Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning


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EMPATIC International Workshop - Vocational Sector
Presentation by: Mersini Moreleli-Cacouris
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Library Science and Information Systems
Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki

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Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning

  1. 1. Learning How to LearnInformation Literacy for Lifelong Meaning<br />MersiniMoreleli-Cacouris<br />Assistant Professor<br />Dept. of Library Science and Information Systems<br />Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki<br />
  2. 2. Education<br />Our net conclusion is that life is development, and that developing, growing, is life. Translated into its educational equivalents, that means <br /> (i) that the educational process has no end beyond itself; it is its own end; and <br /> (ii) that the educational process is one of continual reorganizing, reconstructing, transforming (Dewey 1916, as cited in Hall, 2010).<br />
  3. 3. Lifelong Learning<br /> All learning activity undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competences within a personal, civic, social and/or employment-related perspective(EU, 2001)<br />
  4. 4. Lifelong learning<br /><ul><li>Concept developed in early ’70s
  5. 5. Lifelong Learning, Recurrent Education, Éducation Permanente
  6. 6. Emphasis that learning is a lifelong process and all education should be organized around this principle</li></li></ul><li>Lifelong Learning<br /> Lifelong learning has been defined as “the systematic acquisition, renewal, upgrading and completion of knowledge, skills and attitudes made necessary by the constantly changing conditions in which people now live” (Candy et al., 1994)<br /> The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded (Pitman & Broomhall, 2009)<br />
  7. 7. Lifelong learning<br />Lifelong learning or Adult education traditionally concerned <br />more with social, political, personal, and cultural development <br />than with economic development and employability<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Learning to be<br />The world of education<br /> today and tomorrow<br />Edgar Faure<br />Felipe Herrera<br />Abdul-RazzakKaddoura<br />Henri Lopes<br />Arthur V. Petrovsky<br />MajidRahnema<br />Frederick Champion Ward<br />Paris: Unesco, 1972<br />http://www.unesco.org/education/information/pdf/15_60.pdf<br />
  10. 10. Lifelong learning<br />The Faure report formulated the philosophical–political concept of a humanistic, democraticand emancipatory system of learning opportunities for everybody, independent of class, race or financial means, and independent of the age of the learner <br />
  11. 11. Lifelong Learning<br /><ul><li>More international organizations embrace concept, i.e. European Council, Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, World Bank, International Labor Office
  12. 12. Main and common principle: education and organized learning should no longer be limited to a person’s youth, nor should education be exclusive domain of educational institutions </li></li></ul><li>Lifelong learning<br /><ul><li>Idea of Lifelong Learning re-emerges in 1990s
  13. 13. Propagated by international organizations again
  14. 14. Different rationale: emphasis on it as human capital
  15. 15. Espoused both by governments of Western industrialized countries and industry </li></li></ul><li>UNESCO<br />Education conceived as being related to personal development, <br />democracy and the need of the society <br />In Delors Report principles as ‘learning to be’ and ‘learning to <br />live together’ central in discussions on lifelong learning <br />International conference on adult education emphasizes social <br />dimension of education, mentioning a right to education throughout <br />life <br />
  16. 16. Learning: The Treasure within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, 1999 <br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. European Union<br />European Union launched activities in LLL in early 1990s<br />An economic agenda followed, beginning by green and white papers in the <br />1990s, later by the European Employment Strategy and the Lisbon Strategy <br />Placed lifelong learning and the importance of updating skills close to the <br />target of becoming a competitive knowledge economy, in line with a neoliberal <br />approach to education (Borg & Mayo, 2005)<br />
  20. 20. OECD<br />Initially included social aspects like personal development, in line with <br />organization’s emphasis on social objectives in 1970s <br />Influenced by Sweden, develops concept further, by suggesting that <br />education beyond compulsory schooling should be organized in recurrent <br />pattern, alternating with phases of work and other social activities <br />‘Recurrent Education’ is seen as a strategy for making Lifelong Learning a <br />reality (OECD, 1973)<br />
  21. 21. OECD<br />Since 1980s, emphasis towards economic concerns <br />Based on meeting on ‘Lifelong Learning for All’ in 1996, works on <br />specific elements of lifelong learning, like financing or <br />qualification frameworks <br />Mainly conceives lifelong learning as important economic corner <br />stone for knowledge economies (OECD, 1996) <br />
  22. 22. World Bank<br />Underlines importance of lifelong learning for development, <br />favors private educational investments and provision beyond <br />basic education and restricts the state to a coordinating role <br />
