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Rainwater  Management for  Poverty Reduction Eva Ludi Overseas Development  Institute  NBDC Workshop on Baselining Changes...
Overall objective of CPWF <ul><li>“ to increase the productivity of water for food and livelihoods, in a manner that is en...
Landscape <ul><li>draws attention to the critical importance of taking an integrated approach - including land, water, cro...
Rainwater Management <ul><li>Rainwater management (RWM) draws attention to the need to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capture </li...
<ul><li>Rain Water Management =  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil and water conservation (SWC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in sit...
Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Increase plant water availability Ex-situ (external) water-harves...
Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options In-situ water-harvesting systems Concentrate run-off to cropped a...
Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Evaporation management Reduce non-productive evaporation Dry plan...
Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Increase plant water uptake capacity Integrated soil and crop man...
Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Crop, tree and livestock management Increase water productivity =...
<ul><li>Successful implementation of RWM will lead to  higher productivity of water  =   more value produced per unit of w...
<ul><li>Examine the extent to which policy change and institutional strengthening and reform can combine with new technolo...
Why is RWM important for poverty reduction? <ul><li>Agricultural Water Management -> management of water for crops, agro-f...
 
 
<ul><li>Rainfed agriculture depends on timing & amount of rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>In most African countries rainfall – ...
<ul><li>Low productivity of agriculture has many underlying factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weak input and output markets <...
<ul><li>Low productivity of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>->high levels of poverty and poor health </li></ul><ul><li>-> hi...
 
How to reverse this vicious cycle? <ul><li>Most of the additional food production in the future must come from rainfed agr...
Upgrading rainfed agricultural systems <ul><li>Improving soil moisture conservation </li></ul><ul><li>where feasible suppl...
 
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Rainwater management for poverty reduction

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Presentation by Eva Ludi (ODI) at the NBDC Workshop on Baselining Changes in Planning, Implementation and Collective Action, Addis Ababa, Nov 8-11, 2010

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Rainwater management for poverty reduction

  1. 1. Rainwater Management for Poverty Reduction Eva Ludi Overseas Development Institute NBDC Workshop on Baselining Changes in Planning, Implementation and Collective Action Addis Ababa, Nov 8-11, 2010
  2. 2. Overall objective of CPWF <ul><li>“ to increase the productivity of water for food and livelihoods, in a manner that is environmentally sustainable, socially acceptable, and alleviates poverty for disadvantaged groups” </li></ul><ul><li>Nile Basin Development Challenge (BDC) focuses specifically on “improving rural livelihoods and their resilience through a landscape approach to rainwater management.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Landscape <ul><li>draws attention to the critical importance of taking an integrated approach - including land, water, crops, livestock, etc. at a watershed level </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rainwater Management <ul><li>Rainwater management (RWM) draws attention to the need to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rainfall in a way that is productive and avoids environmental degradation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Rain Water Management = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil and water conservation (SWC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in situ and ex situ rainwater harvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crop, tree and livestock management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> used for multiple purposes, both productive and domestic . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Increase plant water availability Ex-situ (external) water-harvesting systems Dry spell mitigation, protective irrigation, spring protection groundwater recharge, enable off-season irrigation, multiple water use Surface micro-dams, subsurface tanks, farm ponds, percolation dams/tanks, diversion and recharging structures
  7. 7. Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options In-situ water-harvesting systems Concentrate run-off to cropped area and/or other use Maximize rainfall infiltration Bunds, ridges, broad-beds and furrows, micro-basins, run-off strips Terracing, contour cultivation, conservation agriculture, staggered trenches
  8. 8. Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Evaporation management Reduce non-productive evaporation Dry planting (early), mulching conservation agriculture, intercropping, windbreaks, agro-forestry, early plant vigour, vegetative bunds, optimum crop geometry
  9. 9. Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Increase plant water uptake capacity Integrated soil and crop management Increase proportion of water balance flowing as productive transpiration Improved crop varieties, soil fertility, optimum crop rotation, pest control, organic matter
  10. 10. Rainwater management strategy Purpose Management options Crop, tree and livestock management Increase water productivity = more production per amount of water uptake Improved crop varieties, shade trees, better distribution of watering points for livestock
  11. 11. <ul><li>Successful implementation of RWM will lead to higher productivity of water = more value produced per unit of water consumed, while minimizing and even reversing land and water degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated rainwater management strategies combine technologies, policies and institutions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Examine the extent to which policy change and institutional strengthening and reform can combine with new technologies to spur widespread innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>micro-credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cooperative societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land tenure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collective action in communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>various roles of formal and informal institutions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Why is RWM important for poverty reduction? <ul><li>Agricultural Water Management -> management of water for crops, agro-forestry, livestock and fish </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum from full irrigation to those depending entirely on rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-saharan Africa -> most farmers depend on rainfed agriculture and most staple grains are rainfed </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Rainfed agriculture depends on timing & amount of rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>In most African countries rainfall – timing and amount – is variable and unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>High risk! </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Low productivity of agriculture has many underlying factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weak input and output markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lacking infrastructure (roads, electricity, ports, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weak institutions (e.g. land tenure security, marketing, financing, export handling, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not sufficient investments in agriculture (including R&D) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Low productivity of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>->high levels of poverty and poor health </li></ul><ul><li>-> high levels of vulnerability to shocks and stress </li></ul><ul><li>-> continuous underinvestment in sustaining the productivity of the natural resource base </li></ul>
  17. 20. How to reverse this vicious cycle? <ul><li>Most of the additional food production in the future must come from rainfed agriculture; </li></ul><ul><li>There is a huge potential for reversing the present vicious circle by investing in improved water, land and crop management in rainfed systems </li></ul>
  18. 21. Upgrading rainfed agricultural systems <ul><li>Improving soil moisture conservation </li></ul><ul><li>where feasible supplementing it with irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>in combination with improved fertility and crop management </li></ul><ul><li>-> holistic approach: including different resources (soil, water, nutrients, etc.) and different components of the agricultural system (crops, livestock, trees) </li></ul>

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