Improving Story Narratives of
Children from Different
Cultures
Scott Prath, M.A., CCC-SLP
Ellen Kester, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
TSH...
Scott Prath
M.A., CCC-SLP
Ellen Kester
Ph.D., CCC-SLP
• moth
Difference Vs. Disorder – Speech
Difference Vs. Disorder - Language
Do you need Continuing Education or
want to listen to this course live?
Click here to
visit the online
courses.
Difference Vs. Disorder - Narratives
Learner Objectives- Future Directions
• Discuss differences in narrative styles between
English and Spanish speakers.
• Id...
How important are narratives?
• We ask children to tell us about events, retell
stories, write about events in their journ...
Can culture affect narrative
production?
• A child’s culture and life experiences have taught
him a different narrative sc...
Our Goal Today
• Show that narrative styles between children
from English- and Spanish-speaking cultures
vary greatly.
• S...
All of the documents and charts in this
presentation can be downloaded from our Free
Resource Library.
Click here to visit...
Narrative Elements that are
Common to Most Cultures
Narrative Element Definition
Example (3 Billy Goats Gruff)
Initiating ...
Narrative Elements
• Initiating Event
▫ The incident which introduces the central conflict
in a story
• Example:
▫ Mom sai...
Narrative Elements
• Attempt
▫ The protagonist’s attempt to solve the related goal.
• Example
▫ The 3 pigs attempted to bu...
Narrative Elements
• Consequence
▫ The results of the attempt (i.e. whether or not the
goal was attained).
• Example:
▫ Th...
Narrative Elements
• Resolution
▫ Whether or not the super-ordinate goal was
resolved.
• Example:
▫ A houses strength/valu...
Narrative Elements
• Setting
▫ The physical or temporal context of the story.
• Example:
▫ The country.
Expected in Most C...
Activity
Language Sample
Exploration
Common Elements
Initiating Event
Attempt
Consequence
Resolution
Setting
Case Study – Pablo 7 years
• English Narrative
• The boy is sitting in in in in the in
the chair.
• The frog gonna go see ...
Case Study – Pablo 7 years
• The boy get the, the, the, the boy scream
again.
• The boy scream uh, uh, uh, a hole, the
the...
Case Study – Pablo 7 years
• The boy and the dog, the boy and the
dog fall on the water.
• The boy said, “You can hear tha...
Narrative Elements that are
Specific to Spanish and English
Narrative Element Definition Example (3 Little Pigs)
Internal ...
Narrative Elements
• Internal Response
▫ Emotional response to the initiating event is
present.
• Example:
▫ The pigs were...
Narrative Elements
• Discourse Markers
▫ A word or phrase that does not change the
meaning of the sentence.
• Example:
▫ “...
Narrative Elements
• Embedded stories
▫ Flashbacks and other editing cues that may impact
the viewing experience.
• Exampl...
Narrative Elements
• Causal Relations
▫ The relationship between an event (the cause) and
a second event (the effect).
• E...
Narrative Elements
• Causal Chain
▫ Whether or not event is part of the chain that
leads from beginning to end.
• Example:...
Narrative Elements
• Protagonist Identification
▫ Whether or not the main protagonist in the story
is identified within th...
Activity 2
Language Sample
Exploration
Common Elements
Internal Response
Discourse Markers
Embedded Stories
Causal Relatio...
Case Study – Pablo 7 years
• English Narrative
• The boy is sitting in in in in the in
the chair.
• The frog gonna go see ...
Case Study – Pablo 7 years
• The boy get the, the, the, the boy scream
again.
• The boy scream uh, uh, uh, a hole, the
the...
Case Study – Pablo 7 years
• The boy and the dog, the boy and the
dog fall on the water.
• The boy said, “You can hear tha...
Dynamic
Assessment
Narrative
Collection
Sheet
Narrative Differences
How Narratives Vary Across
Cultures
How does narrative development
change as a child gets older?
• Simple to Complex
• Egocentric to conscious of others’ thou...
How can differences in narrative
ability affect academic performance?
• When personal knowledge differs from
mainstream ex...
Is how we ask children to tell a story
different than how their parents ask?
• Metzi (2000) found differences in the way
S...
Narrative
Differences
Specific to
Spanish and
English
Ernesto Quiñonez: Dog Days of Spanish Harlem
Tristan Jamison: A Dish...
Narrative Differences:
Goal of most narratives
Spanish - Culture English - Culture
• Moral themes. Spanish-
speaking child...
Narrative Differences:
Reaction
Spanish - Culture English - Culture
• A character’s reaction to an
event or element may be...
Narrative Differences:
Story Elicitation
Spanish - Culture English - Culture
• Mothers emphasize the
conversational aspect...
