Assessment of English Language Learners: A Bilingual Approach


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More easily identifying whether a child’s errors are due to typical development, second-language influence, or true impairment. This course provides video examples of these possible outcomes as they relate to articulation and language development.

Current demographic data is reviewed as well as future population trends. A framework is provided for evaluation that can be applied to many different languages. Facts and myths about bilingualism are also covered. This presentation concludes with case studies to demonstrate how to effectively apply all of the information.

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Assessment of English Language Learners: A Bilingual Approach

  1. 1. Texas Public School  Demographics: 2009 Snapshot African American Hispanic White Other
  2. 2. How do we qualify and work  with a bilingual population when: ▫ The tests we used are not normed on this population. ▫ My gut feeling doesn’t match the test results. ▫ I don’t know what goals are appropriate.
  3. 3. Learner Objectives  • Participants will list, identify, describe… ▫ Reasons for testing both languages ▫ Formal and informal measures for testing ELLs ▫ Use of tests when a student is not represented in the  normative sample ▫ Selection of the language of intervention ▫ Development of appropriate goals ▫ ASHA guidelines for intervention with bilingual students
  5. 5. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  6. 6. “For adults, the idea of an  “uncontaminated” monolingual is  probably a fiction.” Ellen Bialystok
  7. 7. S Se Se SE Es Es E
  8. 8. Spanish English ED BE BS SD
  9. 9. Conceptual L1 Lexical L2 LexicalL2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
  10. 10. ▫ + =    Positive transfer ▫ + =    Negative transfer
  11. 11. The differences and shared characteristics of two  sound systems
  12. 12. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  13. 13. Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
  14. 14. Speech Outcomes • Qualifies• DNQ • DNQ• DNQ Errors typical for age Errors due to second language Errors atypical for age and language No errors present
  15. 15. • Speech and language  development from: ▫ 0‐36 months ▫ 36 months forward • With: ▫ Spanish ▫ English ▫ Crosslinguistic Influence 
  16. 16. Differences Similarities
  17. 17. • 0‐1 month – crying and vegetative sounds • 1‐6 months – cooing, laughter, squealing,  growling • 4‐6 months – marginal babbling • 6‐8 months – reduplicated babbling • 8‐10 months – variegated babbling • 8‐12 months – echolalia • 9‐12 months – phonetically                consistent forms • 9‐12 months – jargon Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  18. 18. • For parents:    (Lynch, Brookshire & Fox, 1980) ▫ 18 months ‐ ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds  ‐ 50‐75% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds  ‐ 75%‐100% intelligible • For unfamiliar:     (Flipsen, 2006) ▫ 18 months ‐ ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds ‐ ~50% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds ‐ ~75% intelligible ▫ 4 year olds ‐ 100% intelligible Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  19. 19. • Difficulty producing sounds in both languages,  even with adult assistance • Family history of speech‐language impairment  • Slower development than siblings • Difficulty interacting with peers • Difficulty with speech production in many routines and  settings • Speech production unlike others with similar  cultural/linguistic experiences Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  20. 20. The differences and shared characteristics of two  sound systems
  21. 21. /ɲ/ /ɾ/ /R/ /x/ /ð/ /dʒ/ /h//ŋ/ /θ/ /r/ /ʃ/ /v/ /w/ /z/ /ʒ/ SPANISH ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /tʃ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
  22. 22. English consonants mastered in  words across time Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  23. 23. English consonants mastered in  words across time Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  24. 24. English consonants –GFTA 2 Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  25. 25. Spanish consonants mastered in  words across time Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  26. 26. Spanish consonant acquisition ‐ Goldstein Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  27. 27. Developmental speech information for teachers Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  28. 28. Consonant Difference  Activity  BATH BAT
  29. 29. Consonant Difference  Activity  THREE TREE
  30. 30. Consonant Difference  Activity  SHOE CHEW
  31. 31. Consonant Difference  Activity  VASE BASE
  32. 32. /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /i/ /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ SPANISH ENGLISH
