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1
MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
Dr. R. S. RANA,
Scientist(Agricultural Engineering,
HAREC,Dhaulakuan,
Distt. Sirmour(HP)
3
Water is fundamental for life and health. The
human right to water is indispensable for
leading a healthy life in human dignity. It is a
pre-requisite to the realization of all other
human rights.
-The United Nations Committee on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights,
Environment News Service, 27 Nov 02
The period 2005-2015 is the International Decade
for action ‘Water for Life’
4
Water Scarcity
Criteria
<1000 m3
per capita/year : Severely water scarce
1000 -1700m3
per capita/year : Water scarce
Status
1990 : 18 severely water scare countries (<500 m3
in 12)
2025 : 30 severely water scare countries (<500 m3
in 19)
Ref:www.fao.org/waterbudget
5
DO WE HAVE ENOUGH WATER ?
• With 2085 cubic km of fresh water India stands 7th
in the world.
• India heading towards water scarce situation
Source: Biswaas, A.K. 1998. Water Resources-Environmental Planning,
Management and Development. Pub: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company Limited , New Delhi
YEAR PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY, CU M
1947 6008
1994 2280
2025 1500
2050 1270
6
Agriculture, in India
• Share: 25% of the National GDP
15% of exports.
• Agriculture sector - largest consumer of water.
• To meet the food security, income and nutritional needs
of the projected population in 2020, the food production
in India will have to be almost doubled to 400 million
tons.
• Alone consumes 88% of water available which irrigate
38% of cultivated area (DAC, 1999).
• The overall irrigation efficiency of conventional irrigation
methods such as furrow and border has not been more
than 40% (INCID, 1994).
Virtual water for some important products
Virtual water
is the volume of water
required to produce a
commodity or service.
(Tony Allan, 1990)
By importing virtual water,
water poor countries can
relieve the pressure on their
domestic water resources.
8
If water is priced at 1 paise a liter, it costs
Rs. 1,20,000 for growing paddy in one hectare land
Paddy requires approx. 120 cm of water
Valuing Water
9
Irrigating Land
Or
Crops ?
Wasteful surface irrigation method
10
DEPLETING GROUND
WATER
Water diversion for
domestic demand
11
What is Microirrigation?What is Microirrigation?
Frequent application of small quantities
of water directly above and below the soil
surface; usually as discrete drops, continuous
drops, tiny streams, or microspray; through
emitters or applicators placed along a water
delivery line
To irrigate and fertigate the plant instead of soil
12
Moisture availability in different irrigation methods
Days
Drip method
Sprinkler method
Surface method
Wilting point (15 atm)
Field capacity (1/3 atm)
Fig.1. Moisture availability to crops in different irrigation methods
13
Types of MI SystemsTypes of MI Systems
A. Surface
• On-line drip systems
• In-line drip systems
• Micro-jets
• Micro-sprinklers
B. Subsurface drip Irrigation system
14
Controlled application
High soil water potential in root zone
Partial soil wetting
Maintain dry foliage
Use of low quality water
Energy efficient
Fertigation/ chemigation
Adoption of marginal water
Adoption to landscape irrigation
Adoption to protected crops
Attributes
15
Low water delivery rate and pressure
Precise placement of water and nutrients
Minimum application, runoff and deep percolation losses
Improves irrigation control and efficiency
Less weed growth
Improved crop yields
More crop per unit water
Advantages
16
High initial cost
Clogging
Salt accumulation in soil
Lack of microclimate
Irrigation for seed germination
Operational constraints
Limitation
17
DRIP IRRIGATION
It is the technique of slow application of
water in the form of discrete, continuous drop,
tiny stream or miniature sprays through
mechanical devices called drippers or
emitters.
