3R Environmental considerations


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3R Environmental considerations

SUSWA K-Ex, Kajiado, 31 October 2012
Luuk Fleskens

Water source site management
Wider environmental management
Resource use patterns
Diversification of sources and uses

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  • Sources: Administrative boundaries (CBS 2003), cities (SoK and ILRI 2000), water bodies (FAO 2000), and share of cash income from firewood collection and charcoal making (ALRMP et al. 2006). Caption: Charcoal production and firewood collection is an important economic activity in Kenya. The sector contributes to income in most areas, except the more remote locations that have very little woody vegetation (e.g., parts of Marsabit District). These activities are also not a significant source of income in selected communities in the central part of the country and directly along the Indian Ocean (although households may still collect firewood or produce charcoal for their own use). The majority of households in communities located about 50 kilometers inland from Mombasa (in Kwale District) obtain more than 20 percent of their cash from firewood and charcoal. Income from firewood and charcoal ranges between 10 and 20 percent of total income in the coastal hinterlands close to Malindi. Communities in the west (slightly inland from Lake Victoria) and along the Tana River (close to Garissa) show similarly high percentages. Charcoal from mathenge ( Prosopis juliflora , also known as mesquite), an invasive shrub that is cleared from the land to save pasture, is the main source for this cash in Garissa District. Note: Data are based on questionnaires sent to key food security experts in all Districts (generally about 6-10 people) to obtain information on predominant livelihood characteristics important for food security planning. In some cases where further clarification was necessary, questionnaires were sent to experts below District level (Division). This group of experts classified each of Kenya’s 6,632 Sublocations by their predominant livelihood strategy and other livelihood characteristics including different sources of cash income.
  • 3R Environmental considerations

    1. 1. 3R Environmental considerationsSUSWA K-Ex, Kajiado, 31 October 2012Luuk Fleskens- Water source site management- Wider environmental management- Resource use patterns- Diversification of sources and uses
    2. 2. Protection of water infrastructure What do you see? What impacts can it have? What can be done?
    3. 3. ...3R examples?
    4. 4. Wider environmental management What do you see? What impacts can it have? What can be done?
    5. 5. Cash Income from Firewood Collection andCharcoal Making, 2003-05 CASH INCOME FROM FIREWOOD AND CHARCOAL (percent of total income) > 20 10 - 20 5 - 10 0-5 No cash income from charcoal and firewood OTHER FEATURES District boundaries Major national parks and reserves (over 5,000 ha) Water bodiesSource: ALRMP et al. 2006
    6. 6. Firewood collection Transect 5 x 45 m Zone Settle mentUse of firewood (500kg cap/year) Use of firewood (500kg cap/year)Use of wood in buildings and fences Use of wood in buildings and fences(6,000kg per household) (6,000kg per household)Annual increment Annual incrementGrowth of populations Growth of populations(people and livestock) (people and livestock) Banks et al., 1996. Wood supply and demand around two rural settlements in a semi- arid savanna, South Africa. Biomass and Bioenergy 11: 319-331
    7. 7. Field surveys of biomass of savannas• Savanna = open vegetation with mix of trees, shrubs and grass• A biomass survey could look at each component Can you think of some characteristics of savannas that pose opportunities or threats to field biomass surveys? NB there are also NB there are also remote sensing methods remote sensing methods
    8. 8. Vegetationcomposition(dominance of)the herbaceouslayer Relation between grazing intensity, rainfall and vegetation composition (catastrophic shift or tipping point) after M. Rietkerk.
    9. 9. Modelling study Central Kalahari Namibia MAP = 480mmLohmann et al. (2012) J. Appl. Ecology 49, 814–823.
    10. 10. ...other wider environmental management effects?
    11. 11. Resource use patternsGraz et al. (2012) Journal of Environmental Management 104 (2012) 186-194
    12. 12. Butt (2010) Land degradation and development Observations Karoo, South Africa MAP = 200mm Todd (2006) J. Appl. Ecology 43, 293-304.
    13. 13. Exercise resource use patterns1. What general adaptive management strategies canpastoralists use?2. What examples of specific activities do Maasai have for eachstrategy?3. Which of the strategies/activities would you classify as 3R?
    14. 14. Diversification of uses and sources Lessons from WASHEC? Diversification: where and how?
    15. 15. Assessment of 3R alternatives Many 3R activities require investment (resources, time) Those resources could have been used for other (more pressing) activities Benefits occur mostly in the long run Under these circumstances the important question is: is it worthwhile?
    16. 16. Use of discounting Tomorrow! Now?
    17. 17. Stakeholder accountsNot all costs and benefits are borne by the same people  Carefully look at individual (group) perspectives  SUSWA project contributionsBUT for spontaneous adoption: financial analysis must take all costs and benefits into account  Return to labour is an important factor
    18. 18. Building an account• Investment• Maintenance• ProductionCompare ‘with’ with a without situation
    19. 19. Wrap upStakes in diversification (community / AMREF / WASH Alliance)?Opportunities for experiential learning?Having a first go at developing 3R for a practical case3R = thinking in terms of environmental opportunities
    20. 20. e n joy 3RAd apt and