  33. 33. • 13‐14 vowel sounds in English (depending on dialect  and detail) • 5 vowels in Spanish (a e i o u)
  34. 34. Vowel Chart English and Spanish          
  35. 35. Vowel Difference  Activity  HAT HOT
  36. 36. Vowel Difference  Activity  GET GATE
  37. 37. Vowel Difference  Activity  HIT HEAT
  38. 38. Vowel Difference  Activity  FUN PHONE
  39. 39. Vowel Difference  Activity  LOOK LUKE
  40. 40. When the rules of two sound systems overlap or are  mutually exclusive
  41. 41. Cluster reduction Stopping Fronting Assimilation Gliding Final consonant deletion Deaffrication Tap/Trill Deviation Vocalization SPANISH ENGLISH
  42. 42. Phonological Processes: Norms Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  43. 43. Spanish                                                English CV Dominated Few words ending in Cs Few allowable phonemes as final Cs (only l, n, d, s, r) More clusters Many words ending in Cs Many allowable phonemes final Cs C = Consonant V = Vowel
  44. 44. Clinical judgment with the  Goldman Fristoe
  45. 45. Other Common Languages Vietnamese Romanian Hindi Urdu Arabic
  46. 46. /ɲ/ /ɽʱ/ /t̪ʰ/ /ʋ/ /q/ /d̪ʱ/ /ɾ/ /pʰ/ /ʈʰ/ /x/ /bʰ/ /ɖʱ/ /kʰ/ /ɡʱ/ /tʃʰ/ /dʒʱ/ /ɣ/ /ð/ /ʒ/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /v/ /w/ HINDI ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /h/ /r/ /ʃ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
  47. 47. Hindi Consonants
  48. 48. /ɑ/ /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /i/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ HINDI ENGLISH
  49. 49. Speech Summary • So what do we know: ▫ Building blocks are the same for both monolinguals and  bilinguals, and across languages ▫ General guidelines for intelligibility are the same  ▫ Expect some cross‐linguistic influence in speech  production where the two languages differ ▫ Use therapy materials that provide speech sounds that are  appropriate for the child’s age and language
  50. 50. “No language is immune to the intrusion from the  barrage of words and phrases that rise out of one  language…and deposit themselves in the lexicon of  another.” Ellen Bialystok
  51. 51. Fact or Myth  Language Activity  Children code switch  between languages  because they don’t  know either  language well. FACT or MYTH
  52. 52. Fact or Myth  Language Activity  Raising children  with two  languages will  confuse them. FACT or MYTH
  53. 53. Fact or Myth  Language Activity  Parents should  not use more  than one  language with  their child. FACT or MYTH
  54. 54. Fact or Myth  Language Activity  Comparisons to  siblings and peers  can help identify  language learning  difficulties. FACT or MYTH
  55. 55. Fact or Myth  Language Activity  Children with  language  impairment should  not learn more than  one language at a  time. FACT or MYTH
  56. 56. Fact or Myth  Language Activity  Bilingual children  have to translate  from their weaker  to their stronger  language. FACT or MYTH
  57. 57. • 0-1 month – crying and vegetative sounds • 2-3 months eye gaze • 6-9 months-- joint attention • 9-12 months -- using gestures • 12-15 months--following simple commands • 18 months – symbolic play, pretend play • 24 months – sequencing of activities • 36 months – episodic play Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  58. 58. • Based on the Competition Model as applied to  bilingual development (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989) ▫ Forward Transfer (L1 to L2) expected for ELLs • The effects of Spanish on English can result in errors  in: ▫ Verb errors (especially unmarked present for past  tense) ▫ Content word errors (more than general words) ▫ Prepositions ▫ Pronouns ▫ Word order Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  59. 59. Mean Errors Per Grade Spanish 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors SpnMorph SpnSemantic SpnSyntactic SpnTotal Mean Errors Per Grade English 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors EngMorph EngSemantic EngSyntactic EngTotal Cross‐linguistic Errors in  Children with Typical  Development
  60. 60. When the rules of two grammar systems positively or  negatively influence each other. Syntax
  61. 61. Verb Differences English (2 two forms of verb person ▫ I eat ▫ You eat ▫ He eats ▫ We eat ▫ Y’all eat ▫ They eat In Spanish (5-6 forms of verb person) ▫ Yo como ▫ Tú comes ▫ Él/Ella/Ud. come ▫ Nosotros comemos ▫ Vosotros coméis ▫ Ellos comen Most frequent SIE verb error: Unmarked present tense for past tense Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  62. 62. Pronouns • Spanish is called a Pro‐Drop language because  subjects/pronouns are usually dropped once the  subject has been established. • In English, pronouns are required. Spanish English Maria fue a la tienda.  (Ella)  Compró pan. Maria went to the store.  She bought bread.
