1 – Schools and classrooms are learner centred, knowledge centred, assessment centered, and community centered – learning does not occur in subject-based silos2 – Challenge -- In today’s world literacy means being able to critically analyze a wide range of texts and contexts in order to take informed action.Pring alone is not sufficient3 – Tocay’s learners, - WDYDIST? Teaching effectiveness, Teaching for DEEP understanding – as a flexible performance capacity4 – socially contructed knowledge and collective act of knowledge building -
Fools Gold is a reference used to argue against technology use in early grades or early childhood
Strip Mining for Gold: A responds to Fools Gold – with ananalyses the research – which Fool’s Gold ignores or misrepresents.Clements and Samara counter with a review of an extensive body of research concerning computers and children including; social and emotional development; types of software; motivation; social and cognitive interactions; cognitive development; creativity; language and literacy; writing and word processing; mathematics and reasoning; and science and simulations
JTC May 2013 - K-4 Technology Project
Alberta EducationECS-Gr4 TechnologyResearch Community ofPracticeSt. Paul Education Region – languageacquisition & early literacyRocky View Schools – enrich &accessibilityEdmonton Catholic (17 sites)- assistive technologiesCalgary Catholic - engagement
Designing Digitally Rich,Knowledge Building,Inclusive Learning Environmentsfor the Early Grades
RCOP Overall Goals To cultivate, document and assessengaged teaching, learning andassessment practices with technology To collaborate on research thatcontributes new understandings andempirical evidence of effectiveimplementation of emergingtechnologies with elementary students
Research That InformsAction The Learning Sciences◦ Bransford, Brown & Cocking, Schank The Challenge for Teaching◦ Davidson, Exley, Teaching for Today’s Learners◦ Friesen, Darling-Hammond et al, Wiske et al Collective Actof Knowledge Building Collective Act of Knowledge Building◦ Thomas et al, Wenger Young Students and Technology Use◦ Barron et al, Resnick, Bers, Wang et al, Clements
“Technology is mostproductive in youngchildren’s lives when itenhances their engagementin the rich activities ofchildhood — talking,interacting, manipulating,pretending, reading,constructing, exploring — aswell as in children’s reactionson their actions andexperiences. “
Take a Giant Step: A Blueprint for TeachingYoung Children in a Digital Age.Barron, B., Bofferding, L., Cayton-Hodges, G., Copple, C., Darling-Hammond, L.,Levine, M. (2011). Stanford Educational Leadership InstituteAn extensive report that examines current preschool andprimary grade teaching practices, detailing an action plan toimprove teaching young students using digital technologies.Technology is viewed as most productive in young children’slives where it is used to:• Thoughtfully and strategically enhance children’s socialinteractions with peers and adults• Foster exploration, the manipulation of objects and thesocial construction of knowledge.• Create representations, listen to and read books, engage inplay, conversation, form relationships, and reflect upon theirexperiences.• Enable and enhance vital childhood experiences rather thanattempt to replace them.
“We have found thatchildren become mostengaged with newtechnologies, and learnthe most in playing withthese technologies,when they work onprojects growing out oftheir own personalinterests. When childrencare deeply about theprojects they are workingon, they are not onlymore motivated but theyalso develop deeperunderstandings andricher connections toknowledge. “
Computer as Paint Brush: Technology, Play, andthe Creative SocietyResnick, M., in Singer, D., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (Eds.) Play=Learning: Howplay motivates and enhances children’s cognitive and social-emotional growth. New York,NY: Oxford University Press(2009).MIT Media Lab researcher Mitchel Resnick proposes that: The learning potential of personal computers for youngstudents will not be realized until they are utilized more forcreative than informational purposes. Powerful learning experiences for children can be realizedwhen they move beyond simply interacting withinformational materials to using them to design, create,and invent (Papert, 1980; Resnick, 2002). Similar to a paint brush, digital technologies can beemployed as tools for creative design and expression,offering a clear alternative to the passive consumption ofdigital information Young students can use technology to engage in playfulexploration, experimentation, design, invention and robustlearning.
