Ecosystems
and
Communities
Biology
Edgar
Relationships
• Predation & herbivory
• Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism,
parasitism)
• Disease
• Competition (competiti...
Predation
Fig. 54-6
Community Energetics
Net Primary Productivity
NO
MAYBE
YES
NPP=GPP-R
Photosynthesis
Cellular
Respiration
The Effect of Nitrogen
How have pine and hardwood stands in a
temperate forest responded to 15 years of
nitrogen additions?
The Harvard Data Set Questions
1. how tree growth in northeast forests will
respond to long-term N fertilization
2. measur...
Harvard Forest
The control (A and C) and high N addition (B and D) plots in the hardwood (A and B) and pine (C
and D) stan...
Data Set 1
• how tree growth in northeast forests will
respond to long-term N fertilization
Aboveground Net Primary Productivity
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 200...
Data Set 2
White Pine Study
Milton Acadmy
University of New Hampshire
Note: This Forest Watch school map includes schools that have participated in Forest Watch
in past years, not necessarily ...
Needle Health (REIP) Against Mean Monthly-Max Ozone Concentration
All New Hampshire Schools (1991-2006)
704
706
708
710
71...
High temperatures are required for ozone formation. Another
important climate variable is wind patterns, which play a big ...
White Pine Spectral CurveWhite Pine Spectral Curve
& Landsat Band Regions& Landsat Band Regions
TM1(Blue)
TM2(Green)
TM1(R...
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011

325 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
325
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
13
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Figure 54.6 A West Indies manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida
  • Biology - Ecosystems and communities 1011

    1. 1. Ecosystems and Communities Biology Edgar
    2. 2. Relationships • Predation & herbivory • Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) • Disease • Competition (competitive exclusion)
    3. 3. Predation
    4. 4. Fig. 54-6
    5. 5. Community Energetics
    6. 6. Net Primary Productivity
    7. 7. NO
    8. 8. MAYBE
    9. 9. YES
    10. 10. NPP=GPP-R
    11. 11. Photosynthesis
    12. 12. Cellular Respiration
    13. 13. The Effect of Nitrogen
    14. 14. How have pine and hardwood stands in a temperate forest responded to 15 years of nitrogen additions?
    15. 15. The Harvard Data Set Questions 1. how tree growth in northeast forests will respond to long-term N fertilization 2. measured leaf photosynthesis of pine needles in the control and high N plots
    16. 16. Harvard Forest The control (A and C) and high N addition (B and D) plots in the hardwood (A and B) and pine (C and D) stands at the Chronic Nitrogen Addition Study at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts (USA).
    17. 17. Data Set 1 • how tree growth in northeast forests will respond to long-term N fertilization
    18. 18. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 Year NPP(gm-2) hardwood control hardwood low N hardwood high N pine control pine low N pine high N
    19. 19. Data Set 2
    20. 20. White Pine Study Milton Acadmy University of New Hampshire
    21. 21. Note: This Forest Watch school map includes schools that have participated in Forest Watch in past years, not necessarily during 2006-07. Figure 1. Note: This Forest Watch school map includes schools that have participated in Forest Watch in past years, not necessarily during 2006-07. Figure 1. Note: This Forest Watch school map includes schools that have participated in Forest Watch in past years, not necessarily during 2006-07. Figure 1.
    22. 22. Needle Health (REIP) Against Mean Monthly-Max Ozone Concentration All New Hampshire Schools (1991-2006) 704 706 708 710 712 714 716 718 720 722 724 726 728 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 (REIP) RedEdgeInflectionPoint 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Ozoneconcentration(ppb) Needle Health Ozone Healthy Needles Unhealthy Needles rs = -0.47 P = <0.10 •In 2006, mean monthly max ozone decreased and REIP remained elevated •High REIP’s in 2006 indicate healthy pine needles with high amounts of chlorophyll •In 2006, high REIP values corresponded to low ozone values as they have in most years since Forest Watch began. •2004 through 2006 are our highest REIP values. REIP is rising over time, Our white pines are getting healthier!
    23. 23. High temperatures are required for ozone formation. Another important climate variable is wind patterns, which play a big role in the daily levels of ozone in New England. Source: EPA: http://www.epa.gov/region01/
    24. 24. White Pine Spectral CurveWhite Pine Spectral Curve & Landsat Band Regions& Landsat Band Regions TM1(Blue) TM2(Green) TM1(Red) TM4(NIR) TM5(MIR) TM7(MIR) WaterAbsorption WaterAbsorption Cellulose RedEdge NIR3 NIR1 Leaf Pigments Cell Structure Water Content Lignin

    ×