Hierarchical Classification Carolus von Linnaeus created a hierarchical classification system using seven taxonomic categories, or taxa (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species). These categories are based on shared physical characteristics, or phenotypes, within each group. Beginning with kingdom, each successive level of classification becomes more and more specific. Organisms within the same order have more in common with one another than organisms within the same class. For example, all species of bears are mammals, but not all mammals are bears. A useful pneumonic tool to help students remember the hierarchical classification system is: “ K ing P hillip C ame O ver F or G reen S oup,” with the first letter of each word representing each category, beginning with kingdom and ending with species. References Campbell, N. E. & Reece, J. B. (2002). Biology (6 th ed.). Benjamin Cummings.
Spirulina fix nitrogen Decompose organic polymers, may be used to break down oil (from spills) Lyme disease – carried by mammals and birds, transmitted by ticks to humans Many heterotrophic bacteria also cause diseases such as strep throat, rheumatic fever, cholera, gonorrhea, syphilis, and toxic shock syndrome. Bacteria can cause disease by destroying cells, releasing toxins, contaminating food, or by the reaction of the body to the infecting bacteria. Bacterial infections can be controlled by vaccinations and antibiotic treatments. Antibiotics interfere with some aspect of the replication of bacteria, and are produced by microorganisms such as fungi, that compete with bacteria for resources. Penicillin, the first antibiotic discovered, inhibits the synthesis of new cell walls in certain types of bacteria. However, the overuse of antibiotics during the past fifty years has led to natural selection favoring antibiotic resistance. There are reportedly more than 50 strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria, necessitating the development of new antibiotics and the frequent change of antibiotics in treatment.
Close up picture of dinoflagellate from this bloom
Lichen pictured is a favorite of caribou. Lacewing using lichen to camoflage (http://www.lichen.com/animals.html)
Symbiosis – 2 or more species live together in close association Mutualism = both benefit Lichen = algae + fungi Mycorrhizae – fungus + plant, fungus helps with water absorption, ion transfer; tree supplies fungus with food (carbohydrates) Lichens are a symbiosis between a photosynthetic organism (alga or cyanobacterium) and a fungus (sac or club). Mycorrhizae are fungi (usually a zygomycete or basidiomycete) symbiotic with the roots of plants. Both relationships are mutualistic : both parties benefit. Fungi provide nutrients from the substrate, the phototroph provides food. Plants with mycorrhizae grow better: the plant gets nutrients from the fungus in exchange for carbohydrates. The word "mycorrhizae" literally means "fungus-roots" and defines the close mutually beneficial relationship between specialized soil fungi (mycorrhizal fungi) and plant roots. About 95% of the world’s land plants form the mycorrhizal relationship in their native habitats. It is estimated that mycorrhizal fungal filaments explore hundreds to thousands more soil volume compared to roots alone. Benefits include: Improved nutrient and water uptake Improved root growth Improved plant growth and yield Improved disease resistance Reduced transplant shock Reduced drought stress http://www.mycorrhizae.com/WhatAreMyco.php
Gray triggerfish Oscar Yellowfin tuna Swordfish Great barracuda
Western fence lizard Short horned lizard Gila monster Arizona coral snake Desert box turtle
Biodiversity classification 2013
Biodiversity of Life: Introduction to Biological Classification S106Go toSection:
Biosphere• While the earth is huge, life is found in a very narrow layer, called the biosphere. If the earth could be shrunk to the size of an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the apples skin. Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
Biosphere• The biosphere, like the human body, is made up of systems that interact and are dependent on each other.
• Biosphere is part of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere that contains living organisms. Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
• The biosphere’s systems are called ECOSYSTEMS.• All ecosystems must have a constant source of energy (usually the sun) and cycles or systems to reuse raw materials.• Examples: water, nitrogen and carbon cycles etc. Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
BiodiversityWhat does “Diversity” mean? Diversity = Variety
BiodiversityBiodiversity is the variety of life on Earth and the essential interdependence of all living things. Diversity = Variety
Biodiversity• Biodiversity: The total number of species (est. 15 million) The variability of their genes, and The ecosystems in which they live• Extinction: The death of the last member of a species9 Estimates of 400 species/day lost worldwide
3 components of biodiversity1. Diversity of genes Chihuahuas, beagles, and rottweilers are all dogs—but theyre not the same because their genes are different. Chihuahua Beagle Rottweilers
3 components of biodiversity2. Diversity of species For example, monkeys, dragonflies, and meadow beauties are all different species.Saki Monkey Golden Skimmer Meadow Beauty
3 components of biodiversity3. Variety of Ecosystems Prairies, Ponds, and tropical rain forests are all ecosystems. Each one is different, with its own set of species living in it. Paines Prairie Florida Sand Pond Hoh Rain Forest
The Challenge• Biologists have identified and named over 15 million species so far.• They estimate that about 100 million species have yet to be identified.