  23. 23. International Labor Office<br />Still pursues a more social democratic agenda, conceiving lifelong learning as an important means for the development of worker’s skills, even if its current approach also acknowledges not only governmental, but also private and individual responsibility for continuing learning <br />
  24. 24. International Labor Office<br />Paid educational leave introduced--Mechanism to permit workers engage in LLL activities, without losing jobs and getting paid<br />ILO passes a convention on paid educational leave in 1974 (Schuetze, 1992) <br />
  25. 25. Lifelong learning<br />Criticism from researchers that all international efforts, not being associated with national plans, more on theoretical level than providing a realistic framework<br /> Lifelong and recurrent education concepts imply extensive changes in entire education system, but also in enterprises, labor markets, social insurance and income transfer policies <br />
  26. 26. Lifelong learning<br /><ul><li>developing a culture of lifelong learning must be motivated by more than the economic rationale that currently dominates policy thinking
  27. 27. despite persistent efforts at bridging the differences between general education and vocational education and training, the gap remains
  28. 28. the level of employer involvement in lifelong learning programs clearly remains inadequate, and
  29. 29. new resources are needed if implementation of policies for lifelong learning is to become affordable </li></li></ul><li>How can Lifelong Learning become lasting experience?<br />Need for restructuring the learning process<br />Active student participation in learning<br />Learning experiences building a lifelong habit of library use<br />Critical use of available information resources<br />Problem solving and association with real life situations<br />More specifically <br />- knowing when there is a need for information <br />- identifying information needed to address a given problem or issue <br />- finding needed information and evaluating the information <br />- organizing the information <br />- using the information effectively to address the problem or issue at hand <br />
  30. 30. Libraries<br /> “In the …. library setting, librarians can enhance social capital by collaborating with … and other … constituencies, immersing themselves in … and community life, bridging the gaps …, and working … to create authentic learning experiences in which individuals’ development of information literacy competencies is inextricably linked to learning about the world and ways of participating productively in it” (Stevens &Campbell, 2006)<br />
  31. 31. Libraries<br /> “…libraries as ‘cultural agencies’ create the conditions for the generation of social capital, lifelong learning, and the productive relationship between the two” (Stevens &Campbell, 2006)<br />
  32. 32. Adult learning<br />Adults learn best when they: <br /><ul><li>Know the specific, practical reason or purpose for what they are being asked
  33. 33. Can use their previous experiences as are relevant and supportive foundation for their new learning
  34. 34. Take responsibility for making decisions about the learning, such as what form it will take and how they will be evaluated
  35. 35. Understand the relevance of the learning to their job, life, family, country, or values
  36. 36. Are allowed to actively learn using problem-based or activity-based learning rather than memorization of abstract ideas or content
  37. 37. Can use their internal motivation to learn rather than an external, teacher-based motivation (Stern & Kaur, 2002)</li></li></ul><li>Adult learning<br /><ul><li>Moving from pedagogy to andragogy (Hiemstra & Sisco, 1990)
  38. 38. Malcolm Knowles: apostle of andragogy (Carlson, 1989)
  39. 39. Andragogy and adult learning theory (Adams, 2003)
  40. 40. Andragogical and Pedagogical Training Differences for Online Instructors (Gibbons andWentworth, 2001)
  41. 41. Andragogy (Thompson, 2003)
  42. 42. Dewald, Nancy H. (2003). “Pedagogy and andragogy.” In Elizabeth A Dupuis, ed. Developing web-based instruction : planning, designing, managing, and evaluating for results. New York : Neal-Schuman Publishers.</li></li></ul><li>ASSUMPTIONS OF TEACHER-DIRECTED (PEDAGOGICAL) LEARNINGAND SELF-DIRECTED (ANDRAGOGICAL) LEARNING (Knowles, 1977)<br />
  43. 43. Concerns about Lifelong Learning<br />How to make lifelong learning a practical reality -- a challenge to modern society (and to its organizations) <br />Education, training and development continue to benefit those who are already well educated and those who are in employment<br />As a general rule there is a direct relationship between level of education and unemployment rate: the higher the former the lower the latter (Bryans, 2001)<br />
  44. 44. Concerns about Lifelong Learning<br />Two crucial tests for an education system:<br />How well children can apply what they have learned outside the bounds of formal educational experience and<br />How well they are prepared to continue learning and solving problems throughout the rest of their lives (Bentley, 1998)<br />
  45. 45. Information<br /><ul><li>A vital element for creativity and innovation
  46. 46. A basic resource for learning and human thought
  47. 47. A key resource in creating more knowledgeable citizens
  48. 48. A factor that enables citizens to achieve better results in their academic lives, with regard to health, and at work
  49. 49. An important resource for national socio-economic development </li></li></ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/will-lion/2595497078<br />
