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On the genetic variation of English yew throughout the Eastern Alps (Untersuchungen zur  genetischen Variation der Eibe ( Taxus baccata  L.) im Ostalpenraum)  Raphael Th. Klumpp & Amalesh Dhar   17.04.10
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Inhalt / contents 1. Einleitung /  introduction 2. Material & Methoden 3. Ergebnisse u. Diskussion /  results and discussion  : 3.1 Variation innerhalb ( within ) Populationen 3.2 Variation zwischen ( among ) Populationen 3.3  Allelische Strukturen /  allelic structures 4. Schlußfolgerungen / consequences 5. Zusammenfassung / summary 6. Danksagung /  acknowledgements
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Fig.  The circumpolar distribution of  Taxus baccata  and other  Taxus  species from Hultén & Fries (1986). + indicates interglacial   records;  indicates isolated occurrences; hatched areas indicate regions of common or fairly common occurrence. Broken lines   outline the distribution of  Taxus  species other than  T. baccata .  Thomas P.A., Polwart A. 2003.  Taxus baccata  L. biological   flora of the British Isles 229. Journal Ecology   91: 489–524
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - Einleitung 17.04.10 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – österr. Genreservate 17.04.10 Austrian map indicating  the  geographic location of gene conservation forest s Hans et al. 2005.  Das Eibenvorkommen in den österreichischen Generhaltungswäldern Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum für Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft 1140 Wien, Hauptstraße 7.  http://bfw.ac.at 1 11 12 10 13 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – Material und Methode 17.04.10 Material Number of stands:  5 Austrian gene conservation program Sample tissue: buds Method STAGE, 6 enzyme systems Laboratory procedure according to:  Hertel 1996 Data evaluation: GSED (Gillet 1998)
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe  - untersuchte Bestände 17.04.10 The investigated Austr ia n gene  conservation forest s   Name of the site Total area   [ha] Altitude  [m] Population size Sample size 4.  Pichlwald 2.6 480 – 530 244 95 5.  Almtal 3.2 460 – 490 > 2000 59 6.  Losenstein 39.6 540 – 680 1815 122 8.  Stiwollgraben 4.6 580 – 700 2236 109 13. Leininger Riese 18.5 900 - 1300 828 75
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - Methode 17.04.10 Enzyme system s  used for electrophoretic analysis of the yew   population   Enzyme Gene locus Allele no E. C. number Aspartate-aminotransferase AAT-   A AAT-   B (AAT-C) 2 3 (3) 2.6.1.1 Isocitrate-dehydrogenase IDH-A IDH-B 4 4 1.1.1.42 Leucine-aminopeptidase LAP-A LAP-B 3 3 3.4.11.1 Phosphoglucomutase PGM - A (PGM- B) 5 (2) 2.7.5.1 6-Phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase 6-PGDH- A 3 1.1.1.44 Shikimate-dehydrogenase  SKDH-A 3 1.1.1.25
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – optimale Verjüngung (Almtal) 17.04.10 Yew: optimal recruitment
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - Ergebnisse 17.04.10 Allele frequencies:  monomorphic loci   Allele Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leinenger Riese AAT-A 1 2 0.826 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.174 -- -- -- LAP-A 1 2 3 0.147 -- -- -- 0.849 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.005 -- -- -- SKDH-A 1 2 3 4 0.064 0.017 0.057 0.007 0.931 0.958 0.853 0.947 0.005 0.025 0.061 0.047 -- -- 0.029 --
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – Variation innerhalb der Populationen 17.04.10 Estimates  of   genetic variation  parameters for  Austrian yew populations  (7 loci) Location Parameters Hypoth. gametic diversity P 95 (%) A/L Ne Ho He Almtal 85.7 3.0 1.44 0.247 0.309 15.12 Losenstein 100 3.43 1.65 0.340 0.396 38.41 Stiwollgraben 100 3.28 1.38 0.237 0.275 9.99 Leininger Riese 85.7 3.57 1.42 0.198 0.298 13.07 Average 92.9 3.32 1.47 0.256 0.319 19.15
