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105/27/13
Christopher D.B. Hawkins and Amalesh Dhar
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program
University of Northern British Columbia, BC
Impact of variable broadleaf density on spruce growth
near Dawson Creek and Fort Nelson in northern
British Columbia
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
205/27/13
Outline
1. Traditional woodlands (forest) management in central BC
2. Why Mixedwoods?
3. Objectives
4. Materials and Methods
5. Results
6. Conclusion
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
305/27/13
Introduction
Traditional woodlands (forest) management in central BC:
• Historically BC reforestation policies and regulations are conifer-biased
• Broadleaves species (birch, aspen) are routinely removed from plantations
- maximize conifer tree growth
• Maintaining BC’s free-to-grow standard (BC Ministry of Forests 2000 )
“a stand of healthy trees of a commercially valuable species, the growth of
which is not impeded by competition from plants, shrubs or other trees”
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
405/27/13
Introduction
Traditional woodlands (forest) management in central BC:
• Stands may only be declared free to grow when 2/3 years have passed
since chemical or manual brushing treatment applied
• Avoid administrative delays to revert stand management responsibility
back to Crown
• Broadleaf species must be less than 1000 stems ha-1
• Practice has been consistently applied across much of Canada
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
505/27/13
Introduction
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
605/27/13
Mechanisms for increased complex stand productivity:
b) Complementary interactions (Species that differ in shade tolerance, height growth
rates, crown structure, phenology and rooting depth)
- Rate inter-specific competition is lower than intra-specific
 Betula – Picea mixtures in Scandinavia
• Forest health [WPW attack reduced at increased deciduous density (Hawkins et al.2012)]
• better able to deal with disturbances and have greater ecological stability
than pure stand
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
705/27/13
Objectives
• examine the growth response of spruce to different brushing treatments
as well as varying levels broadleaf (birch & aspen) densities
• test the effectiveness of current BC free-growing criteria
Objectives
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
805/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Materials and Methods
905/27/13
Materials and Methods
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Site: Fort Nelson (Prophet & Slocan)
Location: Northeastern British Columbia
Zone: BWBS mw2
-Dominated by broadleaf (Birch) – conifer (Spruce)
forests and conifer forests
Climate:
Snow: Any time
Mean annual precipitation: 330 – 570 mm (30-40% falls as snow)
Mean annual temperature: -1.4 °C (extremes -51.7 °C, 36.7 °C)
Site : Dawson Creek (One Island Lake)
Location: Northern BC
Zone: BWBS mw1
- Dominated by broadleaf (Aspen) – conifer (Spruce)
forests and conifer forests
Climate:
Precipitation: 556 mm (35% falls as snow)
Temperature: 1.8°C (extremes – 43.8°C, 34.5 °C)
1005/27/13
Materials and Methods
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
1105/27/13
Materials and Methods
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Temporary sample plots (TSP): One island lake & Prophet
•A systematic grid point was established on each stand at 100 meter interval
- the closest undamaged spruce was selected as a target tree and
plot centre or
- go to nearest spruce in cardinal direction
• Plot radius of TSP: 1.78 m (area: 0.001ha or 10 m2
)
• Measure what is there (no treatments were initiated)
• Height and DBH of target spruce were measured from each TSP
• All TSP’s were re-measured in 2009
Experimental design and data collection
Two types of sample plots were established
1205/27/13
Permanent sample plots (PSP) (all three sites)
A single tree variable brushing radius experiment was
established
• target spruce tree was selected as like TSP
• a brush-free radius of 0 m, 1 m, 2 m or 4 m was
established around each spruce
• prior to brushing, all broadleaf and spruce stems within
the radius were measured (height and DBH)
•All PSP’s were re-measured in 2009
Materials and Methods
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Control / 0m radius
1m radius
2m radius
4m radius
1305/27/13
Materials and Methods
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Establishment
year
Area Target
species
Competitive
species
TSP PSP Stand
Age
Re-
measurement
2007 One Island Lake Spruce Aspen 82 66 14 2009
2007 Slocan Spruce Birch 0 68 17 2009
2007 Prophet Spruce Birch 72 79 16 2009
Relative density index: often used to determine the growth of trees (Ducey & Larson 2003)
Where,
Where, BA = Basal area m2
ha-1
, QDM = quadratic mean diameter in
cm, 0.4 = a single slope coefficient from Curtis (1982).