  63. 63. Word Order ENGLISH SPANISH • Strict Word Order • SVO ▫ John threw the ball. • Flexible • SVO, OSV, VOS ▫ Juan tiró la pelota. ▫ La pelota Juan tiró. ▫ Tiró la pelota Juan.
  64. 64. When two languages compete to apply meaning to  words and phrases. Semantics
  65. 65. Multi‐Purpose Verbs Spanish phrases with  multi‐purpose verbs English Equivalents Spanish‐Influenced  English Tomar una decisión To make a decision Did you take a decision?* Poner una cita To make an appointment Do you want to put an  appointment?* Tener hambre To be hungry Do you have hunger?* Tener 4 años To be 4‐years old I have 4 years.* •Verbs such as “do, “make,” “put,” and “take” generally have one primary meaning and  other less frequent uses.   • Subject to transfer of meaning from L1.  
  66. 66. Preposition Differences English ▫ Satellite-framed e.g. verb + preposition To look for To get on ▫ Not 1:1 correspondence of meaning in, on Spanish ▫ Verb-framed e.g. directional information in verb Buscar Subir ▫ Not 1:1 correspondence of meaning en Frequent SIE error: Preposition error or omission
  67. 67. Prepositions Spanish Prepositions English Equivalent Spanish‐influenced Eng en “in” and “on” Put the food in the plate.*,  Put the soup on the bowl.* Pensar en OR Pensar de To think about or think of I think on him every day.* Enojarse con/de Get mad at Get mad with/of* Decidir de To decide on Decide of what you  want?* Casarse con To marry or be married to Is he married with her?* Enamorarse de To be in love with Is he in love of her?* Consistir en To consist of What does your plan  consist in?* Buscar To look for I look my toy.* Subir To go up, to get on I go the stairs.*
  68. 68. Content Errors • Spanish‐influenced English may include use of  words close in meaning to the target  ▫ “moose” for “deer” ▫ “turtle” for “frog” ▫ “rat” for “chipmunk” ▫ “cone house of the bees” for “beehive” • Typically do not use general vocabulary (“this,” “thing”) Frequent SIE error: Incorrect but related vocabulary
  69. 69. • Bilingual children develop early vocabulary  at the same rate as monolingual children  (Pearson, 1993). • Early language milestones are similar  (single words, lexical spurt, 2‐word  phrases) (Pearson and Fernandez, 2001). • Conceptual scores are similar (Pearson, 1998). • Language exposure drives vocabulary  production (Pearson, Fernandez, Lewedeg, and Oller, 1997) 
  70. 70. • For bilingual toddlers 30% of vocabulary are  translation equivalents1 • Young school‐age bilinguals produce same # of  category items in Spanish and English BUT 70% are  unique to one language2 • Task performance varies by language3 • 1 Pearson, Fernandez & Oller, 1995 • 2 Peña, Bedore & Zlatic, 2002 • 3 Peña, Bedore, & Rappazzo, 2003
  71. 71. • Children tend to shift  ‐ L1 to L2 ▫ 8‐10 year‐old were faster in English but more accurate  in Spanish. ▫ 11‐13‐year‐olds showed no clear advantage in either  language. ▫ By 14‐16 years of age children were more accurate and  faster in English. 0 1 2 3 4 English Spanish
  72. 72. LANGUAGE CASE STUDY IM, Age 7;2, 2nd grade  IM lives with his mother, two siblings (ages 6 and 5),  grandmother, aunts and cousins.  Spanish is the  dominant language in the home.  IM reported that  he speaks Spanish at home and English at school.  