Blocks to Robots; Learning with Technology in the EarlyChildhood Classroom. Bers, M., New York: Teachers College Press, 2008• Young learners require frequent and sustained opportunities todevelop their ideas and to develop foundational understandingsin science, technology, engineering, and mathematics• Robotic digital manipulatives enable young children toconcretely explore complex concepts, while also fostering thedevelopment of sensorimotor and social/emotional skills.• Digital technologies can be successfully integrated into the earlychildhood classroom and promote positive attitudes toward thestudy of science and mathematics.• Robotics provides young students with physical and creativeopportunities to build and manipulate objects, as well as toengage in problem-solving and collaborative learning.
Technology-Enhanced, Problem-Based Inquiry Learning inEarly Childhood Education: A Theoretical Basis. Wang, F.,Kinzie, M., McGuire, P. & Pan, E. In K. McFerrin et al. (Eds.),Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & TeacherEducation International Conference 2008 (pp. 2266-2271).Curry School of Education University of Virginia, Chesapeake,VA: AACE.• Digital technology is increasingly accessible in earlychildhood classrooms and is an effective medium to fosterearly childhood learning (Clements & Sarama, 2007; Li &Atkins, 2004).• Young children are naturally inquisitive about theirenvironment and can effectively use technology to anchor aninquiry to authentic problems.• Technology can be strategically deployed in support of earlychildhood inquiry learning to enable:a) enriched problem contextsb) structuring of complex problems, andc) support of cognitive and metacognitive processes.
“The bottom lineregarding computersin education is this:We know materialsand media arefrequently misused orused ineffectively ineducation. Let us notcall for a technologicalprohibition, especiallyone built on aspecious foundationthat ignores thehundreds of studiesand reviews thatcontradict such aposition. Instead, letus work together touse technology well.”
Strip Mining for Gold: Research and Policy inEducational Technology - A Response to "FoolsGold.", Clements, D., Sarama, J., Educational TechnologyReview, v11 n1 2003Fool’s Gold (Cordes & Miller, 2000), argued that computers aredetrimental to young children physically, emotionally, intellectually,and developmentally. It stated that computers interfere with youngchildren’s needs for exercise, personal interaction with the naturalworld, and developing personal bonds with caring adults.• Technology can be both misused by some and overzealouslypromoted by others• Fools’ Gold ignores and/or misrepresents a large body ofresearch as well as the work of expert practitioners whoemploy computers and technology in ways that aredevelopmentally appropriate and beneficial to youngstudents.• 259 research references are provided that counter with social andemotional development; types of software; motivation; social andcognitive interactions; cognitive development; creativity; languageand literacy; writing and word processing; mathematics andreasoning; and science and simulations
Characteristics of EngagingTasks Authentic Fosters Deep Understanding Builds and/or Requires Multiple Formsof Communication and Expression Builds and/or Requires Real-Worldcompetencies Appropriate use of Technology
Engaging TasksiPad music CompositionsDigital Postcardshttp://galileonetwork.ca/earlylearning/content/video-collection
Engaging Tasks – First Year Preschool and Kindergarten◦ Creating a video depicting proper social skills◦ Using video to capture and explain the growing of their garden◦ Creating a video of council meetings solving problems in their“community” Grade 1s & 2s◦ Creating an opera◦ Capturing their own stories of their childhood memories◦ Using a motion detector to capture the animal path through theirplayground – possible fish pond◦ Creating their own Creative Place◦ Exploring an animal’s world through photographs at the Zoo & thestudy of Polar Bears◦ Storytelling – childhood memories Grade 3s & 4s◦ Global Citizenship – Bengal Tigers◦ History and stories of their community◦ Storytelling – Immigrant stories
Purpose of the Research Identify and Share Promising Practices Capture Student Learning and Engagement Capture Teacher Learning and Engagement Document Appropriate Use of Technology forLearning Identify & Address System Affordances andconstraints for using technology with YoungLearners Ongoing, Continuous Improvement
Primary Research Questions What is the appropriate role fortechnology in teaching andlearning for young learners? In what ways can schools bestsupport engaged teaching andengaged learning with technologyin pre-Kindergarten to Grade 4?
