An interpreter should never translate emotions. Body language works for that An interpreter should never answer questions on your behalf. An interpreter should never alter what you say.
  65. 65. Interaction: Interpreters Should Record child’s responses verbatim Avoid providing extra prompts Use short, clear directions Understand effective behavioral strategies
  66. 66. Behavior
  67. 67. Antecedent – Behavior - Consequence
  68. 68. Prevent Teach Reinforce
  69. 69. Prevent Antecedent
  70. 70. Teach Desired Behavior
  71. 71. Reinforce Desired Behaviors
  72. 72. Interaction: Important Considerations Allow interpreter to only carry out activities for which he/she was trained Involve others in training interpreter when appropriate
  73. 73. Debriefing Ask the interpreter their impressions of the interaction and family/client after the interaction Use a “team approach” to assist interpreter in providing sufficient information to form clinical judgment Go over client’s errors as well as anticipated responses Discuss any difficulties that occurred during the interaction
  74. 74. Debriefing
  75. 75. Blurbs for Bilingual Assessments 1. Bilingual SLP 2.Monolingual SLP with Bilingual SLP 3. Monolingual SLP with Interpreter
  76. 76. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
  77. 77. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.
  78. 78. References • Mosheim, J. (no date). The Art of Interpretation. Beyond Bilingual to Multicultural. advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists: http://speech-language-pathology- audiology.advanceweb.com/Article/The-Art-of-Interpretation- 2.aspx, accessed July 31, 2013. • Rhodes, R., Hector Ochoa, S., Ortiz, S. (2005). Assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students. A practical guide. New York: The Guilford Press. • Texas Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services. 2012 Annual Report. www.dars.state.tx.us accessed August 6, 2013. • Texas Education Agency (TEA). Enrollment in Texas Public Schools 2011-12. www.tea.state.tx.us/acctres/Enroll_2011-12.pdf • U.S. Census Bureau; Census 2010, American Fact Finder. <http://factfinder2.census.gov>. accessed July 30, 2013.
  79. 79. References American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Collaborating with Interpreters and Translators. http://www.asha.org/practice/multicultural/InterpreterTranslat or/ Accessed September 20, 2013. Figueros, R., Nadeem, T. (no date). The bilingual special education dictionary. A resource for special educators & parents, 2nd Edition. San Jose, CA: The National Hispanic University. Goldstein, B. (2000). Cultural and linguistic diversity resource guide for speech-language pathologists. United States: Thompson, Delmar Learning. Langdon, H., Cheng, L. (2002). Collaborating with interpreters and translators. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications. Morales-Peña, B., and Esckelson, D. (1998). Spanish phrasing for IEP’s (with English translations).

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