Narrative Differences:
Grammar – meaning
Spanish - Culture English - Culture
• Spanish relies on the inflection
of morphem...
Narrative Differences:
Acting as a listener
or a participant
Spanish - Culture English - Culture
• Spanish-speaking cultur...
Which narrative elements does
my client include?
Collecting baseline information on
narrative production
Collecting baseline data
Full assessment available in our resource library at www.bilinguistics.com
Click here to download...
Collecting
baseline
data
Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
Improving narratives with
intervention
How storybooks can by
used to improve
narratives
Click here to download this chart ...
Selecting Books for
Intervention
• The general criteria in choosing a book are that it
must be age-appropriate, interestin...
Types of Stories
• Chain or Circular Story: The story's ending leads back to
the beginning.
• Cumulative: The story builds...
Types of Stories Activity
Cumulative: The story
builds on a pattern. It starts
with one person, place,
thing, or event. Ea...
Types of Stories Activity
Familiar Sequence
(calendar or number):
A common, recognizable
theme such as the days of
the wee...
Types of Stories Activity
Chain or Circular
Story: The story's ending
leads back to the
beginning.
Book Selection
• Age-appropriate
• Interesting and
relevant
• Related to goals
• Simple
• Good illustrations
• Resources
▫...
Pre-Reading Activities
Pre-reading activities are used to bridge any gaps
between a student’s current skills and the targe...
Pre-Reading Activities
• Illustration discussion – The student creates a
story using illustrations from the selected
book....
Reading Activities
While reading the book, use scaffolding techniques to
engage the student and check understanding.
Clini...
Reading Activities
Scaffolding techniques
• Syntactic and semantic expansions – The adult
expands on an utterance provided...
Post-Reading Activities
• Post-reading activities create a time when the student
can review and reflect on what they have ...
Post-Reading Activities
• Semantic activities – Students add to their word
books through art activities in the areas of
ob...
Summary:
• A child will produce a fictional or personal story that
imitates the stories that he or she has been exposed
to...
Template Examples
Click to visit
www.bilinguistics.com
Difference or Disorder?
Understanding Speech and Language
Patterns in Culturally and
Linguistically Diverse Students
Rapid...
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Improving Story Narratives of Children from Different Cultures

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This presentation will discuss differences in narrative styles between English and Spanish speakers and identify which narrative styles are common to many cultures. It will review dynamic assessment and intervention stages to assess and teach narrative use. Furthermore, it will discuss how narrative abilities can affect academic progress and describe how cultural differences can be taken into consideration when treating a student.

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Improving Story Narratives of Children from Different Cultures

  1. 1. Improving Story Narratives of Children from Different Cultures Scott Prath, M.A., CCC-SLP Ellen Kester, Ph.D., CCC-SLP TSHA Convention: March 2012
  2. 2. Scott Prath M.A., CCC-SLP Ellen Kester Ph.D., CCC-SLP
  3. 3. • moth
  4. 4. Difference Vs. Disorder – Speech
  5. 5. Difference Vs. Disorder - Language
  6. 6. Do you need Continuing Education or want to listen to this course live? Click here to visit the online courses.
  7. 7. Difference Vs. Disorder - Narratives
  8. 8. Learner Objectives- Future Directions • Discuss differences in narrative styles between English and Spanish speakers. • Identify which narrative styles are common to many cultures • List dynamic assessment and intervention stages to assess and teach narrative use • Discuss how narrative abilities can affect academic progress • Describe how cultural differences can be taken into consideration when treating a student
  9. 9. How important are narratives? • We ask children to tell us about events, retell stories, write about events in their journals, and answer questions about stories. • We analyze and judge the grammar and content of their stories, the order of events, the semantic complexity, and the narrative elements.
  10. 10. Can culture affect narrative production? • A child’s culture and life experiences have taught him a different narrative script. • How do we decide if missing elements are due to an impairment or cultural difference?