1. Secondary ResearchQuestions How can technology be used todemonstrate and amplify studentunderstanding?◦ Impact of technology on: Student Learning & Understanding Student Engagement & Agency Student Competencies
2. Secondary ResearchQuestions What is the appropriate role oftechnology in the assessment oflearning by the very young?◦ Use of technology To document students’ learning By students to demonstrate mastery orunderstanding To make learning & teaching visible
3. Secondary ResearchQuestions In what ways does technology supporta shift from teacher-centered tostudent-centered practice?◦ Impact of technology On the design of learning environments On enabling student learning, especiallythose with complex needs On teacher engagement On changed teaching practices
4. Secondary ResearchQuestions What are the affordances, barriers /challenges to technology use with thevery young?◦ What affordances need to be in place tosupport technology use?◦ What barriers or obstacles need to beovercome?◦ What are the challenges to engagedteaching and learning with technology?
5. Secondary ResearchQuestions What innovations in teaching andlearning were made possible withtechnology?◦ What were the innovative studies(learning experiences) that were carriedout with young learners that would nothave been possible without thetechnology?◦ What new ways of engaging learnersand assessments of learning were madepossible by access to technology?
Mixed Methods Case Study Data Collection - Two Years of the Research◦ Needs Assessment, Spring 2012◦ Online / In-class Surveys, Year 1 & 2 Project Leads, Teachers and Students◦ Jurisdiction / School Site Visits, Year 1 & 2 Interviews / Focus Groups Project Leads, Teachers and Students Classroom Observation Field Notes
Impact of Learning withTechnologyObservations and Conversations from our first yearStudent EngagementIntellectual, Academic, Social, FLOW ZONEStudent AgencyChoice, Empowerment, Worthwhile workStudent CompetenciesProblem solving, creativity, collaboration,constructing meaning, problem posing etc
Research Plan Research Questions Mixed methods case study◦ Different Forms of Data Collection◦ Who is involved◦ Timeline Purpose of Research
Student EngagementIntellectual, Academic, Social, FLOW ZONE◦ Self-starters◦ Collaboration◦ On task, engrossed in their work, motivated to dotheir work,◦ Fierce conversations◦ Maybe very quiet, or very loud◦ Excited to share with each other, with home, others◦ Exploration, not just following information from theteacher◦ Investigating personal interests◦ Intellectual curiosity, is alive and encouraged◦ Can’t get enough, time flies by, want to share whatyou know◦ Don’t want to leave
Student AgencyChoice, Empowerment, Worthwhile work◦ Empowering students, having choice/ownership◦ Self-directed learning◦ Authentic tasks, their work has somewhere to gowhere others will see it◦ Elements of negotiation and teamwork, buildingon each other’s knowledge◦ Brain storming in groups◦ Self-confidence◦ Student leadership, helping others◦ Students speaking to their own learning◦ Making decisions, defending their own decisions◦ Students accountable for their own work quality
Student CompetenciesProblem solving, creativity, collaboration, constructing meaning,problem posing etc◦ Teacher co-learner with the students, studentsteaching others◦ Open endedness, more than one answer to aproblem◦ Student voice in developing the study as itprogresses◦ Questions that do not have answers on google, multi-faceted, complex issues and problems◦ Cite your sources, and explain how that changed yourunderstanding of the content/issue or problem◦ Students are required to do something with theinformation they gather◦ It is OK that teachers do not know the answers, orhave the information◦ Open up learning to the world, collaborate, seek
Year One 2011-2012 Onsite PD 3 days St Paul Edmonton Catholic Calgary/RVSD RCOP May 6th Research visits Needs assessment
Learning from today What have you learned today? What questions do you still have? What supports do you need to fosterthis work in your context?http://tinyurl.com/bmzs5bw http://www.galileonetwork.ca/earlylearning/ Or www.galileo.org