Chapter 18   Classification
 
18 – 1 Finding Order in Diversity
<ul><li>Evolution has lead to a staggering variety or organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Biologists have identified and named abo...
Taxonomy   <ul><li>The science of classifying and naming organisms </li></ul>
Assigning Scientific Names   <ul><li>By the 18th century, European scientists recognized that referring to organisms by co...
Mountain Lion
Cougar
Puma
Panther
Early Efforts at Naming Organisms <ul><li>First attempts at standard scientific names often described physical characteris...
Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus (18th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish Botanist </li></ul><ul><li>Develop...
Binomial Nomenclature   <ul><li>Two word naming system </li></ul>
Rules for Binomial Nomenclature   <ul><li>Written in  italics </li></ul><ul><li>First word is capitalized </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>The name often tells you something about the species </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Tyranosaurus Rex  </li></ul><ul><li>Ty...
 
Taxon (taxonomic category)   <ul><li>A group or level of organization </li></ul>
 
Linnaeus’s system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul...
Mnemonic Device <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li...
 
18 -2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
Problems with Traditional Classification  <ul><li>Sometimes, due to convergent Evolution organisms that are quite differen...
 
Evolutionary Classification   <ul><li>Darwin’s theory of evolution changed the entire way that biologists thought about cl...
Classification Using Cladograms <ul><li>Many biologists now prefer a method called  cladistic analysis </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Derived characteristics   <ul><li>Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members </...
Cladograms <ul><li>Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms </li></ul>
 
Similarities in DNA and RNA <ul><li>Suppose you were trying to compare diverse organisms such as yeast and humans </li></u...
Molecular Clocks <ul><li>Use DNA comparison to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independent...
Molecular Clocks <ul><li>Mutations happen all the time at about the same rate </li></ul><ul><li>A comparison of DNA sequen...
 
18 -3 Kingdoms and Domains
<ul><li>In taxonomy, as in all areas of science, ideas and models change as new information arises, some explanations have...
The Tree of Life Evolves <ul><li>Before Linnaeus’s time, the only two Kingdoms that existed were  Plants and Animals </li>...
The Old 5 Kingdom System <ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protist </li><...
<ul><li>In recent years, as evidence about microorganisms continued to accumulate, biologists come to recognize that the M...
The New 6 Kingdom System <ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protist </li><...
 
The Three Domain System <ul><li>Molecular analysis has given rise to a new taxonomic category that is now recognized by ma...
Domain   <ul><li>Larger than a kingdom </li></ul>
3 Domains <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>2. Archaea </li></ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria </li...
Domain Bacteria <ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic  - no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles </li></ul><u...
 
 
 
Petri   dish Agar Bacteria Colonies
What is this used for?
 
Domain Archaea <ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Live in extreme...
<ul><li>Acidophiles – live in acidic environments </li></ul><ul><li>Thermophiles – can tolerate hot temperatures 50 – 110 ...
Acidophiles
Thermophile
Halophile
Domain Eukarya <ul><li>Consists of all organisms that have a nucleus </li></ul>
Protista <ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic – has a nucleus, and membrane bou...
Plant like Protists <ul><li>Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic – can make their own food </li></ul>
Euglenas Flagella
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Red tide </li></ul>
Green Algae
Red Algae
Brown Algae
Animal like Protists <ul><li>Protozoans </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic – can’t make their own food </li></ul>
 
 
 
Fungus like Protists <ul><li>Slime molds, water molds </li></ul><ul><li>Decompose their food </li></ul>
 
