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Regeneration and growth of Lodgepole Pine stands Following Mountain Pine Beetle Attack in  Central British Columbia Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program University of Northern British Columbia, BC
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Introduction The mountain pine beetle ( Dendroctonus ponderosae  Hopkins) (MPB) the  most damaging biotic disturbance agent in mature lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta  Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.)  in BC. The MPB typically attacks  - larger trees with diameter at breast height > 20 cm and trees  above 60 years old -  but younger tree (age even < 20 years) also attack if mature  trees are not available The current infestation of lodgepole pine by the MPB in BC:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 MPB infestation in BC : 2003-2013 Routledge 2004
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Loss of mature pine in BC during the year of 1999 to 2013 Hawkins 2006 Mountain pine beetle infestation and projection  (Hawkins 2010)  Projected: 80%/ 70% of mature pine killed by 2013/2017
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Change in the landscape
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Reasons for regeneration study  Regeneration and rates of growth (release) in MPB attacked stands are important  because:  - forecasting the long-term prospects of these stands  - selecting stands for silvicultural treatments to improve yield  -  forecasting impacts to hydrology, habitat, and vegetation types
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Factors affecting regeneration Factors affecting the growth and development of regeneration after  MPB outbreak: - overstory structure -  moisture content of the soil  -  availability of seedbed substrates -  dominancy of mosses on forest floor -  proximity and abundance of parent seed trees NB: further investigations on factors influencing the establishment of regeneration are required as different research findings found different results  (Dhar and Hawkins , submitted)
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regenerative species composition in MPB attack stands  The most common shade tolerant species The most common shade intolerant species  1) Lodgepole pine (( Pinus contorta  Dougl. Ex Loud. var.  latifolia  Engelm.)  2) Trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides  Michx.), or 3) Paper birch ( Betula papyrifera  Marsh) 1) Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii  [Mirbel] Franco),  2) Hybrid spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x P. englemanii Parry) 3) Subalpine fir ( Abies lasiocarpa  [Hook.] Nutt.)
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regeneration density and distribution  Recent investigations on regeneration and their basic attributes for MPB attacked stands in BC Geographic Area and BEC No. of Samples Age sampled Density Distribution Data holder Northern Interior 35 - low patchy Coates 2008 Flathead area,  22 70 low patchy Pantage Creek (SBS dw2) 12 28 high wide Statland 2008 Takysie Lake  (SBS dk) 15 79 high wide SBSdw3, SBSmc3,SBSdk 50 - high - Delong et al. 2008 IDF, SBPS and SBS zone 56 - high - Zumrawi et.al. 2008 MSxk2, MSdm3, IDFdk1, IDFdk2 167 - moderate clumpy Vyse 2008 MS , Merritt 28 - high clumpy Nigh et al. 2006 Lakes TSA, SBSdk 302 100+ low sparse Rakochy 2005 SBS 6 subzones,  525 60-250 low variable Balliet  et al. submitted SBSdk, SBSmc, SBSdw, SBSmc 500 80 variable - Burton & Brooks 2008
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regeneration density in different investigations St-1= Burton and Brooks (2007); St-2= Coates et al. (2006); St-3= Nigh et al. (2008);  St-4= Balliet et al. (submitted); St-5= Vyse et al. (2009); St-6= Burton (2006)  Investigations Abundance of regeneration reported in different investigation
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regeneration distribution in different investigations Regeneration study Statland (2008) Regeneration study Hawkes (2008) Regeneration study Vyse(2008) Regeneration study Hawkins (2006) Regeneration study Hawkins (2006) Regeneration study Vyse (2008)
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Health of regeneration The health of regeneration mostly influenced  by: Abiotic:  ,[object Object],[object Object],Biotic:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Change of MPB attacked forest in 25 years time Hawkes 2008 1983 2008
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Models SORTIE-ND Prognosis BC Hybrid Processed-based approach Empirically-based functions Combination of SORTIE-ND and Prognosis BC ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Strength: 1). The extensive use of PSP data to calibrate the growth equations to even and complex stands  2). The use of site and climate factors (e.g., slope aspect, elevation) to adjust model predictions  3). The ability to accept a tree-lists from a variety of inventory formats 4) It lies in empirical growth Models calibrated using permanent sample plots. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Major Limitation: 1) high variability between measured and observed regeneration  2)could not apply to a wider set of starting stand conditions, 3) poor result
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Knowledge gap There are a number of important gaps in our knowledge relating to factors affecting advanced regeneration and residual trees of MPB attacked stands. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Knowledge gap e) Knowledge management -   Determine the effective processes of knowledge  transfer from one region to another -   Describe the influence of human intervention on the current MPB outbreak c)  Modeling -  Incorporate forest health issues into stand level modeling -  Identify limitations of models and modify them for more accurate prediction -  Incorporate the impact of climate change into models for better prediction  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Acknowledgements For financial support:  FSP project G095048 The authors would like to thanks all participants, who shared their presentations during the workshop, and the field tour discussion groups Amalesh Dhar,  Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program University of Northern British Columbia 3333 University Way Prince George, BC, Canada V2N 4Z9 Email: dhar@unbc.ca Phone: +1-250-960-5778
Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) |  Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Thank you

