Presentation based on our evolution starting at the Middle Ages. Based on events and innovations that have impacted our future development. And some ideas around what we can look forward to in the future
Today I am going to talk about the past 2000 years, start at the middle ages and move through history hopefully looking at defining influences and events that have occurred which effect our lives today and the predictions for the future. I have tried where possible to relate this back to business practices as much as I could
Start our journey through history with the middle agesMiddle Ages – From the 2nd century most of Europe was dominated by the Romans – In 285 the empire was split into Eastern & Western RomeMilitary expenses increased steadily during the 4th century, and Rome’s neighbours became restless and increasingly powerful. Tribes who previously had contact with the Romans as trading partners, rivals, or mercenaries had sought entrance to the empire and access to its wealth Diocletian’s (WesternRomesemporer) reforms had created a strong governmental bureaucracy, reformed taxation, and strengthened the armysTart:The Romans - Already building a strong economy, technology and engineering was what we still use today as our fundamental foundations for example aquaducts, Engineering and architecture.The western Roman Empire was governed by an emperor who sustained an army and dominance in Western Europe!
DARK Ages: 410 – Fall of the Western Roman empire –a Barbarian previously employed by the empire was refused promotion and revolted against Rome. He was banished and went and built his own army – The Visigoths . He didn’t attack Rome in the usual way by wading his way in and starting a war. Instead…For 2 years he starved Rome from within until the emperor gave in and opened the gates of Rome. From this point onwards Western Europe suffered years of bloodshed with barbarians fighting and overtaking various parts of europe.
The social effects of the fracture of the Roman state were manifold. Cities and merchants lost the economic benefits of safe conditions for trade and manufacture, and intellectual development suffered from the loss of a unified cultural and educational environmentThe breakdown this society was huge. The patchwork of petty rulers was incapable of supporting the depth of civic infrastructure required to maintain libraries, public baths, arenas, and major educational institutions. Any new building was on a far smaller scale than before.
Amongst the bloodshed and constant wars a new savior emerged – Jesus Christ & the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was the major unifying cultural influence, preserving its selection from Latin learning, maintaining the art of writing, and a centralized administration through its network of bishops
. The High Middle Ages saw an explosion in population. 12th & 13th century saw an increase in the rate of new inventions. The population flowed into towns, sought conquests abroad, bringing with it the introduction of gunpowder, silk & the compass from the East.innovations changed traditional means of production, and spurred economic growth. The period saw major technological advances, including the invention of cannon, spectacles There were also great improvements to ships and the clock. The latter advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration.
1300’s to 1600’sBest known for cultural achievements such as book collecting, many famous poets come from this time as well as artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael and Da Vinci. Famous Architectures such as St Peters Basilica were built in this timeNorthern states of Italy became richer as main trade routes passed through Pisa & Venice.Luxury goods were bought through these channels and resold through the rest of Europe – these include Spices, & DyesMiddle states thrived through agricultural development. Surpluses were earned through extensive trade routes – this surplus money was used to invest in Argriculture & Mining industries. People started to see higher earnings and hence born the term the middle classes. This growth created a class of bankers, merchants and skilled artisansThe word renaissance (Rinascimento in Italian) means “rebirth”, and the era is best known for the renewed interest in the culture of classical antiquity after the period that Renaissance humanistslabelled the Dark Ages. These changes, while significant, were concentrated in the elite, and for the vast majority of the population life was little changed from the Middle Ages.
In the thirteenth century, much of Europe experienced strong economic growth. The trade routes – created a commercial infrastructure & EconomySaw principles of things like – foreign exchange, banking, accounting practices, stock companies, & government debtFlorence became the centre of the finance industry with the Gold florin the main currency for international trade
From the 18th century onwards. This age can be defined by a change in the value system.Ppl started questioning traditional institutions, customs and moralsThe start varies, some say it started as a result of Britain's glorious revolution in 1688 whereby King James II of England was overthrown by the union of Parliamentarians who invaded England led by William of Orange. This is the first historical time we see Protestant believers fighting against Catholics. Also the formation of the tories, which are still at large today in the form of the conservative party in the UK.
