Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch13


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  • Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch13

    1. 1. Immunity and Infection <ul><li>Chapter 13 </li></ul>
    2. 2. The Chain of Infection <ul><li>Links in the Chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted through a chain (six links) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogen - disease causing microorganism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoir - natural environment of the pathogen: Person, animal or environmental component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portal of Exit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct transmission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect transmission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portal of entry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penetration of the skin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New host </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking the Chain </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Body’s Defense System <ul><li>Physical and Chemical barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Immune System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunological Defenders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dendritic cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T-cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helper, Killer, and Suppressor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B-cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory T and B cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Inflammatory Response <ul><li>Histamine. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilation of blood vessels, heat, redness, and swelling. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The immune response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1 – Dendritic cells are drawn to the site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2 – Helper T cells multiply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of Killer T and B cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokines – chemical messengers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 3 – Killer T cells strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell-mediated immune </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-body mediated immune response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 4 – Last Phase – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressor T-cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow down activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The Immune Response
    6. 6. Immunity <ul><li>An infected person will never get the same illness again. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes create amplification of the immune response are reserved by memory T and B cells </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms and contagion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation – viruses are multiplying in the body or when bacteria are actively multiplying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will not feel symptoms until the second or third phase of the immune response cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prodromal period – the infected host has acquired immunity </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Immunization <ul><li>The process of ‘priming’ the body to remember an encounter with a specific antigen. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of vaccines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VACCINE- Introduction of a killed or weakened pathogen to stimulate the body to produce antibodies. (active immunity). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PASSIVE IMMUNITY - Injection of antibodies produced by other human beings or animals. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Allergy: The Body’s Defense System Gone Haywire <ul><ul><li>Allergies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen, Dander, Dust mites, Molds, Food, Insects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Allergic response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunoglobulin (IgE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphylaxis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with Allergies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunotherapy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. The Troublemakers: Pathogens and Disease <ul><li>Bacteria – Microscopic single celled organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strep Throat and other streptococcal infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic shock and other staphylococcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme Disease and other tickborne infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Bacterial infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pertussis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infections </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Antibiotic Treatment <ul><li>Actions of Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Proper antibiotics usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take an antibiotic every time you are sick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use antibiotics as directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never take an antibiotic without an prescription </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Pathogens <ul><li>Viruses – (parasites – take what they need) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measles, Mumps and Rubella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chickenpox, Cold Sores, and other herpes-virus infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral Hepatitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Papillomavirus (HPV) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
    12. 13. Pathogens <ul><li>Fungi – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive plant – Yeast infections, athletes foot, and ringworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candida albicans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protozoa – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic single-celled animal – Malaria, African sleeping sickness, Giardiasis, Tricomonias, Trypanosomiasis, and Amoebic dysentary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasitic worm – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest organism that can enter the body – Tapeworm, Hookworm, and Pinworm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prions - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal degeneration disorders of the CNS, linked to “proteinaceous infectious particles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack DNA and RNA </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Emerging Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Selected Infections of concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hantavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebola </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Factors Contributing to Emerging Infections <ul><li>Drug Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown of public health measures </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental changes </li></ul><ul><li>Travel and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Mass food production and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Human behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Bioterrorism </li></ul>
    15. 16. How to Support Your Immune System <ul><li>How to support your immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking care of yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderation of Lifestyle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling Stress </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Sexual Transmitted Diseases <ul><li>The United States has the highest rate of Sexual Transmitted Diseases of any developed nation </li></ul>
    17. 18. The Major STDS (STD’s) <ul><li>Seven different STDs pose major health threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonorrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HPV </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) <ul><li>Leading cause of death in many parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide, AIDS is the leading cause of death for people age 15-59 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approximately 65 Million people around the world are infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). </li></ul><ul><li>More than 25 million have died worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus which causes AIDS. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Approximate number of people living with HIV/AIDS in 2006