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24th Congress for Conservation Biology, Canada 2010

  • 1. Regeneration and growth of Lodgepole Pine stands Following Mountain Pine Beetle Attack in Central British Columbia Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program University of Northern British Columbia, BC
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  • 3. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 MPB infestation in BC : 2003-2013 Routledge 2004
  • 4. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Loss of mature pine in BC during the year of 1999 to 2013 Hawkins 2006 Mountain pine beetle infestation and projection (Hawkins 2010) Projected: 80%/ 70% of mature pine killed by 2013/2017
  • 5. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Change in the landscape
  • 6. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Reasons for regeneration study Regeneration and rates of growth (release) in MPB attacked stands are important because: - forecasting the long-term prospects of these stands - selecting stands for silvicultural treatments to improve yield - forecasting impacts to hydrology, habitat, and vegetation types
  • 7. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Factors affecting regeneration Factors affecting the growth and development of regeneration after MPB outbreak: - overstory structure - moisture content of the soil - availability of seedbed substrates - dominancy of mosses on forest floor - proximity and abundance of parent seed trees NB: further investigations on factors influencing the establishment of regeneration are required as different research findings found different results (Dhar and Hawkins , submitted)
  • 8. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regenerative species composition in MPB attack stands The most common shade tolerant species The most common shade intolerant species 1) Lodgepole pine (( Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) 2) Trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides Michx.), or 3) Paper birch ( Betula papyrifera Marsh) 1) Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco), 2) Hybrid spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x P. englemanii Parry) 3) Subalpine fir ( Abies lasiocarpa [Hook.] Nutt.)
  • 9. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regeneration density and distribution Recent investigations on regeneration and their basic attributes for MPB attacked stands in BC Geographic Area and BEC No. of Samples Age sampled Density Distribution Data holder Northern Interior 35 - low patchy Coates 2008 Flathead area, 22 70 low patchy Pantage Creek (SBS dw2) 12 28 high wide Statland 2008 Takysie Lake (SBS dk) 15 79 high wide SBSdw3, SBSmc3,SBSdk 50 - high - Delong et al. 2008 IDF, SBPS and SBS zone 56 - high - Zumrawi et.al. 2008 MSxk2, MSdm3, IDFdk1, IDFdk2 167 - moderate clumpy Vyse 2008 MS , Merritt 28 - high clumpy Nigh et al. 2006 Lakes TSA, SBSdk 302 100+ low sparse Rakochy 2005 SBS 6 subzones, 525 60-250 low variable Balliet et al. submitted SBSdk, SBSmc, SBSdw, SBSmc 500 80 variable - Burton & Brooks 2008
  • 10. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regeneration density in different investigations St-1= Burton and Brooks (2007); St-2= Coates et al. (2006); St-3= Nigh et al. (2008); St-4= Balliet et al. (submitted); St-5= Vyse et al. (2009); St-6= Burton (2006) Investigations Abundance of regeneration reported in different investigation
  • 11. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Regeneration distribution in different investigations Regeneration study Statland (2008) Regeneration study Hawkes (2008) Regeneration study Vyse(2008) Regeneration study Hawkins (2006) Regeneration study Hawkins (2006) Regeneration study Vyse (2008)
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  • 13. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Change of MPB attacked forest in 25 years time Hawkes 2008 1983 2008
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  • 17. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Acknowledgements For financial support: FSP project G095048 The authors would like to thanks all participants, who shared their presentations during the workshop, and the field tour discussion groups Amalesh Dhar, Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program University of Northern British Columbia 3333 University Way Prince George, BC, Canada V2N 4Z9 Email: dhar@unbc.ca Phone: +1-250-960-5778
  • 18. Mixedwood Ecology and Management Program (UNBC) | Amalesh Dhar, Nicole Balliet, Chris Hawkins 07/23/10 Thank you

Editor's Notes

  1. Health of regeneration is very important as it directly influences the release potential of MPB attacked stands.