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Rainwater Management  for  Increased Agricultural production Centre of African Studies – Porto- Portugal  2 – 3 October 20...
<ul><li>Outline  </li></ul><ul><li>Food for all  ? </li></ul><ul><li>Key role of water </li></ul><ul><li>Smallholder adapt...
< 2.5 2.5–4 5–19 20–34 ≥ 35 No data % undernourished UNDERNOURISHMENT
  <ul><li>UNDERNOURISHMENT IN THE WORLD </li></ul><ul><li>776 million people in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>rem...
< 2.5 2.5–4 5–19 20–34 ≥ 35 No data % undernourished UNDERNOURISHMENT SUB- SAHARA AFRICA
<ul><li>UNDERNOURISHMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN </li></ul><ul><li>AFRICA </li></ul><ul><li>SSA undernourishment rose from 200 m pe...
< 2.5 2.5–4 5–19 20–34 ≥ 35 No data % undernourished Undernourishment and water scarcity Sub- Sahara Africa
Dry land areas and rain fed agriculture   Arid land: 45% of world area,  38% of Sub-Saharan Africa
Strong relationship between water availability and cereal production
<ul><li>In order to reach the World Food Summit  </li></ul><ul><li>and Millennium goals </li></ul><ul><li>to reduce the nu...
Some realities:   <ul><li>The green revolution is slowing down </li></ul><ul><li>Serious environmental problems are appear...
Arable land expansion 22 % Cropping intensity  12 % How to grow 50 % more food in 2030 Yield increase  66 %
<ul><li>Yield Increase :   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate  water  supply to crops through  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Large irrigation projects for small number of farmers ? or Small-scale water development for a large number of farmers? <u...
<ul><li>Improvement of water supply to crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accessible and affordable  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t...
(Rockström, Fox, Persson et Falkenmark(SIWI) RAINWATER MOVEMENTS
Rainwater distribution in arid areas (Rockström, Fox, Persson et Falkenmark(SIWI)
<ul><li>Improved use of rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent run-off </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce evaporation from soil surface...
<ul><li>CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>No tillage </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain coverage on soil surface </li></u...
Small-scale conservation agriculture
Permanent soil coverage
Mechanized conservation agriculture
<ul><li>The collection of runoff for its productive use   </li></ul><ul><li>Water applied to the crop and stored in the so...
Potential areas for runoff farming Source: GAEZ (FAO – IIASA, 2003) > 800 mm 400 < x <  800 mm 200 < x <  400 mm 100 < x <...
Microcatchment Macrocatchment Floodwater harvesting Types of run-off farming water harvesting
Small-scale rainwater harvesting (zai)
Tree planting for reforestation or land rehabilitation
Inter-row water harvesting in orchard in arid area
<ul><li>ADVANTAGE :  </li></ul><ul><li>coverage of 10-15 ha / day </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGE : </li></ul><ul><li>high ...
 
Mechanized runoff farming
<ul><li>Rainwater harvesting or conservation  </li></ul><ul><li>Very small scale  </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale </li></ul>...
Keita project Niger
Keita project Niger
1 3 1 3 2 Example: Keita (Niger) 2
Characteristics of run-off farming techniques <ul><li>Oriented towards increased agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Contributes to increased recharge of groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Protects and rehabilitate the environment </li>...
Rainwater management: a new green revolution ?   Thanks for your attention  Merci pour votre attention Obrigado
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  • Transcript of "Nico Van Leeuwen Ppt"

    1. 1. Rainwater Management for Increased Agricultural production Centre of African Studies – Porto- Portugal 2 – 3 October 2008 CONFERENCE ON WATER IN AFRICA SESSION ON WATER AND AGRICULTURE Nico van Leeuwen
    2. 2. <ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Food for all ? </li></ul><ul><li>Key role of water </li></ul><ul><li>Smallholder adapted technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the rainwater go ? </li></ul><ul><li>Options for management of rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. < 2.5 2.5–4 5–19 20–34 ≥ 35 No data % undernourished UNDERNOURISHMENT
    4. 4. <ul><li>UNDERNOURISHMENT IN THE WORLD </li></ul><ul><li>776 million people in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>remain undernourished </li></ul><ul><li>World Food Summit goal (1996) to reduce undernourishment to 410 million but present expectations are 610 million </li></ul><ul><li>Seven out of ten of the world's poor </li></ul><ul><li>live in rural areas and depend on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Arid zones cover 45% of the world area </li></ul>
    5. 5. < 2.5 2.5–4 5–19 20–34 ≥ 35 No data % undernourished UNDERNOURISHMENT SUB- SAHARA AFRICA
    6. 6. <ul><li>UNDERNOURISHMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN </li></ul><ul><li>AFRICA </li></ul><ul><li>SSA undernourishment rose from 200 m people in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>to 450 m today. </li></ul><ul><li>SSA population 62% in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>SSA rural poverty accounts for 90% of total poverty </li></ul><ul><li>SSA 80% of the poor depend on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>38 % of SSA is arid land </li></ul>
    7. 7. < 2.5 2.5–4 5–19 20–34 ≥ 35 No data % undernourished Undernourishment and water scarcity Sub- Sahara Africa
    8. 8. Dry land areas and rain fed agriculture Arid land: 45% of world area, 38% of Sub-Saharan Africa
    9. 9. Strong relationship between water availability and cereal production
    10. 10. <ul><li>In order to reach the World Food Summit </li></ul><ul><li>and Millennium goals </li></ul><ul><li>to reduce the number of undernourished </li></ul><ul><li>and feed the world population expected to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase by 30% over the next 30 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>world food production should </li></ul><ul><li>be increased by 50 % in 2030 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Some realities: <ul><li>The green revolution is slowing down </li></ul><ul><li>Serious environmental problems are appearing </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in agriculture and irrigation has </li></ul><ul><li>been reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater resources are dangerously low in </li></ul><ul><li>many countries </li></ul>
    12. 12. Arable land expansion 22 % Cropping intensity 12 % How to grow 50 % more food in 2030 Yield increase 66 %