4.0
)(QMD
BA
RDI =
•Competition index:
- Broadleaf density and relative density index
1405/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results
1505/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results: Permanent sample plots
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 1 2 4
Plot radius [m]
PlotestablishDBH[cm]
one island Slocan Prophet
Establishment spruce DBH(± SEM) by plot radius at three forest stands
1605/27/13
Results: Permanent sample plots
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Relationship between establishment DBH and aspen density
- Relationship was significant
y = -0.0001x + 6.9944
R
2
= 0.172
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
Aspen density at plot estab. [stems ha
-1
]
DBHatplotestab.[cm]
One island lake
1705/27/13
Results: Permanent sample plots
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
y = -0.0601x + 5.7533
R2
= 0.0466
0
2
4
6
8
10
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Aspen RDI at plot establishment
DBHatplotestab.[cm]
Relationship between establishment DBH and aspen RDI
- Relationship was not significant
One island lake
1805/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results: Permanent sample plots
Slocan
y = -5E-05x + 7.0128
R
2
= 0.0055
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
Birch desnity at plot estab. [stems ha
-1
]
DBHatplotestab.[cm]
Relationship between establishment DBH and birch density
- Relationship was not significant
1905/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results: Permanent sample plots
Prophet
y = -0.0004x + 8.8425
R
2
= 0.0618
0
5
10
15
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Birch density at plot estab. [stems ha
-1
]
SpruceDBHatplot
estab.[cm]
Relationship between establishment DBH and birch density based
-relationship was also not significant
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
0 1 2 4
Plot radius [m]
MGI[cm]
One island Slocan Prophet
2005/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
• MGI same at 0 (control), 1 and 2 m radii and
increased in 4m radius
• MGI growth
- significantly differed at One island & Slocan
- not significantly different at prophet
Results: Permanent sample plots
Mean annual DBH increment (± SEM) by plot radius at three forest stands
ii
B
ii
B
ab i
A a
ab
ii
B
b
Site F P(F) R2
One Island 5.132 0.003 0.20
Slocan 3.861 0.013 0.15
Prophet 2.296 0.085 0.28
2105/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results
Temporary sample plots (TSP)
2205/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
• Similar spruce DBH up to 4000 stem ha-1
Results: Temporary sample plots
One island lake
0
2
4
6
8
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 > 8000
Aspen density [stems ha
-1
]
Spruceplotestab.DBH[cm]
Spruce Aspen
2305/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results: Temporary sample plots
• Similar spruce DBH up to 6000 except density group 5000 stems ha-1
Prophet
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 >8000
Birch density [stems ha
-1
]
Spruceplotestab.DBH[cm]
Spruce Birch
2405/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results: Temporary sample plots
y = -2E-05x + 0.7257
R
2
= 0.1797
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Aspen density [stems ha
-1
]
MeanannualDBHgrowth
[cm]
• Aspen density ≥ 10000 stems ha-1
siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth
One island lake
2505/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
• Aspen RDI ≥ 6 siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth
Results: Temporary sample plots
y = -0.0442x + 0.8075
R
2
= 0.3227
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10
Aspen RDI
MeanannualDBHgrowth[cm] One island lake
2605/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results: Temporary sample plots
y = -5E-05x + 0.9124
R
2
= 0.294
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Birch density [stems ha
-1
]
MeanannualDBHgrowth
[cm]
Prophet
• Birch density ≥ 5000 stems ha-1
siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth
2705/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Results: Temporary sample plots
Prophet
y = -0.0304x + 0.8051
R
2
= 0.0678
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Birch RDI
MeanannualDBHgrowth
[cm]
RDI ≥ 5 siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth
2805/27/13
Conclusion
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
2905/27/13
Conclusion
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
 Broadleaf competition not as severe as previously thought
 DBH unaffected across a range of deciduous densities