18Fig 2 : A general layout of drip irrigation system
19
Water distribution under point source
20
6 x 8LPH
2½-3ft 2ft
Online dripper placement
Wetting Pattern
Plant
21
Double lateral wetting pattern
8 x 4LPH
Plant
Wetting Pattern
22
Sr.No State Up to 2005-06 (ha) 2006-07 (ha) Total (ha)
1 Maharashtra 219696 51597 271293
2 Andhra Pradesh 152227 66258 218485
3 Karnataka 114304 21679 135983
4 TamilNadu 116665 12241 128906
5 Gujarat 16686 38314 55000
6 Rajasthan 10025 2653 12678
7 Kerala 10559 848 11407
8 Madhya Pradesh 6483 2751 9234
9 Uttar Pradesh 4609 1633 6242
10 Punjab 4262 1141 5403
11 Haryana 4219 1068 5287
12 Orissa 2036 429 2465
13 Chattisgarh 1979 0 1979
14 Goa 740 8 748
Total 664490 200620 865110
Table 2: STATUS OF DRIP IRRIGATION COVERAGE IN INDIA
Gujarat 2007-08 45,000 ha Total= 100000 ha
23
Sr.
No.
Country Irrigated
area
(M ha)
Area under Microirrigation (M ha)
Sprinkler % Drip % Total %
1 Israel 0.23 0.058 25 0.170 74 0.228 99
2 France 1.58 1.42 90 0.103 7 1.523 97
3 Russia 4.45 3.96 89 0.200 4 4.160 93
4 Saudi Arabia 1.17 0.75 64 0.198 17 0.948 81
5 Spain 3.28 0.89 27 1.172 36 2.062 63
6 USA 21.3 9.80 46 1.209 6 11.01 52
7 South Africa 1.49 0.60 40 0.178 12 0.778 52
8 Brazil 3.44 1.20 35 0.378 11 1.578 46
9 India 60.0 1.71 3 0.850 1 2.300 4
Table 1. Countries having significant areas under microirrigation
24
MICRO-SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
In this system small sprinkler like devices called
micro-sprinkler, spray water over soil surface in the
root zone at low pressure.
25
Micro-sprinkler irrigation in citrus orchard
26
Micro-sprinkler irrigation in floriculture
27
Micro sprinkler irrigation under control condition
28
Operating pressure: 1-2 bars
 Flow rate: 35-250 litres/hr
 Wetting diameter: 3-6 m
 Precipitation rate: 2-20 mm/hr
Performance Characteristics of Mirco-Jet
Ref: Pressurized Irrigation Techniques By FAO
29
Micro-jet irrigation with 1800
30
Micro-jet irrigation with 3600
31
32
Subsurface Drip irrigation
33
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is advancement over
surface drip irrigation.
Defined as application of water below the soil surface
through the emitters, with discharge rates generally in the
same range as surface drip irrigation
Indicates lateral placement below soil surface.
Subsurface Drip Irrigation
34
Reduced evaporation loss
Precise placement of water and chemicals
More efficient water and chemical use
Enhanced plant growth, crop yield and quality
Less interference with cultural operations
Reduced damage due to weed, pest and diseases
Reduced exposure of irrigation equipment to damage
No soil crusting due to irrigation
Advantages of SDI over surface drip irrigation
35
5 cm
10 cm
15 cm
20 cm
Soil Surface
Location of laterals
Fig.7: Section at X-X
R1 R2 R3
36
Depth of lateral, Z
W1,T1
W2,T2
W3,T3
W4,T4
W5,T5
D1, T1
D2, T2
D3, T3
D4, T4
D5, T5
Fig. 8: Soil wetting under SDI at different duration of water
application
Location of dripper
37
Soil wetting with different depth of placement of laterals
38
Soil wetting with 15, 10
and 5 cm depth of lateral
39
Subsurface Drip irrigation
40
Subsurface drip irrigation in cotton
41
 Micro irrigation techniques have provided an alternative to the
farming community because of its water-saving and yield
increasing potential which raises the prospect of increasing the
crop productivity.
 Different micro-irrigation methods along with mulch and proper
crop geometry increases the water use efficiency and yields of
crops by many folds.
 Micro-irrigation techniques have materialized the concept of
“more crop per drop” by insuring the availability of adequate
quantity and quality of water especially in dryland agriculture
where water is the most limiting factor in crop production.