Examples are the publication of Isaac NewtonsPrinicpaMathematica. States newtons law of motion forming foundation of classical mechanics and law of universal gravitation.This was seen as the most important works in history of science which shed light on Maths on a science which upto this point was only hypothetical. The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society. On a cultural level saw the inception of Academies, Book industries, natural history, journals. Coffeehouses, debating societies,
Industrial Revolution18th & 19th centuryMajor changes in agricultural, manufacturing, mining & transport. Its affects on socio economic & cultural conditions starting in the UK and spreading to Europe, USAStarted in the UK where manual labor and a draft animal based economy moved towards machine based manufacturing. Examples include:Mechanization of textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques, Increase in the use of refined coalTrade expansions enabled improvements on roads, & railwaysIntroduction of steam power fuelled by coal, wider utilisation of water wheels & powered machinery which increased production capacity
The first Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation. In 1850 saw a second ind revolution Technological & economic progress saw the development of steam powered ships, railways & later in 19th century – electrical generationGDP per capita was stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy.CausesNational border controls were more effective – decreasing diseaseLarger workforces because children lived past infancyThe Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, forcing the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry, for example weaving, and in the longer term into the cities and the newly developed factoriesCreation of financial markets& move towards urbanisationBritain profited from international trade and slave labourInnovationsThe only surviving example of a Spinning Mule built by the inventor Samuel CromptonThe commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, made in the second half of the 18th century:Textiles – Cottonspinning using Richard Arkwright'swater frame, James Hargreaves's Spinning Jenny, and Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule (a combination of the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame). This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783. The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills. Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worstedyarn for various textiles and flax for linen.Steam power – The improved steam engine invented by James Watt was initially mainly used for pumping out mines, but from the 1780s was applied to power machines. This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available.Iron founding – In the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal. This had been achieved much earlier for lead and copper as well as for producing pig iron in a blast furnace, but the second stage in the production of bar iron depended on the use of potting and stamping (for which a patent expired in 1786) or puddling (patented by Henry Cort in 1783 and 1784).These represent three 'leading sectors', in which there were key innovations, which allowed the economic take off by which the Industrial Revolution is usually defined. This is not to belittle many other inventions, particularly in the textile industry. Without some earlier ones, such as the spinning jenny and flying shuttle in the textile industry and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible. Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialisation of Britain. The application of steam engines to powering cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were available, rather than where there was water to power a watermill.In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton mills, factories and administration offices based in Manchester. The assembly line system greatly improved efficiency, both in this and other industries. With a series of men trained to do a single task on a product, then having it moved along to the next worker, the number of finished goods also rose significantly.Also important was the 1756 rediscovery of concrete (based on hydraulic lime mortar) by the British engineer John Smeaton, which had been lost for 13 centuries.[3Mining – coal miningChemicals – sulphuric acid – for lead chamber processGlass makingGas lightingOrganisation of labour – trade unions
Information Age – driven by two technologies in my mind – 1. The computer, 2. The internet.Man Meets machineEverything is available on the internet and we have come to depend on a screen a keyboard and a keyword, gaining as much information as possible. Me for example – I have learnt about the evolution based on the information I looked up on the internet. My only other source was a documentary on the Dark ages! That was by pure luck, otherwise all the knowledge I have gained would be from the internet!In business it has created a huge market! Would our company IS be where it is today without the information age! As Hugo would say we connect people and change lives! We connect people so that they can transfer information from one point to another! The world has become a smaller place.Can you imagine trying to arrange a meeting in the dark ages! You would have to send a messenger! It would take ages - no we use outlook to do it for us! The start of the information age:The Information Age, also commonly known as the Computer Age or Information Era, is an idea that the current age will be characterized by the ability of individuals to transfer information freely, and to have instant access to knowledge that would have been difficult or impossible to find previously. The idea is linked to the concept of a Digital Age or Digital Revolution, and carries the ramifications of a shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based around the manipulation of information. Commonly seen as an outflow from the Space Age, capitalizing on the computer microminiaturization advances of that effort, with a fuzzy transition spanning from the advent of the personal computer in the late 1970s to the emergence of the internet in the early 1990s, and the adaption of such technology by the public in the two decades after 1990. Since the invention of social media in the 2000s, the Information Age has evolved into the Attention Age according to some publications.New technologies transform our lives “by inventing new, undreamed of things andmaking them in new, undreamed of ways”, says the economist Richard Lipsey
The Attention Age is an idea that the current period of time, which overlaps and builds off of the Information Age, will be characterized by the increasing commoditization of attention as it relates to the increasing abundance of information available, particularly on the Internet. The Attention Age is marked by the ability of individuals to create and consume information instantly and freely as well as share it on the Internet using social media. The period is believed to have begun with the emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and social media in the Noughties (2000–2009).Phrase of the decade (2000 – 2010) is google it Phrase of 2009 – tweet
And what does the future hold:1.. I have subscribed to a futurist society news feed and at the end of last year they predicted what the future would hold in 2009, 2019 and 20992.. For example… I think it unimaginable to think that humans wont exist and Robots will do things for us.My question is : In 2008 our world population was 6,692,030,277 – if robots are going to do our work for us – what are we going to do! Already some futurists are predicting the next age to be a ………I agree in this sense – we don’t write any more – we type! Spell checks spelling for us! Schools are implementing computers all the time! I was only in school 10 years ago and we had 20 computers! FOR THE whole school!The next 10 years will become an era of ‘touching, pinching, scrolling and tweeting!’Even my 60 year old mother is now on Facebook, she has a touch screen mobile phone! I never thought I would see the day!Our future will be consumed by scientific experimentations, with things getting smaller and smaller and humans bigger and bigger with people living fast paced lives, we don’t eat as well as we used to and go for the quick and easy option! Or we could face another dark ages, I don’t think in the same sense because there are powers that be that wont allow that to happen, however if you look at the recent natural disasters, who can say that they have lived in a time where we have had as many earthquakes, wars, tsunami’s,. Flooding, drought!This may effect our futures and our businesses!
SOCIAL EFFECTS<br />Cities & merchants<br /><ul><li> Economic benefits of safe conditions for trade
Intellectual development due to no cultural and educational environment</li></ul>Civic Infrastructure<br /><ul><li> Petty Rulers incapable of supporting maintenance of libraries, public baths, arena’s & educational institutions</li></li></ul><li>THE SAVIOR?<br /><ul><li>Major Unifying influence