  11. 11. Our Goal Today • Show that narrative styles between children from English- and Spanish-speaking cultures vary greatly. • Show how one set of narrative-based intervention procedures can universally challenge both English- and Spanish-speaking children
  12. 12. All of the documents and charts in this presentation can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  13. 13. Narrative Elements that are Common to Most Cultures Narrative Element Definition Example (3 Billy Goats Gruff) Initiating Event The incident which introduces the central conflict in a story; The goats were hungry and wanted to eat The grassy knoll was on the other side of the bridge Attempt The protagonist’s attempt to solve the problem. They went to cross the bridge. Consequence The results of the attempt (i.e. whether or not the goal was attained). The troll threatened to eat them . Resolution Whether or not the super-ordinate problem was resolved. Tricked the troll into waiting for a bigger feast. Setting The physical or temporal context of the story. The grassy knoll and the bridge. Full assessment available in our resource library at www.bilinguistics.com
  14. 14. Narrative Elements • Initiating Event ▫ The incident which introduces the central conflict in a story • Example: ▫ Mom said it was time to live on their own. And “be careful of the big bad wolf.” Expected in Most Cultures
  15. 15. Narrative Elements • Attempt ▫ The protagonist’s attempt to solve the related goal. • Example ▫ The 3 pigs attempted to build houses. Expected in Most Cultures
  16. 16. Narrative Elements • Consequence ▫ The results of the attempt (i.e. whether or not the goal was attained). • Example: ▫ The houses were built and the wolf blew down the poorly built houses. He could not blow down the well built house. Expected in Most Cultures
  17. 17. Narrative Elements • Resolution ▫ Whether or not the super-ordinate goal was resolved. • Example: ▫ A houses strength/value was proportionate to the effort put into building it. Expected in Most Cultures
  18. 18. Narrative Elements • Setting ▫ The physical or temporal context of the story. • Example: ▫ The country. Expected in Most Cultures
  19. 19. Activity Language Sample Exploration Common Elements Initiating Event Attempt Consequence Resolution Setting
  20. 20. Case Study – Pablo 7 years • English Narrative • The boy is sitting in in in in the in the chair. • The frog gonna go see his babies. • The boy see the, the there is no nothing. • The boy put put his, the boy check his boots. • “No one’s in there,” said the boy. • The boy screamed for the frog. • The dog fall. • The boy run to him. • He get him. Common Elements Initiating Event Attempt Consequence Resolution Setting
  21. 21. Case Study – Pablo 7 years • The boy get the, the, the, the boy scream again. • The boy scream uh, uh, uh, a hole, the the the the> • The dog, the dog, the dog hit a tree. • Then, then a boy went to a tree and then, he scream owl. • The owl push the boy. • The owl follow the boy. • The boy scream again. • A deer pick up a boy. • The boy and the dog run, run from to the deer. • The deer fall, fall, let go of the boy. Common Elements Initiating Event Attempt Consequence Resolution Setting
  22. 22. Case Study – Pablo 7 years • The boy and the dog, the boy and the dog fall on the water. • The boy said, “You can hear that?” • The boy said, um, he said, um, his dog to be quiet. • Then the dog and the boy run to a tree. • Then they look and there are the frog. • Then came up the babies. • Then the boy said to the frog “I can keep one of your babies?” • And the one of the babies stay, stay down. Common Elements Initiating Event Attempt Consequence Resolution Setting
  23. 23. Narrative Elements that are Specific to Spanish and English Narrative Element Definition Example (3 Little Pigs) Internal Response An emotional response to the initiating event The goat was scared of the troll. The troll was mad and hungry. Discourse Markers A word or phrase that does not change the meaning of the sentence. "well," "now," "then," "you know" Embedded stories Flashbacks and other editing cues that may impact the viewing experience. If the goats parents had been eaten by the troll. Causal Relations: The relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect). The troll allowed the smaller goat to pass because he was offered a bigger brother. Causal Chain A series of causal events that lead from beginning to end. The troll became progressively more hungry and demanding. Protagonist Identification Identification of the main protagonist in the story within the first scene of the program. Once upon a time there were 3 Billy Goats Gruff…
  24. 24. Narrative Elements • Internal Response ▫ Emotional response to the initiating event is present. • Example: ▫ The pigs were scared at the prospect of having to leave home. Culturally Specific !
  25. 25. Narrative Elements • Discourse Markers ▫ A word or phrase that does not change the meaning of the sentence. • Example: ▫ “Once upon a time…" Culturally Specific !
  26. 26. Narrative Elements • Embedded stories ▫ Flashbacks and other editing cues that may impact the viewing experience. • Example: ▫ If the pigs had built their houses based on something that had happened to their father. Culturally Specific !
  27. 27. Narrative Elements • Causal Relations ▫ The relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect). • Example: ▫ The wolf blew the straw house down so the pig ran as fast as he could to his brother’s house. Culturally Specific !
  28. 28. Narrative Elements • Causal Chain ▫ Whether or not event is part of the chain that leads from beginning to end. • Example: ▫ Story progressed from the straw house, then the stick house, and finally the brick house. Culturally Specific !
  29. 29. Narrative Elements • Protagonist Identification ▫ Whether or not the main protagonist in the story is identified within the first scene. • Example: ▫ Once upon a time there were 3 little pigs… Culturally Specific !