 Subsurface drip is expected to give valuable results under dry
weather conditions and mitigate the adverse effect of water
scarcity supporting substantially good yields.
Conclusion
• In traditional agriculture,
water management
and
Nutrient Management
are
two distinct activities.
Traditional Practice of Agriculture
FERTIGATION vs. FERTILIZATION
APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTSAPPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS
Conventional pre plant
fertilizer: Plants get a larger
dosage of fertilizer than they
require at the time it is applied.
Losses occur.
Fertigation:
Fertilizers are applied
according the need for
nutrients, following the
uptake rate of the crop.
Why Fertigation?
Losses through leaching,
volatilization and runoff
Active root
zone area due
to restricted
wetted area
In broadcast or band
application 40 % of
fertilizer fall beyond
the active root zone
Soil erosion
and Run-off
Fates of
Applied
Nutrients
Immobilization
Leaching
Lattice/Chemical
fixation
Plant
removal Volatilization
Selection of
crop/ variety
Ways to
improve
efficiency
Methods of
application
Time of
application
Land and
irrigation
management
Nutrient
source
Use of
inhibitor/
modified
forms
Balance
nutrition
Integrated
use
“To be a good fertigator, a grower first needs to be a good irrigator” Clark, G.A.(1991)
1. Uniform application of fertilizer:
2. Placement in root zone;
3. Quick and convenient method:
4. Save /Increased fertilizer use efficiency:
5. Frequent application is possible:
6. Application in different grades of
fertilizers:
7. Micronutrients application:
8. Saves ground water pollution:
Fertigation
advantages
Limitation of fertigation
High initial cost:
Uneven nutrient distribution when the irrigation system is
faulty
Chemical reactions of fertilizers with calcium and
bicarbonate in water, which can lead to clogging.
Need for skilled labour/ trained hands for management
and maintenance.
Fertilizer suitability:
Suitable fertilizers for fertigation
•High nutrient content in a form readily available to
plants.
•Highly soluble at field temperature conditions.
•Fine-granule product.
•No chemical interaction between the fertilizer and
irrigation water.
•Minimum content of conditioning agent.
Pressure
Gauge Air release
Valve
Disk Filter
Hydro-Cyclone Filter
Fertilizer Pump
Disk Filter
Inlet
Outlet
Media
filter
Fertilizer
tank
Air valve
Water
Meter
(optional)
Throttle
valve
Non-return
valve Pressure
gauge
Flow Control
& Backflush
valves
Head Control UnitHead Control Unit
Disc filter
FERTILIZER INJECTION METHODSFERTILIZER INJECTION METHODS
Fertilizer tank Venturi injector Fertilizer pumps
GRAVEL FILTER
Hydro Cyclone Filter
Hydro Cyclone Filter
Leader Filter Parts – Step by Step
Filter Body
Cover
FilterElement Seal
Cap
Water/pressure
release valve
Rain water harvesting - MIS
Approximately 15-20
m head is sufficient
for getting 1.2 kg
pressure at mains
inlet
Zero energy MIS
Fertilizer tank
Filter
Water source
Over flow
outlet
Non return valve
Fertilizer tank (Flow by-pass system):
Injection pump
Fertilizer tank
Filter
Water source
Over flow
outlet
Non return valve
Fertilizer Injector Pump (Fertigation Pump)
Fertigation
Non return valve
Ventury injector
Drip + Mulch + Fertigation in brinjal
Methods of
irrigation
Water saving : 20%
Fertilizer saving : 20%
Water saving : 20%
Fertilizer saving : 20%
Methods of
irrigation
Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic mulch
+fertigation in banana
Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)
Yield 20-35
Water saving 40
Fertilizer saving 40
Early maturity 30-35 (days)
Paired row +Drip irrigation + Black plastic mulch
+ fertigation in tomato
Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)
Yield 37
Water saving 33
Fertilizer saving 40
Drip irrigation + mulch in brinjal
Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)
Yield 39
Water saving 40
Fertilizer saving 20
Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic
mulch + fertigation in okra
Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)
Yield 25
Water saving 40
Fertilizer saving 20
Paired row + Drip irrigation + plastic mulch
in bitter gourd
Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)
Yield 18
Water saving 40
Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)
Yield 40
Water saving 20
Fertilizer saving 25
Drip irrigation with black plastic mulch in rose
Sprinkler irrigation + fertigation in onion cv.