Fungi <ul><li>Mostly multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Mushroom, yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls </li></ul>
Fungi <ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on  decaying organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete digestive enzymes ...
Spores <ul><li>Reproductive cells that form new organisms without fertilization </li></ul>
Many are used in medicine <ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Anti rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Anti viral </li></ul>
Penicillium
Plantae <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic autotrophs – make their own food by photosynthesis </li></u...
Animalia <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>No cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Most move...
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Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 18 Classification
  2. 3. 18 – 1 Finding Order in Diversity
  3. 4. <ul><li>Evolution has lead to a staggering variety or organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Biologists have identified and named about 1.5 million species so far </li></ul><ul><li>They estimate anywhere between 2 and 100 million additional species have yet to be discovered </li></ul>
  4. 5. Taxonomy <ul><li>The science of classifying and naming organisms </li></ul>
  5. 6. Assigning Scientific Names <ul><li>By the 18th century, European scientists recognized that referring to organisms by common names was confusing </li></ul><ul><li>Common names vary among regions within a country </li></ul>
  6. 7. Mountain Lion
  7. 8. Cougar
  8. 9. Puma
  9. 10. Panther
  10. 11. Early Efforts at Naming Organisms <ul><li>First attempts at standard scientific names often described physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, these names could be 20 words long! </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) The English translation of the scientific name of a particular tree might be “Oak with deeply divided leaves that have no hairs on their undersides and no teeth around their edges.” </li></ul>
  11. 12. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus (18th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish Botanist </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a system for naming organisms </li></ul>
  12. 13. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Two word naming system </li></ul>
  13. 14. Rules for Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Written in italics </li></ul><ul><li>First word is capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Second word is lowercased </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) </li></ul><ul><li>Genus species </li></ul><ul><li>Genus species </li></ul><ul><li>G. species </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The name often tells you something about the species </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Tyranosaurus Rex </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrant Lizard King </li></ul>
  15. 17. Taxon (taxonomic category) <ul><li>A group or level of organization </li></ul>
  16. 19. Linnaeus’s system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>species </li></ul>Largest / Least Specific Smallest / Most Specific
  17. 20. Mnemonic Device <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>species </li></ul><ul><li>King </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip </li></ul><ul><li>Came </li></ul><ul><li>Over </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><li>Soup </li></ul>
  18. 22. 18 -2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  19. 23. Problems with Traditional Classification <ul><li>Sometimes, due to convergent Evolution organisms that are quite different from each other evolve similar body structures </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Crab, limpet, barnacle </li></ul>
  20. 25. Evolutionary Classification <ul><li>Darwin’s theory of evolution changed the entire way that biologists thought about classification </li></ul><ul><li>Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent , not just physical similarities </li></ul>
  21. 26. Classification Using Cladograms <ul><li>Many biologists now prefer a method called cladistic analysis </li></ul><ul><li>This method of classification identifies and considers only those characteristics that arise as lineages evolve over time </li></ul>
  22. 27. Derived characteristics <ul><li>Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members </li></ul>
  23. 28. Cladograms <ul><li>Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms </li></ul>
  24. 30. Similarities in DNA and RNA <ul><li>Suppose you were trying to compare diverse organisms such as yeast and humans </li></ul><ul><li>It wouldn’t make sense to try to classify anatomical similarities </li></ul><ul><li>The genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level </li></ul><ul><li>These similarities can be used as criteria to help determine classification </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Myosin in humans & yeast </li></ul>
  25. 31. Molecular Clocks <ul><li>Use DNA comparison to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently </li></ul>
  26. 32. Molecular Clocks <ul><li>Mutations happen all the time at about the same rate </li></ul><ul><li>A comparison of DNA sequences in two species can reveal how dissimilar the genes are </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of dissimilarity is an indication of how long ago the two species shared a common ancestor </li></ul>
  27. 34. 18 -3 Kingdoms and Domains
  28. 35. <ul><li>In taxonomy, as in all areas of science, ideas and models change as new information arises, some explanations have been discarded altogether, whereas others such as Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, have been upheld </li></ul><ul><li>So it should not be surprising that since the 1800’s, the tree of life has been revised and edited since the discovery of all this new information </li></ul>
  29. 36. The Tree of Life Evolves <ul><li>Before Linnaeus’s time, the only two Kingdoms that existed were Plants and Animals </li></ul><ul><li>As scientists discovered new organisms that didn’t fit into the plant or animal category, they made a new category </li></ul>
  30. 37. The Old 5 Kingdom System <ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protist </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul>
  31. 38. <ul><li>In recent years, as evidence about microorganisms continued to accumulate, biologists come to recognize that the Monera were composed of two distinct groups </li></ul>
  32. 39. The New 6 Kingdom System <ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protist </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria </li></ul>
  33. 41. The Three Domain System <ul><li>Molecular analysis has given rise to a new taxonomic category that is now recognized by many scientists </li></ul>
  34. 42. Domain <ul><li>Larger than a kingdom </li></ul>
  35. 43. 3 Domains <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>2. Archaea </li></ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><li>3. Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Protists, fungi, plants, animals </li></ul><ul><li>(Everything with a nucleus) </li></ul>
  36. 44. Domain Bacteria <ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic - no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Thick walls (containing peptigoglycan) </li></ul><ul><li>Free living and parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>Important decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>Some photosynthesize </li></ul><ul><li>Some don’t need oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anerobic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some need oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic </li></ul></ul>
  37. 48. Petri dish Agar Bacteria Colonies
  38. 49. What is this used for?
  39. 51. Domain Archaea <ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Live in extreme environments </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) volcanic hotsprings, brine pools, black organic mud without oxygen </li></ul>
  40. 52. <ul><li>Acidophiles – live in acidic environments </li></ul><ul><li>Thermophiles – can tolerate hot temperatures 50 – 110 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Halophiles – can stand extreme concentrations of NaCl </li></ul><ul><li>Methanogens – Produce methane CO 2 + H  CH 4 </li></ul>
  41. 53. Acidophiles
  42. 54. Thermophile
  43. 55. Halophile
  44. 56. Domain Eukarya <ul><li>Consists of all organisms that have a nucleus </li></ul>
  45. 57. Protista <ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic – has a nucleus, and membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be classified as animals, plants or fungi, but share many characteristics with plants, animals and fungi </li></ul>
  46. 58. Plant like Protists <ul><li>Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic – can make their own food </li></ul>
  47. 59. Euglenas Flagella
  48. 60. Diatoms
  49. 61. Dinoflagellates
  50. 62. Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Red tide </li></ul>
  51. 63. Green Algae
  52. 64. Red Algae
  53. 65. Brown Algae
  54. 66. Animal like Protists <ul><li>Protozoans </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic – can’t make their own food </li></ul>
  55. 70. Fungus like Protists <ul><li>Slime molds, water molds </li></ul><ul><li>Decompose their food </li></ul>
  56. 72. Fungi <ul><li>Mostly multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Mushroom, yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls </li></ul>
  57. 73. Fungi <ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on decaying organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete digestive enzymes into food source then </li></ul><ul><li>Spread and reproduce by spores </li></ul>
  58. 74. Spores <ul><li>Reproductive cells that form new organisms without fertilization </li></ul>
  59. 75. Many are used in medicine <ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Anti rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Anti viral </li></ul>
  60. 76. Penicillium
  61. 77. Plantae <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic autotrophs – make their own food by photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Non-motile </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls (cellulose) </li></ul>
  62. 78. Animalia <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>No cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Most move </li></ul><ul><li>Incredible diversity </li></ul>

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