Teaching Students with Mental Retardation

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Teaching Students with Mental Retardation

  1. 1. Describing Characteristics of Mental Retardation <ul><li>The 3 main characteristics of mental retardation relate to : </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Support </li></ul>
  2. 2. Limitations in Intellectual Functioning <ul><li>Memory – ( procedural & declarative) </li></ul><ul><li>Attention – (selective & sustained attention) </li></ul><ul><li>Language Abilities – vary to degree of severity. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization - – difficulty to transfer knowledge learned from one task to another task and to do so across different settings or environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation – affects both behavior and intellectual achievement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Concurrent Limitations in Adaptive Skill Areas <ul><li>Self-direction </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the ability of individuals to live their lives the way that they choose to live them, consistent with their own values, preferences, and abilities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Concurrent Limitations in Adaptive Skill Areas <ul><li>Functional Academics </li></ul><ul><li>Are the school subjects that directly apply to and teach the skills needed in one’s everyday environment </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to complete a job application form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to use a city map or a telephone directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning survival words (men/women, entrance/exit, walk/don’t walk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to carry on a reciprocal conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to identify denominations of money and to make change </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Concurrent Limitations in Adaptive Skill Areas <ul><li>Home Living </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the requirements that individuals must meet to live successfully within a home setting. Ex. Adjusting temperature to shower water, using washing machine, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Determining Intensities of Needed Support <ul><li>Special education itself is a system of supports. After a multidisciplinary team has evaluated a student’s intellectual and adaptive skill capabilities and limitations, it then determines what support the student needs in the following four areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual functioning an adaptive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological and emotional considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Physical health and etiology considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assessment for Mental Retardation <ul><li>Medical Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of Adaptive Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and Language Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Therapy Assessment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Designing Personalized Curricular Support for Students with Mental Retardation <ul><li>Knowlton (1998) proposed that the design of curricula and personalized curricular supports for students should be driven by the three Rs of personalized curricular support plans: </li></ul><ul><li>The support should be rational with respect to its reliance on current performance data and future projections. </li></ul><ul><li>It is responsible insofar as compliance with statutory policies and ethical principles is concerned. </li></ul><ul><li>It is responsive to immediate and long-term issues in the lives of students with disabilities and their family members. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Designing Personalized Curricular Support for Students with Mental Retardation <ul><li>Knowlton (1998) suggested that effective curricular practices center on adult- and community-oriented modifications that can enhance the individual’s ultimate functioning as an adult. The use of the general curriculum as a benchmark from which personalized modifications are determined is not for the purposes of thinning it, but rather of personalizing it so that the student is taught in a manner that is keyed to &quot;ultimate independence and lifestyle quality on the basis of rational decisions, responsive programs, and responsible compliance“. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Teaching Students with Mental Retardation <ul><li>Behavioral Interventions – using the Applied Behavior Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>task analysis </li></ul><ul><li>prompting </li></ul><ul><li>shaping </li></ul><ul><li>token economies </li></ul><ul><li>contracts </li></ul><ul><li>punishment </li></ul><ul><li>gentle teaching </li></ul>
  11. 11. Teaching Students with Mental Retardation <ul><li>Cognitive Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>- for problems solving and critical thinking making choices </li></ul><ul><li>self-management </li></ul><ul><li>imagery procedures </li></ul><ul><li>- for functional academics </li></ul><ul><li>unit approach </li></ul><ul><li>functional practice activities </li></ul>
  12. 12. Writing Annual Goals <ul><li>Annual Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the school year, Judy will read grade 2 material with adequate word recognition and comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the school year, Judy will legibly spell a minimum of 100 high-frequency words. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the school year, Judy will write simple sentences and personal information, such as her name, address, and telephone number. </li></ul><ul><li>Person Responsible: Resource Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of Participation in General Education </li></ul><ul><li>Judy will receive instruction in the regular fourth grade class for the entire day except for 1 hour in the afternoon. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Education and Related Services </li></ul><ul><li>1. The resource teacher will provide special education services to Judy for 1 hour each morning in the fourth grade classroom (goal 1) and for 1 hour each afternoon in the resource room ( goal 2 & 3) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Writing Short-term Objectives <ul><li>Annual Goal: By the end of the school year, Judy will perform math computation problems at the 3.5 grade level in progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Judy will add and subtract two-digit numbers with regrouping with 90% accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Judy will write multiplication facts with 90% accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Judy will multiply two-digit numbers with regrouping with 90% accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Judy will write division facts with 90% accuracy. </li></ul>

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