Gujarat Red
Sr. No. Crop / Variety
(Spacing: cm)
%
Water
saving
%
Yield
increase
% N
saving
1 Onion cv. Gujarat Red (15 x 20) 42 23 20
Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic
mulch + fertigation in chillies
Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)
Yield 20-45
Water saving 40-50
Fertilizer saving 20
Fertigation with micro-irrigation Systems
Drip or
Micro Jet
Pivot or
frontal
irrigation
boom
Foliar application
Sprinkler irrigation + fertigation in onion cv.
Gujarat Red
Sr. No. Crop / Variety
(Spacing: cm)
%
Water
saving
%
Yield
increase
% N
saving
1 Onion cv. Gujarat Red (15 x 20) 42 23 20
CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION
From the foregoing discussion, it can be concluded
that fertigation, a recently emerged advance technique holds
promise in yield maximization in wide spaced crops viz. cash
crops, fruits & vegetables and plantation crops. Besides
bumper yield in most of the crops, it realizes 20-40 %fertilizer
saving and 40-50% water saving as well as nutrient uptake and
better quality of produce. Adoption of this technique to a
larger extent will not only increase the crop yield but also the
fertilizer use efficiency and quality of produce. However,
extensive efforts are required for standardization of this
technique for varying crops and conditions.
Vision Values Strategy Resource Capability Motivation Feed Back =Change
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Confusion
Corruption
Diffusion
Frustration
Fatigue
Crawl
Doubt
Managing Change
96
Main canal
Branch / Distributary
Minor
97
PUMP AND
FILTRATION ROOM
CANAL
POWER LINE
PIPES + DIGGI + PUMP& PUMP ROOM +
POWER
PIPES
PINS
98
PUMP ROOM
DIGGI
CANAL
OUT LET
SUMP WELL
POWER LINE
99
Concept of PINS- Network Bridge Between Canal
and MIS in the Field
100
Sample Chak Plan Showing Layout of Buried pipe lineSample Chak Plan Showing Layout of Buried pipe line
outle
t
naka
113
Save Water
Save energy
and… save life
128
THANKSTHANKS

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Micro Irrigation Systems

  • 1. 1
  • 2. MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEMS Dr. R. S. RANA, Scientist(Agricultural Engineering, HAREC,Dhaulakuan, Distt. Sirmour(HP)
  • 3. 3 Water is fundamental for life and health. The human right to water is indispensable for leading a healthy life in human dignity. It is a pre-requisite to the realization of all other human rights. -The United Nations Committee on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights, Environment News Service, 27 Nov 02 The period 2005-2015 is the International Decade for action ‘Water for Life’
  • 4. 4 Water Scarcity Criteria <1000 m3 per capita/year : Severely water scarce 1000 -1700m3 per capita/year : Water scarce Status 1990 : 18 severely water scare countries (<500 m3 in 12) 2025 : 30 severely water scare countries (<500 m3 in 19) Ref:www.fao.org/waterbudget
  • 5. 5 DO WE HAVE ENOUGH WATER ? • With 2085 cubic km of fresh water India stands 7th in the world. • India heading towards water scarce situation Source: Biswaas, A.K. 1998. Water Resources-Environmental Planning, Management and Development. Pub: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited , New Delhi YEAR PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY, CU M 1947 6008 1994 2280 2025 1500 2050 1270
  • 6. 6 Agriculture, in India • Share: 25% of the National GDP 15% of exports. • Agriculture sector - largest consumer of water. • To meet the food security, income and nutritional needs of the projected population in 2020, the food production in India will have to be almost doubled to 400 million tons. • Alone consumes 88% of water available which irrigate 38% of cultivated area (DAC, 1999). • The overall irrigation efficiency of conventional irrigation methods such as furrow and border has not been more than 40% (INCID, 1994).