  50. 50. Information--The Setting<br />Increasing quantities of information to be accessed rapidly-- the <br />Information explosion<br />Critical evaluation of information necessary<br />Individuals as critical consumers of information<br />
  51. 51. Information--The Setting<br /> “Sheer abundance of information and technology will not in itself create more informed citizens without a complementary understanding and capacity to use information effectively”(Bundy, 2004) <br />
  52. 52. Lifelong Learning beyond the Education process<br /> What of the billions of people who are not part of the higher education process? What of the people who never set foot in a library in search of information? <br /> I am not speaking here, necessarily, of the stereotype of children in less-developed nations whose classroom is a spot in the dust under a tree. I am speaking of the average Canadian, and their counterparts in other countries, who last used a library when they were in school and now retrieve all of their information from friends and family, experts whom they contact, the media and increasingly, Google (Campbell, 2004)<br />
  53. 53. Information Literacy<br /> Within today's information society, the most important learning outcome for all students is their being able to function as independent lifelong learners. The essential enabler to reaching that goal is information literacy (Breivik, 2000)<br />
  54. 54. Information Literacy<br /> “Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning” (ACRL, 2000)<br />
  55. 55. Information Literacy<br />Information-literate individual able to <br />determine the nature and extent of the information needed <br />access needed information effectively and efficiently <br />evaluate information and its sources critically <br />incorporate selected information into their knowledge base <br />use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose <br />understand the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, and <br />use information ethically and legally (ACRL, 2000) <br />
  56. 56. Information Literacy<br /><ul><li>Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn
  57. 57. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them
  58. 58. They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand(American Library Association, 1989) </li></li></ul><li>How are Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning inter-related?<br />Both concepts:<br />• Largely self-motivated and self-directed <br />• Self-empowering <br />• Self-actuating(Unesco. Understanding Information Literacy, 2007)<br />
  59. 59. Undergraduate education <br />Undergraduate education potential link in lifelong learning experiences for each individual<br />Development of capacity for lifelong learning should be core for all programs in every discipline for coping with various learning opportunities<br />Access to and critical use of information absolutely vital to lifelong learning; no person regarded educated unless “information literate”<br />Many practices militate against development for lifelong learning attributes in graduates<br />
  60. 60. Undergraduate education <br />Courses enhancing lifelong learning have following characteristics: <br />provide systematic framework for viewing field of study <br />offer comparative framework for viewing field of study <br />seek to broaden the student and provide generic skills <br />offer freedom of choice and flexibility in structure <br />provide for incremental development of self-directed learning<br />
  61. 61. Undergraduate education <br />Teaching methods have following characteristics:<br />make use of peer-assisted and self-directed learning<br />include experiential and real world learning <br />make use of resource based and problem based teaching <br />encourage development of reflective practice and critical self-awareness<br />make use of open learning and alternative delivery mechanisms<br />Assessment evaluates “what” has been learnt <br />
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
  64. 64. Teaching Information Literacy<br /> Information literacy is a learning issue not a library issue, classroom faculty must be responsible for students acquiring information literacy abilities<br /> All students must have sufficient opportunities to master the full range of information literacy abilities they will need for effective lifelong learning (Rockman, 2001)<br />
  65. 65. Teaching Information Literacy<br /><ul><li>Library orientation
  66. 66. Single-class or “one-shot” bibliographic instruction courses
  67. 67. Sessions associated with a specific assignment
  68. 68. Generic library courses—for credit, required/not required
  69. 69. Course integrated information literacy</li></li></ul><li>Course integrated information literacy<br />Various examples of implementation<br />Mellon Faculty Institute on Undergraduate Research / University <br />of California, Berkeley-The Berkeley project<br />Library/Faculty Institute on Undergraduate Research / Hellenic <br />Academic Libraries Link (HEAL-Link), Univ. of California, Berkeley <br />and Alexander TEI of Thessaloniki<br />
  70. 70. Example of Information Literacy in the curriculum<br /><ul><li>“political literacy and information literacy are inextricably linked and impossible to separate”
  71. 71. “become more politically literate, more information literate, and therefore better students and citizens”
  72. 72. “an exercise in which they must read, listen to, and watch a variety of media sources (at least ten)”, then “review each source for content, bias, and quality of information” (Alexander, 2009) </li></li></ul><li>An easy-to-read, non-technical overview explaining What “information literacy” means, designed for busy public policy-makers, business executives, civil society administrators and practicing professionalshttp://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001570/157020e.pdf <br />