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - Literaturvergleich 17.04.10 Estimates  of   genetic variation  parameters for different studies on  Taxus   species Species No of gene loci Parameters Hypo. gametic diversity Different studies P 95 (%) A/L Ne Ho He Taxus baccata 7 92.9 3.32 1.47 0.256 0.319 19.15 KLUMPP & DHAR 18 61.11 2.83 1.37 0.429 (poly. loci) 0.419 (poly. loci) -- Lewandowski  et al. (1995) 6 (80.6) 2.62 1.48 0.340 0.316 -- Cao   et at. (2003) 5 -- -- 1.45   0.302 0.308 7.84 Tröber   et   al. (2004) Taxus cuspidata 23 45.0 1.78 -- 0.154 0.192 -- Chung   et al. (1999) 14 45.7 1.70 -- 0.172 0.168 -- Lee  et at. (2000)
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – abgedecktes Stangenholz 17.04.10 managed pole stage
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – Genetische Distanzen / Differenzierung 17.04.10 Sample Gene Pool Distance (7 Loci) Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leininger Riese Stiwoll 0.00 Almtal 0.195 0.00 Losenstein 0.213 0.156 0.00 Leininger Riese 0.226 0.073 0.145 0.00 Population Differentiation (delta = 0.153) Dj Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leininger Riese 0.204 0.117 0.125 0.152
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – allelische Strukturen 17.04.10 Allele frequencies of major  polymorphic loci   Allele Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leinenger Riese AAT-B 1 2 3 0.165 0.153 0.451 0.120 0.835 0.831 0.549 0.860 -- 0.017 -- 0.020 LAP-B 0 1 2 3 0.009 -- -- -- 0.064 0.729 0.443 0.760 0.835 0.254 0.455 0.240 0.092 0.017 0.102 -- 6PGDH-A 1 2 3 0.683 0.424 0.361 0.287 -- 0.85 -- 0.053 0.317 0.492 0.639 0.660
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – allelische Strukturen 17.04.10 Allele frequencies minor  polymorphic loci   Allele Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leinenger Riese IDH-A 1 2 3 4 0.170 0.161 0.086 0.120 0.789 0.839 0.828 0.787 0.041 -- 0.082 0.053 -- -- 0.004 0.040 IDH-B 1 2 3 4 -- 0.169 0.119 0.120 0.023 -- 0.078 0.087 0.922 0.831 0.770 0.780 0.055 -- 0.033 0.013 PGM-A 1 2 3 4 5 0.156 -- 0.016 0.007 0.009 0.068 0.111 0.013 -- 0.051 0.025 0.047 0.826 0.864 0.848 0.920 0.009 0.017 -- 0.013
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Conclusions A) The expected ( He ) and observed ( Ho ) heterozygosity 0.319 and 0.256 B) Average population differentiation  0.153 C) Average  Hypothetical gametic diversity  19.15 D)English yew populations  in Austria showed  a high level of genetic variation with a medium level of inbreeding effect E) Level of expected heterozygosity ( He ) is within the European range of observations, which means that the probability for local yew decline i s low due to high  genetic variation
KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Acknowledgements / Danksagung for technical support / für technische Unterstützung DI Herwig Ruprecht, Ing. Monika Lex,  Ing. Thomas Schuster, DI Ercan Oktan, sowie HR DI C. Jasser. for financial support / für finanzielle Unterstützung Landesregierung Steiermark
17.04.10 Universität für Bodenkultur Wien  Department für Wald und Bodenwissenschaften Institut für Waldbau Ass. Prof. Dr. Raphael Thomas  KLUMPP MSc. Amalesh Dhar Peter Jordan-Str. 82, A-1190 Wien Tel.: +43 1 47654-4063, Fax: +43 1 47654-4092 raphael.klumpp@boku.ac.at , www.boku.ac.at

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G27. Tagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Forstgenetik, Austria 2007

  • 1. On the genetic variation of English yew throughout the Eastern Alps (Untersuchungen zur genetischen Variation der Eibe ( Taxus baccata L.) im Ostalpenraum) Raphael Th. Klumpp & Amalesh Dhar 17.04.10
  • 2. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Inhalt / contents 1. Einleitung / introduction 2. Material & Methoden 3. Ergebnisse u. Diskussion / results and discussion : 3.1 Variation innerhalb ( within ) Populationen 3.2 Variation zwischen ( among ) Populationen 3.3 Allelische Strukturen / allelic structures 4. Schlußfolgerungen / consequences 5. Zusammenfassung / summary 6. Danksagung / acknowledgements
  • 3. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Fig. The circumpolar distribution of Taxus baccata and other Taxus species from Hultén & Fries (1986). + indicates interglacial records; indicates isolated occurrences; hatched areas indicate regions of common or fairly common occurrence. Broken lines outline the distribution of Taxus species other than T. baccata . Thomas P.A., Polwart A. 2003. Taxus baccata L. biological flora of the British Isles 229. Journal Ecology 91: 489–524
  • 4.