  • 7. Virtual water for some important products Virtual water is the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service. (Tony Allan, 1990) By importing virtual water, water poor countries can relieve the pressure on their domestic water resources.
  • 8. 8 If water is priced at 1 paise a liter, it costs Rs. 1,20,000 for growing paddy in one hectare land Paddy requires approx. 120 cm of water Valuing Water
  • 9. 9 Irrigating Land Or Crops ? Wasteful surface irrigation method
  • 11. 11 What is Microirrigation?What is Microirrigation? Frequent application of small quantities of water directly above and below the soil surface; usually as discrete drops, continuous drops, tiny streams, or microspray; through emitters or applicators placed along a water delivery line To irrigate and fertigate the plant instead of soil
  • 12. 12 Moisture availability in different irrigation methods Days Drip method Sprinkler method Surface method Wilting point (15 atm) Field capacity (1/3 atm) Fig.1. Moisture availability to crops in different irrigation methods
  • 13. 13 Types of MI SystemsTypes of MI Systems A. Surface • On-line drip systems • In-line drip systems • Micro-jets • Micro-sprinklers B. Subsurface drip Irrigation system
  • 14. 14 Controlled application High soil water potential in root zone Partial soil wetting Maintain dry foliage Use of low quality water Energy efficient Fertigation/ chemigation Adoption of marginal water Adoption to landscape irrigation Adoption to protected crops Attributes
  • 15. 15 Low water delivery rate and pressure Precise placement of water and nutrients Minimum application, runoff and deep percolation losses Improves irrigation control and efficiency Less weed growth Improved crop yields More crop per unit water Advantages
  • 16. 16 High initial cost Clogging Salt accumulation in soil Lack of microclimate Irrigation for seed germination Operational constraints Limitation
  • 17. 17 DRIP IRRIGATION It is the technique of slow application of water in the form of discrete, continuous drop, tiny stream or miniature sprays through mechanical devices called drippers or emitters.
  • 18. 18Fig 2 : A general layout of drip irrigation system
  • 20. 20 6 x 8LPH 2½-3ft 2ft Online dripper placement Wetting Pattern Plant
  • 21. 21 Double lateral wetting pattern 8 x 4LPH Plant Wetting Pattern
  • 22. 22 Sr.No State Up to 2005-06 (ha) 2006-07 (ha) Total (ha) 1 Maharashtra 219696 51597 271293 2 Andhra Pradesh 152227 66258 218485 3 Karnataka 114304 21679 135983 4 TamilNadu 116665 12241 128906 5 Gujarat 16686 38314 55000 6 Rajasthan 10025 2653 12678 7 Kerala 10559 848 11407 8 Madhya Pradesh 6483 2751 9234 9 Uttar Pradesh 4609 1633 6242 10 Punjab 4262 1141 5403 11 Haryana 4219 1068 5287 12 Orissa 2036 429 2465 13 Chattisgarh 1979 0 1979 14 Goa 740 8 748 Total 664490 200620 865110 Table 2: STATUS OF DRIP IRRIGATION COVERAGE IN INDIA Gujarat 2007-08 45,000 ha Total= 100000 ha
  • 23. 23 Sr. No. Country Irrigated area (M ha) Area under Microirrigation (M ha) Sprinkler % Drip % Total % 1 Israel 0.23 0.058 25 0.170 74 0.228 99 2 France 1.58 1.42 90 0.103 7 1.523 97 3 Russia 4.45 3.96 89 0.200 4 4.160 93 4 Saudi Arabia 1.17 0.75 64 0.198 17 0.948 81 5 Spain 3.28 0.89 27 1.172 36 2.062 63 6 USA 21.3 9.80 46 1.209 6 11.01 52 7 South Africa 1.49 0.60 40 0.178 12 0.778 52 8 Brazil 3.44 1.20 35 0.378 11 1.578 46 9 India 60.0 1.71 3 0.850 1 2.300 4 Table 1. Countries having significant areas under microirrigation
  • 24. 24 MICRO-SPRINKLER IRRIGATION In this system small sprinkler like devices called micro-sprinkler, spray water over soil surface in the root zone at low pressure.
