Sexually transmitted diseases (st is) 201211987


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Sexually transmitted diseases (st is) 201211987

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: ADELIZE REYNEKE Life Orientation Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
  2. 2. What are Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)?  STI is a term applied to a variety of infections that are passed from one person to another primarily through vaginal, oral or anal sex.
  3. 3. Common Types of STIs:  Chlamydia  Gonorrhea  Genital Herpes (HSV-2)  GenitalWarts (HPV)  Hepatitis B  HIV and AIDS  Pubic Lice  Syphilis  Trichomoniasis
  4. 4. Modes of Transmission: STIs are spread through contact:  Penis  Vagina  Rectum  Breaks in skin  Mucous membranes And  Needle Sharing  Blood contact  Vertical transmission (Mother-to-child)
  5. 5. Areas of Infection:
  6. 6. Prevention is the key:  Abstinence, or not having oral, vaginal or anal sex, is the best way to protect yourself.  It is possible to get an STD even without having intercourse through skin-to-skin contact.  Use latex condoms correctly for any type of sex (vaginal, oral or anal) from start to finish.
  7. 7. How do I know if I have an STI?  Most people who have an STI have no symptoms. A test from your health care provider or local health clinic may be the only way to tell for sure if you're infected.  If you do become infected, symptoms may appear right away. Or, they may not show up for weeks or months or even years.They may come and go. Even if the signs and symptoms go away, you can still infect other people if you have sex with them. Or, they can still infect you!
  8. 8. Common Symptoms:  Pain or burning while urinating  Itching  Discharge  Unusual smell from the penis or vagina  For women, sharp pain in the lower belly  Growths  Bumps or sores  Rashes around the genitals or anal area  Many people can have no symptoms (asymptomatic) and still pass on a STI.
  9. 9. Bacterial Infections:  Infections caused by bacteria, this agent represents about half of the STIs identified.  Bacterial infections are curable. Medication does not protect against future exposure.
  10. 10. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: Transmission  Direct mucous membrane contact with the germ during sexual contact. Using condoms and dental dams lowers chance of transmission. Testing Culture sample (can be done during pap smear) Urine sample
  11. 11. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea (cont…) Symptoms in Males: Symptoms in Females: Pain during urination Frequent urination Watery discharge Discharge from penis WithChlamydia: 50% of men will not get symptoms. Pain during urination or sex Bleeding between periods Dull pelvic pain Thick discharge with foul odor WithChlamydia: 75% of women will not get symptoms.
  12. 12. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea (cont…) If gone untreated  Transmission to sex partners and newborns.  Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (can cause infertility).  Higher rate of miscarriage.  Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate). Treatment available  Treated and cured with antibiotics.  Because many people with Gonorrhea also have Chlamydia, treatment for both infections are usually given together .
  13. 13. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV): Transmission  Direct sexual contact with the bacteria (especially with new or multiple partners).  Wiping the incorrect way.  Douching. Testing  CultureTest.
  14. 14. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) cont… Symptoms:  Heavy and milky discharge  Fishy-smelling odor  Itching in or around the vagina
  15. 15. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) cont… If gone untreated  Bacteria may spread and infect the uterus and fallopian tubes.  Transmission to sex partners and newborns.  Increased risk for premature birth. Treatment available  Can be cured with either oral antibiotics or suppositories.  There is no need to douche unless your doctor or clinician prescribes it as treatment.
  16. 16. Syphilis: Transmission Skin to skin contact. Contact with mucous membrane. Mother-to-child through placenta. Testing Blood Sample.
  17. 17. Syphilis (cont…) First stage Syphilis: Second stage Syphilis:  Chancres (painless open sore) appear on the body  They disappear in about 14 days  Flu-like symptoms and rash. Rash is brownish red and can appear on any part of the body.
  18. 18. Syphilis (cont…) Third stage Syphilis: If gone untreated… Transmission to sex partners and newborns. Nerve and brain damage. Blindness. Physical damage. Death.
  19. 19. Syphilis (cont…) Treatment available  A single intramuscular injection of medication will cure a person.  Other treatments are also available.  Syphilis is curable, but the damage to the body and/or internal organs is not reversible.
  20. 20. Viral Infections:  Viral infections are not curable. They can be treated and managed with medication to reduce symptoms and outbreaks caused by the virus.
  21. 21. Herpes: HSV-1: Oral Herpes HSV-2: Genital Herpes Can be passed back and forth Transmission  Sexual Contact.  Contact with herpes sore.  Mother-to-child. Testing  Visual exam and blood tests. Herpes can be transmitted anywhere there is a break in the skin, and mucous membrane.