  30. 30. Activity 2 Language Sample Exploration Common Elements Internal Response Discourse Markers Embedded Stories Causal Relationship Causal Chain Protagonist Identification
  31. 31. Case Study – Pablo 7 years • English Narrative • The boy is sitting in in in in the in the chair. • The frog gonna go see his babies. • The boy see the, the there is no nothing. • The boy put put his, the boy check his boots. • “No one’s in there,” said the boy. • The boy screamed for the frog. • The dog fall. • The boy run to him. • He get him. Common Elements Internal Response Discourse Markers Embedded Stories Causal Relationship Causal Chain Protagonist Identification
  32. 32. Case Study – Pablo 7 years • The boy get the, the, the, the boy scream again. • The boy scream uh, uh, uh, a hole, the the the the> • The dog, the dog, the dog hit a tree. • Then, then a boy went to a tree and then, he scream owl. • The owl push the boy. • The owl follow the boy. • The boy scream again. • A deer pick up a boy. • The boy and the dog run, run from to the deer. • The deer fall, fall, let go of the boy. Common Elements Internal Response Discourse Markers Embedded Stories Causal Relationship Causal Chain Protagonist Identification
  33. 33. Case Study – Pablo 7 years • The boy and the dog, the boy and the dog fall on the water. • The boy said, “You can hear that?” • The boy said, um, he said, um, his dog to be quiet. • Then the dog and the boy run to a tree. • Then they look and there are the frog. • Then came up the babies. • Then the boy said to the frog “I can keep one of your babies?” • And the one of the babies stay, stay down. Common Elements Internal Response Discourse Markers Embedded Stories Causal Relationship Causal Chain Protagonist Identification
  34. 34. Dynamic Assessment Narrative Collection Sheet
  35. 35. Narrative Differences How Narratives Vary Across Cultures
  36. 36. How does narrative development change as a child gets older? • Simple to Complex • Egocentric to conscious of others’ thoughts • Present tense to past tense
  37. 37. How can differences in narrative ability affect academic performance? • When personal knowledge differs from mainstream expectations, discourse, story recounts, and story telling will not match mainstream standards. • Children from Spanish-speaking cultures continue to perform worse than other children on national indicators of achievement. Gutierrez-Clellen, 2002
  38. 38. Is how we ask children to tell a story different than how their parents ask? • Metzi (2000) found differences in the way Spanish-speaking and English-speaking mothers elicited stories. • Different aspects of narratives were emphasized by Spanish and English-speaking mothers ▫ English-speaking mothers emphasized organizational aspects ▫ Spanish-speaking mothers emphasized conversational aspects • Narratives vary by cultural demands.
  39. 39. Narrative Differences Specific to Spanish and English Ernesto Quiñonez: Dog Days of Spanish Harlem Tristan Jamison: A Dish Best Served Cold The Moth Podcast: True Stories Told Live
  40. 40. Narrative Differences: Goal of most narratives Spanish - Culture English - Culture • Moral themes. Spanish- speaking children may use an event to demonstrate a sense of themselves in relation to their community. • Individualistic/child-centered themes. English narratives focus on what is happening internally and externally to the main character
  41. 41. Narrative Differences: Reaction Spanish - Culture English - Culture • A character’s reaction to an event or element may be atypical. • A character’s reaction to an event or atypical story element is predictive
  42. 42. Narrative Differences: Story Elicitation Spanish - Culture English - Culture • Mothers emphasize the conversational aspects of the narrative. The Spanish- speaking children have greater responsibility in recalling the story as their mothers play a listening role in the conversation. • Mothers primarily focus on the organizational aspects of the narrative and English- speaking children may act as co-narrators with their parents.
  43. 43. Narrative Differences: Grammar – meaning Spanish - Culture English - Culture • Spanish relies on the inflection of morphemes. • English relies on manipulation of word order.
  44. 44. Narrative Differences: Acting as a listener or a participant Spanish - Culture English - Culture • Spanish-speaking cultures often have the role of speaker or listener and may not simultaneously engage. • English-speaking cultures may tell a story together, ask questions, or interject during a story.