  73. 73. Information literacy and primary/ secondary education<br />To assist students in information seeking and ethical use of <br />information<br />To protect them from possible misuses and emphasize safe use<br />Not included in educational policies in most countries<br />
  74. 74. Information literacy and primary/secondary education<br /> G r a d e 5: Compare and contrast information obtained from subscription databases and from open-ended search engines on the Internet… <br /> Grades 7 & 8: Understand and communicate the ethical use of intellectual property. Use a variety of media to impart information, share opinions, and/or persuade an audience (audio, video, written).<br /> G r a d e s 9 t h r o u g h 12: Use a variety of specialized search engines and databases to locate relevant information. Demonstrate proper procedures and good citizenship online (Farmer, 2010)<br />
  75. 75. Research on Information Literacy skills in secondary education students <br />The [American] Educational Testing Service conducted extended surveys in 2005 and 2006 to investigate students’ information fluency<br />More than 10.000 students participated in the surveys<br />Evidence “…of students' difficulty with ICT literacy despite their technical prowess”<br />“…results reflect poor ICT literacy performance not only by students within one institution, but across participating high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges and universities (Katz, 2007)<br />
  76. 76. Response to Changes in the digital age, the era of web 2.0 and participatory culture<br />To reflect these changes the American Association of School <br />Librarians published:<br />TheStandards for the 21st-Century Learner (AASL, 2007) <br />The Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action (AASL, <br />2009), and<br />Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs (AASL, 2009) <br />
  77. 77.
  78. 78. Standards for the 21st century learner<br />Developed in 2007 by the American Association of School Librarians<br />A new approach to education aiming at conceptual learning<br />Away from rules children cannot interconnect and interpret to principles for application<br />Train children in finding their own answers to real problems, based on resources and interpretation of the environment<br />Assist trainers in designing learning strategies resulting in higher order learning outcomes (Standards for the 21st century, 2007)<br />
  79. 79. Standards for the 21st century learner<br />Standard 1. Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge <br />Standard 2. Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge<br />Standard 3. Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society<br />Standard 4. Pursue personal and aesthetic growth<br />
  80. 80. Accompanies the standards and<br />advises on their incorporation into the <br />school library program <br />
  81. 81. Accompanies two previous publications <br />aiming at creation of flexible environments, <br />conducive to successful learning and <br />acquisition of multiple literacies<br />
  82. 82. The Association of College and Research Libraries (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. Chicago, IL: The Association of College and Research Libraries. <br />http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/standards.pdf<br />
  83. 83.
  84. 84. Information Literacy Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology<br />Based on the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, five standards and twenty-five performance indicators were developed for information literacy in Science & Engineering/Technology <br /> Each performance indicator is accompanied by one or more outcomes for assessing the progress toward information literacy of students of science and engineering or technology at all levels of higher education<br /> http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/infolitscitech.cfm<br />
  85. 85. Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework:<br /> principles, standards and practice. 2n ed. Ed. By Alan Bundy. Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy, 2004.<br />
  86. 86.
  87. 87. ANZIIL<br />Standard 1. The information literate person recognises the need for information and determines the nature and extent of the information needed <br />Standard 2. The information literate person finds needed information effectively and efficiently <br />Standard 3. The information literate person critically evaluates information and the information seeking process <br />Standard 4. The information literate person manages information collected or generated <br />Standard 5. The information literate person applies prior and new information to construct new concepts or create new understandings <br />Standard 6. The information literate person uses information with understanding and acknowledges cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information<br />
  88. 88. Society of College, National and University Libraries, SCONUL. (2011). The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy. SCONUL Working Group on Information Literacy <br />http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/publications/coremodel.pdf<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90.
  91. 91. Circular nature of model<br />follows similar process of <br />information acquisition<br />
  92. 92.