MGI was same at control, 1 and 2 m brushing radii and only increased at
4 m
 It assumed threshold densities much greater than the hypothesized
(>1000 stem ha-1
) density that significantly reduced crop tree growth
 Greater structural and species diversity
3005/27/13
Consequence of current policy
 Administrative vegetation control
 Unnecessary cost for density management
 Reduced diversity
 Potential productivity reduction
 brushing does not remove all broadleaf (Hawkins et al. 2012)
Conclusion
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
Final recommendations
 Leave more broadleaf competition
 May reduced management cost
 Potential productivity increases
 Greater structural diversity
 Greater species diversity
 If risk is considered, mixed stands are a viable investment
3105/27/13
• Funding provided by
Ministry of Forests and Range, British Columbia
FRBC-Slocan Mixedwood Chair
• Technical support provided by
Kyle Runzer
Cindy Baker
Nicole Balliet
Eduardo Bittencourt
Acknowledgements
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
3205/27/13
Dr. Amalesh Dhar
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program
University of Northern British Columbia
3333 University Way, Prince George,
BC, Canada V2N 4Z9
Phone: +1 250 960 5778
Fax: +1 250 960 5339
Email: dhar@unbc.ca
Christopher .D.B. Hawkins
Yukon Research Centre
Yukon College
P.O. Box 2799
Whitehorse, YT, Canada Y1A 5K4
Phone: +1 867 456-8627
FAX: +1 867-456-8672
Email: chawkins@yukoncollege.yk.ca
For further communication
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
3305/27/13
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar

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Boreal Mixedwoods Conference, Canada 2012

  • 1. 105/27/13 Christopher D.B. Hawkins and Amalesh Dhar Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program University of Northern British Columbia, BC Impact of variable broadleaf density on spruce growth near Dawson Creek and Fort Nelson in northern British Columbia Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 2. 205/27/13 Outline 1. Traditional woodlands (forest) management in central BC 2. Why Mixedwoods? 3. Objectives 4. Materials and Methods 5. Results 6. Conclusion Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 3. 305/27/13 Introduction Traditional woodlands (forest) management in central BC: • Historically BC reforestation policies and regulations are conifer-biased • Broadleaves species (birch, aspen) are routinely removed from plantations - maximize conifer tree growth • Maintaining BC’s free-to-grow standard (BC Ministry of Forests 2000 ) “a stand of healthy trees of a commercially valuable species, the growth of which is not impeded by competition from plants, shrubs or other trees” Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 4. 405/27/13 Introduction Traditional woodlands (forest) management in central BC: • Stands may only be declared free to grow when 2/3 years have passed since chemical or manual brushing treatment applied • Avoid administrative delays to revert stand management responsibility back to Crown • Broadleaf species must be less than 1000 stems ha-1 • Practice has been consistently applied across much of Canada Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 5. 505/27/13 Introduction Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 6. 605/27/13 Mechanisms for increased complex stand productivity: b) Complementary interactions (Species that differ in shade tolerance, height growth rates, crown structure, phenology and rooting depth) - Rate inter-specific competition is lower than intra-specific  Betula – Picea mixtures in Scandinavia • Forest health [WPW attack reduced at increased deciduous density (Hawkins et al.2012)] • better able to deal with disturbances and have greater ecological stability than pure stand Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 7. 705/27/13 Objectives • examine the growth response of spruce to different brushing treatments as well as varying levels broadleaf (birch & aspen) densities • test the effectiveness of current BC free-growing criteria Objectives Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 8. 805/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Materials and Methods
  • 9. 905/27/13 Materials and Methods Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Site: Fort Nelson (Prophet & Slocan) Location: Northeastern British Columbia Zone: BWBS mw2 -Dominated by broadleaf (Birch) – conifer (Spruce) forests and conifer forests Climate: Snow: Any time Mean annual precipitation: 330 – 570 mm (30-40% falls as snow) Mean annual temperature: -1.4 °C (extremes -51.7 °C, 36.7 °C)