  • 5. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – österr. Genreservate 17.04.10 Austrian map indicating the geographic location of gene conservation forest s Hans et al. 2005. Das Eibenvorkommen in den österreichischen Generhaltungswäldern Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum für Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft 1140 Wien, Hauptstraße 7. http://bfw.ac.at 1 11 12 10 13 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
  • 6. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – Material und Methode 17.04.10 Material Number of stands: 5 Austrian gene conservation program Sample tissue: buds Method STAGE, 6 enzyme systems Laboratory procedure according to: Hertel 1996 Data evaluation: GSED (Gillet 1998)
  • 7. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - untersuchte Bestände 17.04.10 The investigated Austr ia n gene conservation forest s Name of the site Total area [ha] Altitude [m] Population size Sample size 4. Pichlwald 2.6 480 – 530 244 95 5. Almtal 3.2 460 – 490 > 2000 59 6. Losenstein 39.6 540 – 680 1815 122 8. Stiwollgraben 4.6 580 – 700 2236 109 13. Leininger Riese 18.5 900 - 1300 828 75
  • 8. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - Methode 17.04.10 Enzyme system s used for electrophoretic analysis of the yew population Enzyme Gene locus Allele no E. C. number Aspartate-aminotransferase AAT- A AAT- B (AAT-C) 2 3 (3) 2.6.1.1 Isocitrate-dehydrogenase IDH-A IDH-B 4 4 1.1.1.42 Leucine-aminopeptidase LAP-A LAP-B 3 3 3.4.11.1 Phosphoglucomutase PGM - A (PGM- B) 5 (2) 2.7.5.1 6-Phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase 6-PGDH- A 3 1.1.1.44 Shikimate-dehydrogenase SKDH-A 3 1.1.1.25
  • 9. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – optimale Verjüngung (Almtal) 17.04.10 Yew: optimal recruitment
  • 10. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - Ergebnisse 17.04.10 Allele frequencies: monomorphic loci Allele Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leinenger Riese AAT-A 1 2 0.826 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.174 -- -- -- LAP-A 1 2 3 0.147 -- -- -- 0.849 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.005 -- -- -- SKDH-A 1 2 3 4 0.064 0.017 0.057 0.007 0.931 0.958 0.853 0.947 0.005 0.025 0.061 0.047 -- -- 0.029 --
  • 11. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – Variation innerhalb der Populationen 17.04.10 Estimates of genetic variation parameters for Austrian yew populations (7 loci) Location Parameters Hypoth. gametic diversity P 95 (%) A/L Ne Ho He Almtal 85.7 3.0 1.44 0.247 0.309 15.12 Losenstein 100 3.43 1.65 0.340 0.396 38.41 Stiwollgraben 100 3.28 1.38 0.237 0.275 9.99 Leininger Riese 85.7 3.57 1.42 0.198 0.298 13.07 Average 92.9 3.32 1.47 0.256 0.319 19.15