  22. 22. Herpes (cont…) If gone untreated  Higher miscarriage rate.  Transmission to sex partners and newborns.  Eye problems with herpes infection.  Proctitis (inflammation of rectum). Treatment available  Antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks.  In addition, daily suppressive therapy for chronic herpes can reduce frequency of outbreaks and transmission to partners.
  23. 23. Hepatitis B (HBV-2):  Hepatitis B can cause liver damage and is considered the most general and severe liver disease worldwide. Transmission Sexual contact * Sharing needles. Mother-to-child. Oral utensils. Testing Blood test.
  24. 24. Hepatitis B (HBV-2) cont… Symptoms: If left untreated: Jaundice (yellowing of skin and whites of the eyes). Fatigue. Abdominal and joint pain. Nausea. Loss of appetite. About 30% of persons have no signs or symptoms. Transmission to sex partners and newborns . Liver failure. Cirrhosis (scarring). Liver cancer can develop.
  25. 25. Hepatitis B (HBV-2) cont… Types of Hepatitis B • Acute: Virus “clears out” of person’s system after initial exposure.This must be confirmed by a negative blood test after 6 months. • Chronic: Virus stays in the person’s system, and person tests positive after 6 months. Chronic Hepatitis may stay with a person for a lifetime.About 10% of adults who contract Hepatitis B will develop the chronic type.
  26. 26. Hepatitis B (HBV-2) cont… Treatment available  Medications will slow down the virus and reduce liver damage in some cases, they may even rid of the virus completely.  Hepatitis B vaccine is the best protection. Three injections given over 5-6 months. Remember to be tested before getting vaccinated.
  27. 27. Genital Warts/HPV: The fastest growing STI in U.S. among young adults.There are about 100 different strands of HPV. Only 30 strands affect the genital region. HPV is classified as high risk or low risk. Transmission More likely transmitted through direct contact with infected skin (i.e. wart is present) Testing • Males – Only visual exam* • Females –Visual exam and detection through • Pap smears
  28. 28. Genital Warts/HPV (cont…) Symptoms  Small bumps, can feel hard or soft.  Can take on cauliflower-like appearance.  Most people have no symptoms. If gone untreated  Transmission to sex partners and newborns.  Warts may grow and spread if left untreated.  May cause cervical cancer.  Block openings from anus, vagina and urethra.
  29. 29. Genital Warts/HPV (cont…) Treatment available  HPV is treated through treatment of the genital wart.  Application of topical medicine.  Removal by cryotherapy or laser.  If the wart recurs, an injection of a type of interferon.
  30. 30. HIV/AIDS: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)  Virus that attacks the immune system.  HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)  When the body is at below 200T-cells per ML (drop) of blood.  Body is vulnerable to opportunistic infections.
  31. 31. HIV/AIDS (cont…) Testing Blood Sample SalivaTest Testing Guidelines Test are most accurate 6 months after possible exposure Results are available in 1-2 weeks Rapid HIVTest - Some test sites offer immediate results through finger prick.This test can be expensive.
  32. 32. HIV/AIDS (cont…) If gone untreated Transmission to sex partners and newborns. Weakening of immune system. Vulnerable to other infections. Death.
  33. 33. HIV/AIDS (cont…) Treatment available  HIV treatment is a combination of Anti- RetroViral (ARV) medications, referred to as a “cocktail” that will keep the viral count low.  HIV drug treatment is complicated and different people have different results.  Treatment can help people at all stages of HIV infection stay healthy.
  34. 34. Pubic Lice (Crabs): Pathogen: Organism called Pthirus pubis. Where: Pubic hair and other areas with hair. How: Spread through sexual contact or bedding. Symptoms: Persistent itching and becomes worse at night.
  35. 35. Trichomoniasis  Protozoa.  Greenish-yellow discharge with foul odor.  Frothy in texture.  Itching. Treatment available • Trichomoniasis can be cured with the prescription drug, taken by mouth in a single dose.
  36. 36. Prevention: Testing. Communication. Seeking help. Education. Respect . Limiting the number of sex partners.
  37. 37. What to do & where to go:  If you have suspicious that you have an STI go to the doctors immediately and get tested  Where to go for help?   Go to a public health care center, these clinics are free to teens and treat you without pay  Family planning clinics may offer counseling and therapy treatment  Get help and never be ashamed.
  38. 38. References:  M.S. Drew  Gina Ciccone  Rhetta Guimond  Jennifer Dole  KrisTeelee