  73. 73. “Bilingualism is random chaos  for psychometrics” Figueroa
  74. 74. Tools were not developed  for our population • We need to use an assessment tool. • English tests were not normed for the English of ESL  learners.  • Clinical judgment regarding missed items and items  correct is critical.
  75. 75. • It’s always critical to use information beyond the  assessment tool to complete an assessment. • Let’s look now at some of the things that can help  us differentiate bilinguals with typical development  from those with delayed/disordered language skills.
  76. 76. Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) Dynamic Assessment ( )
  77. 77. • Difficulty learning both languages,  even with adult assistance • Family history of language/learning disabilities  • Slower development than siblings • Difficulty interacting with peers • Inappropriate pragmatic/social language skills (i.e., turn‐ taking, topic maintenance, considering listener needs,  non‐verbal communication) • Difficulty with language in many routines • Idiosyncratic error patterns  • Language performance unlike others with similar  cultural/linguistic experiences
  78. 78. A student from a second language home does not  perform typically for her age on standardized  and  informal evaluations. Is this due to second language influence or is she truly  impaired?
  79. 79. How do we make this decision  confidently? • Testing Procedures and  questions • The role of language survey • Using Case Studies to  understand testing results and  outcomes
  80. 80. When do we test in two  languages? • Is the language survey valuable to us? • Are the results from language proficiency testing  valuable to us?  (woodcock‐muñoz language survey) Speech and Language Testing is  Cumulative not Comparative 
  81. 81. Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and  what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  e.g. Spanish •Gender •Verbs •Article+nouns •Food •Clothing •Household items Both •People •Functions •Categorization •Part-Whole English •Pronouns •Prepositions •Nouns •Colors •Numbers •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
  82. 82. Take Away Points • Thorough language history is critical. • Thorough health (especially hearing) history is needed. • Testing in all languages is the only way to get a complete picture of a student. • Understanding the features of the non-English language as well as how those compare to English will help identify what errors may be due to cross-language influence.
  83. 83. Assessment Summary • So what do we know: ▫ Not all bilinguals are the same  ▫ Children in recent second language environments may  display behaviors common in monolinguals with language  impairment ▫ Problems associated with all assessment tools ▫ We need to go beyond the tool in assessment ▫ Ongoing assessment across many daily routines is critical ▫ Exploring both/all languages is essential.
  84. 84. Helpful Resources on typical phonological process errors in English-speaking, Spanish-speaking and Bilingual Children. Davis, B. L., Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E. S., Peña, E. D. (2008). English speech sound development in pre-school aged children from bilingual English-Spanish environments. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2008 39: 314-328. Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Peña E. D, Davis, B. L., Kester, E.S.,. (2009). Effects of L1 during early acquisition of L2: Speech changes in Spanish at first English contact. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 2, 259-272.
  85. 85. Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E.S., Davis, B. L., & Peña, E. D. (2007). Speech development in 3- to 4-year-old children from bilingual Spanish/English and monolingual Spanish and English environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools. Goldstein, B. (2007a). Spanish speech acquisition. In S. McLeod (Ed.), The international guide to speech acquisition (pp. 539-553). Clifton Park, NY:Thomson Delmar Learning. Goldstein, B. (2007b). Speech acquisition across the world: Spanish Influenced English. In S. McLeod (Ed.), The international guide to speechacquisition (pp. 345-356). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.
  86. 86. Goldstein, B. (2007). Phonological skills in Puerto Rican- and Mexican- Spanish speaking children with phonological disorders. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 21, 93-109. Goldstein, B., Fabiano, L., & Washington, P. (2005). Phonological skills inpredominantly English, predominantly Spanish, and Spanish-English bilingual children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36, 201-218. Goldstein, B. (2005). Substitutions in the phonology of Spanish- speakingchildren. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 3, 56-63. Fabiano, L., & Goldstein, B. (2005). Phonological cross-linguistic influencein sequential Spanish-English bilingual children. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 3, 56-63.
  87. 87. Click to visit
  88. 88. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.