  93. 93.
  94. 94.
  95. 95.
  96. 96. Information competencieshttp://www.ifla.org/files/information-literacy/publications/ifla-guidelines-en.pdf<br />
  97. 97. Public libraries, lifelong learning and Information literacy<br />What happens to citizens when they are not affiliated with a school anymore?<br />What happens to citizens who have never attended secondary/post secondary education?<br />Very little activity about information literacy<br />
  98. 98. Public libraries, lifelong learning and Information literacy<br />Schools and universities can provide information literacy support and<br />instruction during years of formal education but do not serve <br />Individuals in the subsequent years of informal or self-directed study or <br />life. <br />As information literacy is a lifelong skill, public libraries are perfectly <br />positioned to be a ‘constant presence throughout people’s lives,’ and <br />able to provide ongoing support to individuals in developing <br />information literacy skills(Harding, 2008)<br />
  99. 99. Public libraries, lifelong learning and Information literacy<br />Public libraries are among the most important places for the members <br />of a given community to connect with information so that they may <br />read, interpret, and produce information that will be appropriate and <br />valuable to the community <br />By making information literacy a core mission, public libraries can <br />reach out to all who wish to be lifelong learners rather than just the <br />institutionally educated elite and, in so doing, nurture democracies (Hall, <br />2010)<br />
  100. 100. Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices<br />Category 1: Mission<br />Category 2: Goals and Objectives<br />Category 3: Planning<br />Category 4: Administrative and Institutional Support<br />Category 5: Articulation with the Curriculum<br />Category 6: Collaboration<br />Category 7: Pedagogy<br />Category 8: Staffing<br />Category 9: Outreach<br />Category 10: Assessment/Evaluation (ACRL, 2003)<br />
  101. 101. Best Practice Characteristics for Developing Information Literacy in Australian Universities: a guideline<br />A. Institutional/Strategic Planning<br /> Documentation and policy issues<br /> B. Operational/Administrative Planning<br /> Leadership, Cooperation, Financial, Curricular, Marketing issues<br /> C. Implementation/Curriculum Planning and Development<br /> Information Literacy Programs, Staff involved, Assessment and evaluation methods (CAUL, 2004)<br />
  102. 102. Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline <br />Best Practices Initiative <br />Institute for Information Literacy <br />Draft Revision – January 2011 <br />http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics_rev_.pdf<br />
  103. 103. Design of an Information Literacy Program<br />Factors to be considered<br /><ul><li>Level and Educational goals of program
  104. 104. Desired learning outcomes
  105. 105. Adaptation of existing standards
  106. 106. Tailored to the needs and background of recipients
  107. 107. Content
  108. 108. Teaching strategies: focus on learning, pedagogical issues, application of new technologies
  109. 109. Assessment methods</li></li></ul><li>Design of an Information Literacy Program<br />Sections to be included<br /> 1. Introduction—definition of IL/IF, scope<br /> 2. History of similar efforts in institution<br /> 3. Goals and objectives of program<br /> 4. Body of the plan<br /> 5. Oversight<br /> 6. Methods of assessment<br /> 7. Timeline for implementation<br /> 8. Marketing plan (Burkhardt, 2005)<br />
  110. 110. Librarians<br /><ul><li>Key players in information literacy program development
  111. 111. Be involved in teaching
  112. 112. Cater for students’ learning needs
  113. 113. Be visible in the academic community and participate in educational activities</li></li></ul><li>Resources<br /><ul><li>The Learn Information Literacy Initiative of Southern Australia (LEARN Network, 2009)
  114. 114. Core Information literacy of the University of Idaho (University of Idaho, 2010)
  115. 115. LOEX instructional resource webpage (Library Orientation Exchange, 2004-2007)
  116. 116. OWL/Purdue
  117. 117. Usability.gov</li></li></ul><li>http://infolitglobal.net/directory/en/home<br />database containing information literacy materials from different parts of the world, on behalf of UNESCO<br />
  118. 118. Andragogy<br />Adams, N. B. (2003). Andragogy and adult learning theory. <br /> Retrieved from <br /> http://www2.selu.edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/etec630&665/Knowles.html <br />Carlson, R. (Spring1989). Malcolm Knowles: Apostle of andragogy. Vitae Scholasticae8(1).<br /> Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.nl.edu/ academics/cas/ace/resources/malcolmknowles. <br />Gibbons, H. S. & G.P. Wentworth (2001). “Andragogical and pedagogical training differences for online instructors online.” Journal of Distance Learning Administration, IV(III). <br /> Retrieved from:<br /> http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/ fall43/gibbons_wentworth43.html. <br />Hiemstra, R. & B. Sisco (1990). “Moving from pedagogy to andragogy.” Individualizing instruction. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. <br /> Retrieved from: <br /> http://www-distance.syr.edu/andraggy. html. <br />