    20. 21. HIV Infection and AIDS <ul><li>By 2004, an estimated 1,000,000 Americans were believed to be living with HIV, with an estimated annual incidence of 40,000 cases </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 1.5 million Americans have died </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2006, researchers discovered a group of chimpanzees in Cameroon that carry SIVspc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1930s Genetic evidence shows that SIV first spread to humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is HIV Infections? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV attacks and invades CD4 T-cells, monocytes and macrophages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS opens the possibility for a opportunistic infections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once initial symptoms resolve, the asymptomatic period may last from 2 to 20 years. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Transmitting the Virus <ul><li>HIV lives only within cells and body fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>3 primary means of transmission are: (1)Specific kinds of sexual contact, (2) direct exposure to infected blood, and (3) HIV-infected women to her fetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>Direct contact with infected blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-to-Child transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Not through casual contact. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Populations of Special Concern for HIV infection <ul><li>Most common exposure has been sexual activity between men; injection drug use, and heterosexual contact. </li></ul><ul><li>African American men and women are vastly overrepresented among people newly diagnosed with AIDS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See “HIV/AIDS Among African Americans and Latinos” </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. Symptoms of HIV Infection <ul><li>Few days or weeks, half the people will develop (Flu like symptoms) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever, fatigue, rashes, headache, swollen lymph nodes, body aches, night sweats, sore throat, nausea and diarrhea. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized test HIV RNA assay. </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia (protozoal infection). </li></ul><ul><li>Kaposis sarcoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to treat yeast infections in women </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul>
    24. 26. Diagnosing HIV Infection and AIDS <ul><li>Most common is tests for the presence of antibodies to the virus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV antibody test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELISA (first test) if positive then the. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western blot (second test) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IF HIV-positive then check the status of the CD4-t cells. </li></ul><ul><li>New diagnostic test – HIV Replication Capacity. </li></ul>
    25. 27. Diagnosing HIV Infection and AIDS <ul><li>Treatment (NO CURE). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiviral drugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse transcriptase inhibitors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zidovudine (AZT). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protease inhibitors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structured intermittent therapy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion inhibitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit the fusion of viral and cell membranes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Exposure prophylaxis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment for opportunistic infections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV and Pregnancy </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. Prevention <ul><li>Make careful choices about sexual activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not share drug needles. </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in an HIV educational program. </li></ul>
    27. 30. Chlamydia Trachomatis <ul><li>Most prevalent bacterial STD in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial infection - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause sterility in men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WOMEN infects the cervix and to urethra, fallopian tubes & ovaries, PID, bladder infections. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEN- Epididymitis, urethra to testes, urethritis, bladder infections, watery discharge. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms – ASYMPTOMATIC : Discharge, pain and burning while urinating, vaginal bleeding, painful intercourse, abdominal pain, nausea, fever, inflammation of rectum or cervix, swelling and pain in the testes. </li></ul>
    28. 31. Chlamydia Trachomatis <ul><li>Spread - vaginal and anal intercourse, from the birth canal to the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis - Examination of tissue samples or urine </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment - Both partners treated fully with antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul>
    29. 32. Gonorrhea <ul><li>700,000 new cases every year in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial infection - Can cause sterility, arthritis and heart problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PID, can cause ectopic pregnancy, premature labor and still birth, arthritis, rashes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women - Asymptomatic - Frequent burning urination, menstrual irregularities, pelvic pain, discharge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males – thick yellow-white discharge, painful urination. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 33. Gonorrhea <ul><li>Spread - Vaginal, anal and oral sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis - Microscopic exam of discharge. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment - Oral antibiotics - People often have chlamydia at same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul>
    31. 34. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease PID <ul><li>Progressive infection that harms a women’s reproductive system. Can lead to sterility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain - treated or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by chlamydia and gonorrhea. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms - long and painful periods, discharge, spotting, low abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, pain during intercourse. </li></ul>
    32. 35. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease PID <ul><li>Treatment - Antibiotics, bed rest, sexual abstinence and maybe surgery to remove scarring </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis - Pelvic Exam, cultures, laparoscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul>
    33. 36. Human Papillomavirus Infection <ul><li>More than 80% of sexually active individuals will have been infected with HPV by the age of 50. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small bump on the skin or a large, warty growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cauliflower-like mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause irritation and bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is it spread </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance of the lesions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women who are positive should have a Pap test very 12 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed by cryosurgery, electrocautery or laser surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul>
    34. 37. Genital Herpes <ul><li>45 million have been diagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms - Herpes simples virus-1 and -2. </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1 is associated with cold sores and fever blisters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50-80% of U.S. adults have anitibodies to HSV-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are sexually transmitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Remains in the body for life. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms – 90% have no symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurring rash, pain ulceration's. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary outbreak - pain and discomfort around infected area, itching, burning during urination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-20 days after infection - may years before outbreak. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Genital Herpes <ul><li>Spread - T ouching, sexual intimacy - including kissing, vaginal, oral and anal sex </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis - Examination of sores and culturing of fluid taken from sores </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment - No cure - symptoms are relieved by drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Protection - Refrain for sex during out break </li></ul><ul><li>HSV-1 and 2 can cause miscarriages or still births along with serious health issues of newborns </li></ul>
    36. 39. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) <ul><li>Can cause liver disease and death </li></ul><ul><li>Preventable with vaccination. </li></ul><ul><li>750,000 total acquired sexually </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission - Semen, saliva, blood and urine </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms - Extreme fatigue, headache, fever, hives, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, tenderness in lower abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No cure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. Syphilis <ul><li>Syphilis organism remains in the body for life and leads to disfigurement, neurological disorders, or death. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective antibiotics and condom use. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary phase- 3 weeks - 90 days - painless sores and wet ulcers (chancre) and swollen glands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Phase - 3-6 weeks - up to 2 years body rash, mild fever, fatigue, sore throat (Flu like symptoms), and hair loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late phase (tertiary)- Damage to organs and nervous system. </li></ul></ul>
    38. 41. Other STD’s <ul><li>Trichomoniasis </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic Lice </li></ul><ul><li>Scabies </li></ul>
    39. 42. What You Can Do <ul><li>Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be alert for symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform your partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get Treated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a barrier defense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your potential partner. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask. Are you ready to have sex? </li></ul>
    40. 43. Immunity and Infection <ul><li>Chapter 13 </li></ul>