  45. 45. Which narrative elements does my client include? Collecting baseline information on narrative production
  46. 46. Collecting baseline data Full assessment available in our resource library at www.bilinguistics.com Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  47. 47. Collecting baseline data Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  48. 48. Improving narratives with intervention How storybooks can by used to improve narratives Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  49. 49. Selecting Books for Intervention • The general criteria in choosing a book are that it must be age-appropriate, interesting to children, and have some pertinence to a student’s speech or language goals. • Books that include repetition, simplicity, humor and great (but not too distracting) illustrations are often successful with students who have speech and language difficulties. ▫ School Librarians: ▫ Classroom Teachers: ▫ Internet Resources:
  50. 50. Types of Stories • Chain or Circular Story: The story's ending leads back to the beginning. • Cumulative: The story builds on a pattern. It starts with one person, place, thing, or event. Each time a new person, place, thing, or event is shown, all the previous ones are repeated. • Familiar Sequence (calendar or number): A common, recognizable theme such as the days of the week, the months, etc • Pattern Story: The scenes or episodes are repeated with a variation. • Question and Answer: A question is repeated throughout the story. • Repetition of Phrase: a phrase or sentence is repeated. • Rhyme: A rhyme, refrain, or rhythm is repeated throughout the story. • Songbook: Familiar songs with repeated phrases, sentences
  51. 51. Types of Stories Activity Cumulative: The story builds on a pattern. It starts with one person, place, thing, or event. Each time a new person, place, thing, or event is shown, all the previous ones are repeated
  52. 52. Types of Stories Activity Familiar Sequence (calendar or number): A common, recognizable theme such as the days of the week, the months, etc
  53. 53. Types of Stories Activity Chain or Circular Story: The story's ending leads back to the beginning.
  54. 54. Book Selection • Age-appropriate • Interesting and relevant • Related to goals • Simple • Good illustrations • Resources ▫ School librarians ▫ Classroom teachers ▫ Internet Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  55. 55. Pre-Reading Activities Pre-reading activities are used to bridge any gaps between a student’s current skills and the targeted skills. • Music – use songs semantically related to the material in the book. (Hoggan & Strong, 1994) • Semantic mapping/graphic organizers – the adult and students develop a list of words and concepts related to the story and then develop a visual representation or map of how the words and concepts are related to one another (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006; Hoggan & Strong, 1994).
  56. 56. Pre-Reading Activities • Illustration discussion – The student creates a story using illustrations from the selected book. Scaffolding techniques may be used to facilitate higher semantic and syntactic complexity. Several templates that can be used during this activity are included. • Pre-reading discussion – Pre-reading questions are designed to tie the students’ knowledge and ideas from the graphic organizer to the concepts in the book.
  57. 57. Reading Activities While reading the book, use scaffolding techniques to engage the student and check understanding. Clinicians commonly use scaffolding techniques in order to help the student learn target skills. Scaffolding techniques • Print reference – The adult references a target from the book by pointing or commenting (e.g. The adult points to an illustration and asks, “What is happening in the picture?”) • Cloze procedures – The adult provides the first part of an utterance and the student completes the thought (e.g. A: The mouse lost his balance and ______ S: fell off).
  58. 58. Reading Activities Scaffolding techniques • Syntactic and semantic expansions – The adult expands on an utterance provided by the student using the grammar and vocabulary targets (e.g. S: The mouse walking. A: Yes, the little mouse is walking on the vine.). • Binary choice – The adult offers the student two choices of responses (e.g. A: What happened to the mouse? Did he fall off or jump off the vine? S: He fell off the vine.). • Modeling – The adult models the target structure for the student (e.g. What happened to the mouse when he was crossing the river? The mouse fell into the river.) (Liboiron & Soto, 2006).
  59. 59. Post-Reading Activities • Post-reading activities create a time when the student can review and reflect on what they have learned. For students with language impairments, post-reading activities are a powerful way to allow the student to experience success that they may not often feel in the classroom. Here are general post-reading activities. • Discussion questions – The adult and student discuss the story. According to Gillam and Ukrainetz (2006), the clinician should respond to 40% to 60% of all questions with scaffolding techniques. • Syntactic activities – Students create grammatical structures through a variety of art activities and games. Suggested targets: past tense and present progressive
  60. 60. Post-Reading Activities • Semantic activities – Students add to their word books through art activities in the areas of object/function, part/whole, categories, antonyms, and synonyms. Suggested targets: comparison, categories, and action words. • Narrative retelling – use scaffolding techniques and visuals from the book to support the student while retelling the story. • Phonology/Articulation – Use images from the book as well as general images in order to target specific phonological and articulation skills. See articulation chart in the following activities.
  61. 61. Summary: • A child will produce a fictional or personal story that imitates the stories that he or she has been exposed to throughout life. • Labeling or devaluing a narrative creation because it is not mainstream puts the child and the institution at a disadvantage. Instead, a child’s story can be celebrated and aspects that are academically required, but not present, can be added to the abilities that already exist.
  62. 62. Template Examples
  63. 63. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
  64. 64. Difference or Disorder? Understanding Speech and Language Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech-language patterns related to second language acquisition to distinguish difference from disor der.

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