  • 12. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe - Literaturvergleich 17.04.10 Estimates of genetic variation parameters for different studies on Taxus species Species No of gene loci Parameters Hypo. gametic diversity Different studies P 95 (%) A/L Ne Ho He Taxus baccata 7 92.9 3.32 1.47 0.256 0.319 19.15 KLUMPP & DHAR 18 61.11 2.83 1.37 0.429 (poly. loci) 0.419 (poly. loci) -- Lewandowski et al. (1995) 6 (80.6) 2.62 1.48 0.340 0.316 -- Cao et at. (2003) 5 -- -- 1.45   0.302 0.308 7.84 Tröber et al. (2004) Taxus cuspidata 23 45.0 1.78 -- 0.154 0.192 -- Chung et al. (1999) 14 45.7 1.70 -- 0.172 0.168 -- Lee et at. (2000)
  • 13. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – abgedecktes Stangenholz 17.04.10 managed pole stage
  • 14. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – Genetische Distanzen / Differenzierung 17.04.10 Sample Gene Pool Distance (7 Loci) Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leininger Riese Stiwoll 0.00 Almtal 0.195 0.00 Losenstein 0.213 0.156 0.00 Leininger Riese 0.226 0.073 0.145 0.00 Population Differentiation (delta = 0.153) Dj Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leininger Riese 0.204 0.117 0.125 0.152
  • 15. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – allelische Strukturen 17.04.10 Allele frequencies of major polymorphic loci Allele Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leinenger Riese AAT-B 1 2 3 0.165 0.153 0.451 0.120 0.835 0.831 0.549 0.860 -- 0.017 -- 0.020 LAP-B 0 1 2 3 0.009 -- -- -- 0.064 0.729 0.443 0.760 0.835 0.254 0.455 0.240 0.092 0.017 0.102 -- 6PGDH-A 1 2 3 0.683 0.424 0.361 0.287 -- 0.85 -- 0.053 0.317 0.492 0.639 0.660
  • 16. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe – allelische Strukturen 17.04.10 Allele frequencies minor polymorphic loci Allele Stiwoll Almtal Losenstien Leinenger Riese IDH-A 1 2 3 4 0.170 0.161 0.086 0.120 0.789 0.839 0.828 0.787 0.041 -- 0.082 0.053 -- -- 0.004 0.040 IDH-B 1 2 3 4 -- 0.169 0.119 0.120 0.023 -- 0.078 0.087 0.922 0.831 0.770 0.780 0.055 -- 0.033 0.013 PGM-A 1 2 3 4 5 0.156 -- 0.016 0.007 0.009 0.068 0.111 0.013 -- 0.051 0.025 0.047 0.826 0.864 0.848 0.920 0.009 0.017 -- 0.013
  • 17. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Conclusions A) The expected ( He ) and observed ( Ho ) heterozygosity 0.319 and 0.256 B) Average population differentiation 0.153 C) Average Hypothetical gametic diversity 19.15 D)English yew populations in Austria showed a high level of genetic variation with a medium level of inbreeding effect E) Level of expected heterozygosity ( He ) is within the European range of observations, which means that the probability for local yew decline i s low due to high genetic variation
  • 18. KLUMPP & DHAR: Eibe 17.04.10 Acknowledgements / Danksagung for technical support / für technische Unterstützung DI Herwig Ruprecht, Ing. Monika Lex, Ing. Thomas Schuster, DI Ercan Oktan, sowie HR DI C. Jasser. for financial support / für finanzielle Unterstützung Landesregierung Steiermark
  • 19. 17.04.10 Universität für Bodenkultur Wien Department für Wald und Bodenwissenschaften Institut für Waldbau Ass. Prof. Dr. Raphael Thomas KLUMPP MSc. Amalesh Dhar Peter Jordan-Str. 82, A-1190 Wien Tel.: +43 1 47654-4063, Fax: +43 1 47654-4092 raphael.klumpp@boku.ac.at , www.boku.ac.at