  • 27. 27 Micro sprinkler irrigation under control condition
  • 28. 28 Operating pressure: 1-2 bars  Flow rate: 35-250 litres/hr  Wetting diameter: 3-6 m  Precipitation rate: 2-20 mm/hr Performance Characteristics of Mirco-Jet Ref: Pressurized Irrigation Techniques By FAO
  • 31. 31
  • 33. 33 Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is advancement over surface drip irrigation. Defined as application of water below the soil surface through the emitters, with discharge rates generally in the same range as surface drip irrigation Indicates lateral placement below soil surface. Subsurface Drip Irrigation
  • 34. 34 Reduced evaporation loss Precise placement of water and chemicals More efficient water and chemical use Enhanced plant growth, crop yield and quality Less interference with cultural operations Reduced damage due to weed, pest and diseases Reduced exposure of irrigation equipment to damage No soil crusting due to irrigation Advantages of SDI over surface drip irrigation
  • 35. 35 5 cm 10 cm 15 cm 20 cm Soil Surface Location of laterals Fig.7: Section at X-X R1 R2 R3
  • 36. 36 Depth of lateral, Z W1,T1 W2,T2 W3,T3 W4,T4 W5,T5 D1, T1 D2, T2 D3, T3 D4, T4 D5, T5 Fig. 8: Soil wetting under SDI at different duration of water application Location of dripper
  • 37. 37 Soil wetting with different depth of placement of laterals
  • 38. 38 Soil wetting with 15, 10 and 5 cm depth of lateral
  • 41. 41  Micro irrigation techniques have provided an alternative to the farming community because of its water-saving and yield increasing potential which raises the prospect of increasing the crop productivity.  Different micro-irrigation methods along with mulch and proper crop geometry increases the water use efficiency and yields of crops by many folds.  Micro-irrigation techniques have materialized the concept of “more crop per drop” by insuring the availability of adequate quantity and quality of water especially in dryland agriculture where water is the most limiting factor in crop production.  Subsurface drip is expected to give valuable results under dry weather conditions and mitigate the adverse effect of water scarcity supporting substantially good yields. Conclusion
  • 42.
  • 43. • In traditional agriculture, water management and Nutrient Management are two distinct activities. Traditional Practice of Agriculture
  • 44. FERTIGATION vs. FERTILIZATION APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTSAPPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS Conventional pre plant fertilizer: Plants get a larger dosage of fertilizer than they require at the time it is applied. Losses occur. Fertigation: Fertilizers are applied according the need for nutrients, following the uptake rate of the crop.
  • 45. Why Fertigation? Losses through leaching, volatilization and runoff Active root zone area due to restricted wetted area In broadcast or band application 40 % of fertilizer fall beyond the active root zone
  • 46. Soil erosion and Run-off Fates of Applied Nutrients Immobilization Leaching Lattice/Chemical fixation Plant removal Volatilization
  • 47. Selection of crop/ variety Ways to improve efficiency Methods of application Time of application Land and irrigation management Nutrient source Use of inhibitor/ modified forms Balance nutrition Integrated use “To be a good fertigator, a grower first needs to be a good irrigator” Clark, G.A.(1991)
  • 48.
  • 49. 1. Uniform application of fertilizer: 2. Placement in root zone; 3. Quick and convenient method: 4. Save /Increased fertilizer use efficiency: 5. Frequent application is possible: 6. Application in different grades of fertilizers: 7. Micronutrients application: 8. Saves ground water pollution: Fertigation advantages
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52. Limitation of fertigation High initial cost: Uneven nutrient distribution when the irrigation system is faulty Chemical reactions of fertilizers with calcium and bicarbonate in water, which can lead to clogging. Need for skilled labour/ trained hands for management and maintenance. Fertilizer suitability:
  • 53. Suitable fertilizers for fertigation •High nutrient content in a form readily available to plants. •Highly soluble at field temperature conditions. •Fine-granule product. •No chemical interaction between the fertilizer and irrigation water. •Minimum content of conditioning agent.
