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Sexually Transmitted Diseases


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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  1. 1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) By Abby Siek EDU 160 Human Growth and Development Fall 2011
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of STDs or STIs </li></ul><ul><li>STIs Caused by Virus </li></ul><ul><li>STIs Caused by Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Sexually Transmitted infection is a disease that is contracted primarily through sex </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Having sex&quot; means any consensual behavior between two or more individuals involving genital contact and bodily penetration. That means oral sex, anal sex, and vaginal sex are all &quot;sex.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All these types of sexual contact can cause an STI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other infrequent transmissions of virus or bacteria </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of STDs or STIs <ul><li>Among the most common infectious diseases reported in U.S. (19 million infected per year) </li></ul><ul><li>Affect men, women and kids of all ages or SES </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly common due to people becoming sexual active at a younger age, having more partners, and taking fewer preventative methods </li></ul><ul><li>People can have and transmit without symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Long term consequences can be very severe </li></ul>
  5. 5. STIs Caused By Virus <ul><li>Genital Herpes </li></ul><ul><li>Genital Warts or Human Papillomavirus (HPV) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Properties Of Virus <ul><li>Obligate parasite; infects other cells to replicate; hijacks host enzyme systems </li></ul><ul><li>Very small, 20 to 450 nm long </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins form a protective ‘shell’ called a capsid surrounding genetic core (either RNA or DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot synthesize proteins and lack enzymes for most metabolic processes, rely on host cell </li></ul><ul><li>Minor infections (Rhinovirus = common cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Major infections (Enterovirus = Polio) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Virus Structure <ul><li>Influenza Virus </li></ul>HPV
  8. 8. Genital Herpes <ul><li>44 million infections with 22% of Population (+) </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 new cases reported each year </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent sores on the skin, mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. Can transmit to fetus: Neonatal Herpes </li></ul><ul><li>Latency in dorsal root ganglia (nerve cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Contagious even when asymptomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom treatment is with antivirals, but no cure </li></ul><ul><li>Condoms will not always protect you </li></ul>
  9. 9. Genital Herpes
  10. 10. Genital Warts or HPV <ul><li>More than 60 serotypes, some linked with cancer (i.e. cervical cancer), 50% population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people have NO symptoms, immune system clears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wart is a hyperplasia (finger-like projections) </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 1 million new cases each year </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is with antivirals </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation for new HPV vaccines to protect against cancer-causing strains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls: Age 11-12 or 13-26, Boys: Age 9-26 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. AIDS and HIV <ul><li>Immune system’s ability to control infectious or malignant disorders is destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Relentless production of HIV proteins, elimination of host cells, destruction of i.s., and death </li></ul><ul><li>Onset: mild flu like symptoms, Latent: 8-10 or more years w/o symptoms, Final: AIDs appears </li></ul><ul><li>ARC: AIDs related complex </li></ul><ul><li>AIDs cocktail: Combo of 3 enzyme inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: Condoms, Education and Vaccine </li></ul>
  12. 12. STIs Caused By Bacteria <ul><li>Gonorrheal Urethritis or ‘Gonorrhea’ </li></ul><ul><li>Chlamydia Trachomatis or ‘Chlamydia’ </li></ul><ul><li>Treponema Pallidum or ‘Syphilis’ </li></ul>
  13. 13. Properties of Bacteria <ul><li>Prokaryotes = No nucleus, mostly unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, with cell membrane and/or cell wall, organelles and extra cellular projections </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of shapes, sizes and arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocci (round), bacilli (rod-like), and helical forms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are everywhere!! </li></ul><ul><li>Ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as there are human cells in the body </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bacteria Structure <ul><li>Why the color difference? </li></ul>Staphylococcus Aureus Clostridium Botulinum
  15. 15. Gonorrhea <ul><li>Gonococcal Urethritis from N. Gonorrhoeae </li></ul><ul><li>Urethritis = inflammation of urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Males: Painful urination </li></ul><ul><li>Females: Discharge, abnormal bleeding or pain </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) </li></ul><ul><li>Treat with antibiotics (Penicillin or Ciprofloxacin) </li></ul><ul><li>Shows increasing antibiotic resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention with responsible sex practices and condom use </li></ul>
  16. 16. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae <ul><li>DIAGNOSTIC </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chlamydia <ul><li>Non-Gonorrhea Urethritis from C. Trachomatis </li></ul><ul><li>Obligate intracellular bacteria, co-infection </li></ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic carriers (50-67% of affected) </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to PID and/or infertility in women </li></ul><ul><li>Clear discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Less pain and irritation than Gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>If positive, screen for Gonorrhea and vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with antibiotics </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chlamydia Diagnosis <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Direct FA </li></ul>
  19. 19. Syphilis <ul><li>Caused by GN spirochete, Treponema Pallidum </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be cultured, elicits little immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary, Secondary and Tertiary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms are sores (chancre), skin rash, malaise, fever, lesions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency period can last years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary syphilis can cause dementia or death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment with antibiotics (injection) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to treat in early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention with responsible sex practices and avoidance of direct contact with infected individual </li></ul>
  20. 20. Syphilis <ul><li>Chancre </li></ul>Secondary Syphilis
  21. 21. A Not So Funny Cartoon
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Practice Safer Sex Every Time You Have Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Have Sex Only in Mutually Monogamous Relationships Note: You are having sex with everyone they are </li></ul><ul><li>Know Your Limits and Be Comfortable Saying ‘No’ </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Drink or Use Drugs Before Having Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Be Responsible for Your Own Protection and Education </li></ul><ul><li>Get real about abstinence. 95% of Americans will engage in Premarital Sex with at least one partner </li></ul><ul><li>If you are at higher risk, Get Tested Regularly, and Encourage Your Partners to Do the Same </li></ul>
  23. 23. Final Thought <ul><li>If you are Sexually Active, be </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually Proactive ! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>