  119. 119. Andragogy<br />Knowles, Malcolm S. (1977). “Adult learning processes: Pedagogy and andragogy.” Religious Education, 72: 2, 202- 211.<br />Knowles, Malcolm S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. Chicago: Follett.<br />Thompson, M. A. (2003). Andragogy for adult learners in higher education. <br /> Retrieved from:<br /> http://webcache.googleusercontent. com/ search?qZcache: HG18Jh11JhQJ :business.clayton.edu/mthompso/ 02%2520Allied%2520Academy%2520Paper%2520Final <br />
  120. 120. Journals-Lifelong Learning <br /><ul><li>Adult education and development
  121. 121. Adult education quarterly
  122. 122. Adult learning
  123. 123. International journal of lifelong education
  124. 124. International review of education
  125. 125. Journal of continuing higher education
  126. 126. New directions for adult & continuing education
  127. 127. Studies in continuing education</li></li></ul><li>Journals-Information Literacy<br />Communications in Information Literacy<br />http://www.comminfolit.org/index.php/cil (open access)<br />Journal of Information Literacy <br />http://jil.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/index (open access)<br />College & Research Libraries<br />Community & Junior College Libraries<br />Journal of Academic Librarianship<br />Research Strategies (ceased publication)<br />School Library Media Quarterly<br />
  128. 128. Agencies<br />
  129. 129. In the 21st century, the need to embed the principles of lifelong learning in education and broader development policies takes on a more urgent tone than ever before Lifelong learning principles, if systematically implemented, will be able to contribute to more just and equitable societies <br /> http://uil.unesco.org<br />
  130. 130. National Institute for Literacy <br />Equipped for the Future: Content Standards for Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning(2003) <br />http://www.nifl.gov/lincs/collections/eff/eff_standards.html<br />
  131. 131. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) <br />Aims to encourage all adults to engage in learning of all kinds<br /> Began in 1921 as the British Institute for Adult Education, voluntary organization, a charity and company limited by guarantee owned by its members <br /> http://www.niace.org.uk/about-us<br />
  132. 132. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) <br /><ul><li>Operates across all sectors of post-compulsory education
  133. 133. Promotes learning and strengths the voice of learners
  134. 134. Influences, monitors and contributes to policy and practice
  135. 135. Works regionally, nationally and internationally in all sectors of adult education</li></li></ul><li>Can we reverse the goals of lifelong learning, especially in this difficult economic environment?<br /> “the agenda since the 1990s has definitely become devoted to servicing industry, making the population viable economic units. The idealistic purposes of adult education such as personal fulfillment and more radically democratization, civic engagement and participation appear to have taken something of a backseat”<br />
  136. 136. References<br />Alexander, R.C. (2009). “Political literacy as information literacy.” Communications in Information Literacy, 3(1), 9-13. <br />AACC (American Association of Community Colleges). (2008). Position Statement on Information Literacy. <br />Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.aacc.nche.edu/About/Positions/Pages/ps05052008.aspx<br />American Library Association. (1989). Presidential Committee on information literacy: Final report. <br />Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential.cfm<br />
  137. 137. References<br />ACRL (2004). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. <br />Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.htm.<br />ACRL. Institute for Information Literacy. Best Practices Initiative (2003). Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline.<br />Retrieved from: <br /> http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics.cfm<br />ACRL. Institute for Information Literacy. Best Practices Initiative (2011). Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline: Draft revision.<br /> Retrieved from:<br /> http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics_rev_.pdf<br />Bentley, T (1998). Learning beyond the classroom. London: Routledge.<br />Breivik, Patricia Senn. (2000). “Information literacy and Lifelong Learning: the Magical partneship.” Ist International Lifelong Learning, Central Queensland University, 16-19 June, 2000.<br />Retrieved from:<br /> http://bivir.uacj.mx/dhi/DoctosNacioInter/INFORMATIONLITERACYANDLIFELONGLEARNING.htm<br />
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