  • 10. Site : Dawson Creek (One Island Lake) Location: Northern BC Zone: BWBS mw1 - Dominated by broadleaf (Aspen) – conifer (Spruce) forests and conifer forests Climate: Precipitation: 556 mm (35% falls as snow) Temperature: 1.8°C (extremes – 43.8°C, 34.5 °C) 1005/27/13 Materials and Methods Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 11. 1105/27/13 Materials and Methods Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Temporary sample plots (TSP): One island lake & Prophet •A systematic grid point was established on each stand at 100 meter interval - the closest undamaged spruce was selected as a target tree and plot centre or - go to nearest spruce in cardinal direction • Plot radius of TSP: 1.78 m (area: 0.001ha or 10 m2 ) • Measure what is there (no treatments were initiated) • Height and DBH of target spruce were measured from each TSP • All TSP’s were re-measured in 2009 Experimental design and data collection Two types of sample plots were established
  • 12. 1205/27/13 Permanent sample plots (PSP) (all three sites) A single tree variable brushing radius experiment was established • target spruce tree was selected as like TSP • a brush-free radius of 0 m, 1 m, 2 m or 4 m was established around each spruce • prior to brushing, all broadleaf and spruce stems within the radius were measured (height and DBH) •All PSP’s were re-measured in 2009 Materials and Methods Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Control / 0m radius 1m radius 2m radius 4m radius
  • 13. 1305/27/13 Materials and Methods Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Establishment year Area Target species Competitive species TSP PSP Stand Age Re- measurement 2007 One Island Lake Spruce Aspen 82 66 14 2009 2007 Slocan Spruce Birch 0 68 17 2009 2007 Prophet Spruce Birch 72 79 16 2009 Relative density index: often used to determine the growth of trees (Ducey & Larson 2003) Where, Where, BA = Basal area m2 ha-1 , QDM = quadratic mean diameter in cm, 0.4 = a single slope coefficient from Curtis (1982). 4.0 )(QMD BA RDI = •Competition index: - Broadleaf density and relative density index
  • 14. 1405/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results
  • 15. 1505/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results: Permanent sample plots 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 1 2 4 Plot radius [m] PlotestablishDBH[cm] one island Slocan Prophet Establishment spruce DBH(± SEM) by plot radius at three forest stands
  • 16. 1605/27/13 Results: Permanent sample plots Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Relationship between establishment DBH and aspen density - Relationship was significant y = -0.0001x + 6.9944 R 2 = 0.172 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Aspen density at plot estab. [stems ha -1 ] DBHatplotestab.[cm] One island lake
  • 17. 1705/27/13 Results: Permanent sample plots Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar y = -0.0601x + 5.7533 R2 = 0.0466 0 2 4 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Aspen RDI at plot establishment DBHatplotestab.[cm] Relationship between establishment DBH and aspen RDI - Relationship was not significant One island lake
  • 18. 1805/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results: Permanent sample plots Slocan y = -5E-05x + 7.0128 R 2 = 0.0055 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Birch desnity at plot estab. [stems ha -1 ] DBHatplotestab.[cm] Relationship between establishment DBH and birch density - Relationship was not significant
  • 19. 1905/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results: Permanent sample plots Prophet y = -0.0004x + 8.8425 R 2 = 0.0618 0 5 10 15 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Birch density at plot estab. [stems ha -1 ] SpruceDBHatplot estab.[cm] Relationship between establishment DBH and birch density based -relationship was also not significant
  • 20. 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 0 1 2 4 Plot radius [m] MGI[cm] One island Slocan Prophet 2005/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar • MGI same at 0 (control), 1 and 2 m radii and increased in 4m radius • MGI growth - significantly differed at One island & Slocan - not significantly different at prophet Results: Permanent sample plots Mean annual DBH increment (± SEM) by plot radius at three forest stands ii B ii B ab i A a ab ii B b Site F P(F) R2 One Island 5.132 0.003 0.20 Slocan 3.861 0.013 0.15 Prophet 2.296 0.085 0.28