    13. 13. <ul><li>Yield Increase : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate water supply to crops through </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation , water harvesting/runoff farming . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved seed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertiliser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Arable land expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigate dry areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand use of wetlands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water harvesting on arid lands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cropping intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand and improve irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reclamation and intensive use of wetlands </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Large irrigation projects for small number of farmers ? or Small-scale water development for a large number of farmers? <ul><li>In developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the farmers are smallholder farmers </li></ul><ul><li>practicing mainly subsistence farming </li></ul><ul><li>located largely in arid and semi-arid zones </li></ul><ul><li>or zones with erratic rainfall </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Improvement of water supply to crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accessible and affordable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to poor, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smallholder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subsistence farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most appropriate technologies for smallholder farmers: </li></ul><ul><li>Very-small-scale irrigation (with groundwater, surface water or </li></ul><ul><li>collected/stored rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>Water management in wetlands and valley bottoms </li></ul><ul><li>Management of water from rainfall. </li></ul>
    16. 16. (Rockström, Fox, Persson et Falkenmark(SIWI) RAINWATER MOVEMENTS
    17. 17. Rainwater distribution in arid areas (Rockström, Fox, Persson et Falkenmark(SIWI)
    18. 18. <ul><li>Improved use of rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent run-off </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce evaporation from soil surface </li></ul><ul><li>Keep water in the root zone en prevent deep </li></ul><ul><li>percolation </li></ul><ul><li>Options: </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater harvesting – run-off farming </li></ul>“ Rainwater that falls on my land remains on my land”
    19. 19. <ul><li>CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>No tillage </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain coverage on soil surface </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate biological functioning of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces evaporation and run-off </li></ul>Conservation agriculture only works when rainfall is sufficient
    20. 20. Small-scale conservation agriculture
    21. 21. Permanent soil coverage
    22. 22. Mechanized conservation agriculture
    23. 23. <ul><li>The collection of runoff for its productive use </li></ul><ul><li>Water applied to the crop and stored in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>profile: runoff farming </li></ul><ul><li>Water stored in a reservoir for future use : irrigation, </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic use, livestock, aquaculture, etc </li></ul>Rainwater Harvesting Run-on area = storage in the soil profile or in a reservoir Runoff area = catchment
    24. 24. Potential areas for runoff farming Source: GAEZ (FAO – IIASA, 2003) > 800 mm 400 < x < 800 mm 200 < x < 400 mm 100 < x < 200 mm < 100 mm Annual rainfall > 179 days Too wet for runoff farming > 0.65 Humid 120 – 179 days Suitable for runoff storage 0.5 – 0.65 Dry sub- humid 60 – 119 days Suitable for runoff farming 0.21 – 0.5 Semi- arid 1 – 59 days Suitable for runoff farming 0.05 – 0.2 Arid 0 day Too dry for runoff farming < 0.05 Hyper arid Length Growing Period Suitability P/ETP Zone
    25. 25. Microcatchment Macrocatchment Floodwater harvesting Types of run-off farming water harvesting
    26. 26. Small-scale rainwater harvesting (zai)
    27. 27. Tree planting for reforestation or land rehabilitation
    28. 28. Inter-row water harvesting in orchard in arid area
    29. 29. <ul><li>ADVANTAGE : </li></ul><ul><li>coverage of 10-15 ha / day </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGE : </li></ul><ul><li>high investment costs </li></ul>Microcatchments made by the “Dolphin-plough” width 0.40 m length 4 -5 m depth 0.40 m DIMENSIONS :
    30. 31. Mechanized runoff farming
    31. 32. <ul><li>Rainwater harvesting or conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Very small scale </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale </li></ul><ul><li>Keita project in Niger FAO/Italy and WFP 1984 – 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>13 000 km ² - 300,000 people living in 400 villages </li></ul><ul><li>50 artificial lakes </li></ul><ul><li>42 dams </li></ul><ul><li>65 village wells </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 ha water conservation </li></ul><ul><li>16 million trees </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure: schools, maternity centres, veterinary </li></ul><ul><li>facilities, storehouses, micro-credit, literacy courses, etc. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Keita project Niger
    33. 34. Keita project Niger
    34. 35. 1 3 1 3 2 Example: Keita (Niger) 2
    35. 36. Characteristics of run-off farming techniques <ul><li>Oriented towards increased agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risks of crop failure and encourages </li></ul><ul><li>other investments (seed, fertilizer, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively Low-Cost and high return of investment </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate benefits to farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces downstream flooding and consequent damages </li></ul><ul><li>more…… </li></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>Contributes to increased recharge of groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Protects and rehabilitate the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Combat desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Alleviates the negative impact of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>on water resources </li></ul>Characteristics of run-off farming techniques
    37. 38. Rainwater management: a new green revolution ? Thanks for your attention Merci pour votre attention Obrigado
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