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56. Pressure Gauge Air release Valve Disk Filter Hydro-Cyclone Filter Fertilizer Pump Disk Filter Inlet Outlet
  • 57. Media filter Fertilizer tank Air valve Water Meter (optional) Throttle valve Non-return valve Pressure gauge Flow Control & Backflush valves Head Control UnitHead Control Unit Disc filter
  • 58. FERTILIZER INJECTION METHODSFERTILIZER INJECTION METHODS Fertilizer tank Venturi injector Fertilizer pumps
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 64. Leader Filter Parts – Step by Step Filter Body Cover FilterElement Seal Cap Water/pressure release valve
  • 66. Approximately 15-20 m head is sufficient for getting 1.2 kg pressure at mains inlet Zero energy MIS
  • 67. Fertilizer tank Filter Water source Over flow outlet Non return valve Fertilizer tank (Flow by-pass system):
  • 68. Injection pump Fertilizer tank Filter Water source Over flow outlet Non return valve Fertilizer Injector Pump (Fertigation Pump)
  • 71. Drip + Mulch + Fertigation in brinjal Methods of irrigation
  • 72. Water saving : 20% Fertilizer saving : 20% Water saving : 20% Fertilizer saving : 20% Methods of irrigation
  • 73. Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic mulch +fertigation in banana Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%) Yield 20-35 Water saving 40 Fertilizer saving 40 Early maturity 30-35 (days)
  • 74. Paired row +Drip irrigation + Black plastic mulch + fertigation in tomato Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%) Yield 37 Water saving 33 Fertilizer saving 40
  • 75. Drip irrigation + mulch in brinjal Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%) Yield 39 Water saving 40 Fertilizer saving 20
  • 76. Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic mulch + fertigation in okra Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%) Yield 25 Water saving 40 Fertilizer saving 20
  • 77. Paired row + Drip irrigation + plastic mulch in bitter gourd Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%) Yield 18 Water saving 40
  • 78. Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%) Yield 40 Water saving 20 Fertilizer saving 25 Drip irrigation with black plastic mulch in rose
  • 79. Sprinkler irrigation + fertigation in onion cv. Gujarat Red Sr. No. Crop / Variety (Spacing: cm) % Water saving % Yield increase % N saving 1 Onion cv. Gujarat Red (15 x 20) 42 23 20
  • 80. Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic mulch + fertigation in chillies Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%) Yield 20-45 Water saving 40-50 Fertilizer saving 20
  • 81. Fertigation with micro-irrigation Systems Drip or Micro Jet Pivot or frontal irrigation boom Foliar application
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85. Sprinkler irrigation + fertigation in onion cv. Gujarat Red Sr. No. Crop / Variety (Spacing: cm) % Water saving % Yield increase % N saving 1 Onion cv. Gujarat Red (15 x 20) 42 23 20
  • 86.
  • 87. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION From the foregoing discussion, it can be concluded that fertigation, a recently emerged advance technique holds promise in yield maximization in wide spaced crops viz. cash crops, fruits & vegetables and plantation crops. Besides bumper yield in most of the crops, it realizes 20-40 %fertilizer saving and 40-50% water saving as well as nutrient uptake and better quality of produce. Adoption of this technique to a larger extent will not only increase the crop yield but also the fertilizer use efficiency and quality of produce. However, extensive efforts are required for standardization of this technique for varying crops and conditions.
  • 88. Vision Values Strategy Resource Capability Motivation Feed Back =Change = = = = = = = Confusion Corruption Diffusion Frustration Fatigue Crawl Doubt Managing Change
  • 89.
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  • 96. 96 Main canal Branch / Distributary Minor
  • 97. 97 PUMP AND FILTRATION ROOM CANAL POWER LINE PIPES + DIGGI + PUMP& PUMP ROOM + POWER PIPES PINS
  • 99. 99 Concept of PINS- Network Bridge Between Canal and MIS in the Field
  • 100. 100 Sample Chak Plan Showing Layout of Buried pipe lineSample Chak Plan Showing Layout of Buried pipe line outle t naka
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