  • 21. 2105/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results Temporary sample plots (TSP)
  • 22. 2205/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar • Similar spruce DBH up to 4000 stem ha-1 Results: Temporary sample plots One island lake 0 2 4 6 8 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 > 8000 Aspen density [stems ha -1 ] Spruceplotestab.DBH[cm] Spruce Aspen
  • 23. 2305/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results: Temporary sample plots • Similar spruce DBH up to 6000 except density group 5000 stems ha-1 Prophet 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 >8000 Birch density [stems ha -1 ] Spruceplotestab.DBH[cm] Spruce Birch
  • 24. 2405/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results: Temporary sample plots y = -2E-05x + 0.7257 R 2 = 0.1797 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 Aspen density [stems ha -1 ] MeanannualDBHgrowth [cm] • Aspen density ≥ 10000 stems ha-1 siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth One island lake
  • 25. 2505/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar • Aspen RDI ≥ 6 siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth Results: Temporary sample plots y = -0.0442x + 0.8075 R 2 = 0.3227 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 0 2 4 6 8 10 Aspen RDI MeanannualDBHgrowth[cm] One island lake
  • 26. 2605/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results: Temporary sample plots y = -5E-05x + 0.9124 R 2 = 0.294 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Birch density [stems ha -1 ] MeanannualDBHgrowth [cm] Prophet • Birch density ≥ 5000 stems ha-1 siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth
  • 27. 2705/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Results: Temporary sample plots Prophet y = -0.0304x + 0.8051 R 2 = 0.0678 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Birch RDI MeanannualDBHgrowth [cm] RDI ≥ 5 siginificantly impacted the spruce DBH growth
  • 28. 2805/27/13 Conclusion Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 29. 2905/27/13 Conclusion Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar  Broadleaf competition not as severe as previously thought  DBH unaffected across a range of deciduous densities MGI was same at control, 1 and 2 m brushing radii and only increased at 4 m  It assumed threshold densities much greater than the hypothesized (>1000 stem ha-1 ) density that significantly reduced crop tree growth  Greater structural and species diversity
  • 30. 3005/27/13 Consequence of current policy  Administrative vegetation control  Unnecessary cost for density management  Reduced diversity  Potential productivity reduction  brushing does not remove all broadleaf (Hawkins et al. 2012) Conclusion Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar Final recommendations  Leave more broadleaf competition  May reduced management cost  Potential productivity increases  Greater structural diversity  Greater species diversity  If risk is considered, mixed stands are a viable investment
  • 31. 3105/27/13 • Funding provided by Ministry of Forests and Range, British Columbia FRBC-Slocan Mixedwood Chair • Technical support provided by Kyle Runzer Cindy Baker Nicole Balliet Eduardo Bittencourt Acknowledgements Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 32. 3205/27/13 Dr. Amalesh Dhar Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program University of Northern British Columbia 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada V2N 4Z9 Phone: +1 250 960 5778 Fax: +1 250 960 5339 Email: dhar@unbc.ca Christopher .D.B. Hawkins Yukon Research Centre Yukon College P.O. Box 2799 Whitehorse, YT, Canada Y1A 5K4 Phone: +1 867 456-8627 FAX: +1 867-456-8672 Email: chawkins@yukoncollege.yk.ca For further communication Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar
  • 33. 3305/27/13 Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Christopher D.B. Hawkins & Amalesh Dhar

Editor's Notes

  1. BWBSmw2: Boreal White and Black Spruce Moist and warm subzone
  2. BWBSmw1: Boreal White and Black Spruce Moist and warm zone
  3. DeLong (1991) also found that conifer stem diameter was more responsive than height to natural differences in vegetation abundance. Some other investigations also reported that diameter responds is more quickly than height (Lanini and Radosevich 1986; Simard et al. 2001). Therefore to determine the competition we have used the DBH in the presentation
  4. This study revealed that the leaf area index (LAI) increased with increased aspen density which is consistent with other studies in the boreal forest (Comeau et.al.2004 )