Why Do We Classify Organisms?• ____________• is the branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying organisms.• Systematics– Broader science of classifying organisms based on similarity, biogeography, etc.– Systematic zoologists have three goals • To discover all species of animals • To reconstruct their evolutionary relationships • To classify animals according to their evolutionary relationships
Finding Order in Diversity • 1. Why Classify? – To study the diversity of life – To organize and name organisms • 2. Why give scientific names? – Common names are misleading jellyfish silverfish star fishGo to None of these animals are fish!Section:
Why Scientists Assign Scientific Names to Organisms Some organisms have several common This cat is names commonly known as: •Florida panther •Mountain lion Scientific name: Felis concolor •Puma Scientific name means “coat of •Cougar one color”Go toSection:
Origin of Scientific Names• By the 18th century, scientists realized that naming organisms with common names was confusing.• Scientists during this time agreed to use a single name for each species.• They used Latin and Greek languages for scientific names.
Linnaeus: The Father of Modern Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus developed system of classification – binomial nomenclature a. Two name naming system b. Gave organisms 2 names Carolus von Linnaeus Genus (noun) and species (1707-1778) (adjective) Swedish scientist who laid the foundation for modern taxonomyGo toSection:
Linnaeus: The Father of Modern Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus Rules for naming organisms 1. Written is Latin (unchanging) 2. Genus capitalized, species lowercase 3. Both names are italicized or Carolus Linnaeus underlined EX: Homo sapiens: wise / thinking manGo toSection:
Hierarchical Classification• Taxonomic categories – Kingdom King – Phylum Philip – Class Came – Order Over – Family For – Genus Green – Species Soup
Kingdoms and Domains• In the 18th century, Linnaeus originally proposed two kingdoms: Animalia and Plantae.• By the 1950s, scientists expanded the kingdom system to include five kingdoms.
The Six Kingdom System• In recent years, biologists have recognized that the Monera are composed of two distinct groups.• As a result, the kingdom Monera has now been separated into two kingdoms: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, resulting in a six- kingdom system of classification.
Classification of Living Things The three-domain system Bacteria Archaea Eukarya The six-kingdom system Archae-Eubacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia bacteria
The Three-Domain System• Scientists can group modern organisms by comparing ribosomal RNA to determine how long they have been evolving independently.• This type of molecular analysis has resulted in a new taxonomic category —the domain.
The Three Domains• The three domains, which are larger than the kingdoms, are the following:• Eukarya – protists, fungi, plants and animals• Bacteria – which corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria.• Archaea – which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria.
Modern Classification• Modern biologists group organisms into categories representing lines of evolutionary descent.• Species within a genus are more closely related to each other than to species in another genus. Genus: Felis Genus: Canis
Similarities in DNA and RNA• Scientists use similarities and differences in DNA to determine classification and evolutionary relationships.• They can sequence or “read” the information coded in DNA to compare organisms.
Hierarchical Ordering of Classification Grizzly bear Black bear Giant Red fox Abert Coral Sea star panda squirrel snake KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia As we move from the kingdom level ORDER Carnivora to the species level, more and more FAMILY Ursidae members are removed. GENUS Ursus Each level is more specific. SPECIES Ursus arctosGo toSection:
Kingdom Archaebacteria Cell Type Prokaryote Number of Cells Unicellular Nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph Location Extreme Environments Volcanoes, Deep Sea Vents, Yellowstone Hot Springs Examples Methanogens ThermophilesGo toSection:
Kingdom Eubacteria Cell Type Prokaryote Number of Cells Unicellular Nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph E. coli Examples Streptococcus, Escherichia coli (E. coli) StreptococcusGo toSection:
Bacteria and Archaea Roles in Ecosystem• Can cause disease – Lyme disease, strep throat, syphilis• Photosynthesis and oxygen production• Food source• Nutrient transfer• Decomposition Spirulina• Some oil deposits attributed to cyanobacteria
Kingdom Protista Cell Type Eukaryote Number of Cells Most Unicellular, some multicellular Paramecium Nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph Examples Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Green algae The “Junk-Drawer” Kingdom AmoebaGo toSection:
Protista – Roles in Ecosystem• Photosynthesis and oxygen production• Food source (brown, red, green algae) – Animal feed, fertilizers – Algae sheets used in some Japanese dishes – Additive to puddings, ice cream, salad dressing, candy (carrageenan and alginate)• Can cause disease – Avian malaria, human malaria, amoebic dysentery
Protista and Red Tides • Population explosion of dinoflagellates • Neurotoxin released • Shellfish concentrate toxin • Humans can be killed by eating shellfish contaminated by toxinhttp://www.redtide.whoi.edu/hab/rtphotos/noctiluca.jpg
Kingdom Fungi Cell Type Eukaryote Number of Cells Most multicelluar, some unicelluar Nutrition Heterotroph Mildew on Leaf Example Mushroom, yeast, mildew, mold Most Fungi are DECOMPOSERS MushroomGo toSection:
Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem• Food source – Mushrooms, truffles, morels – Fungal colonies in cheeses give them American chestnut, late 1800s their flavor – Beer and wine produced with yeasts• Antibiotics• Crop parasites – Cause loss of food plants, spoilage, infectious disease • Claviceps purpurea causes a crop disease called wild ergot (natural source for LSD) • Dutch elm disease and Chestnut blight Claviceps purpurea
Kingdom Plantae Ferns : Cell Type Eukaryote seedless vascular Number of Cells Multicellular Nutrition Autotroph Examples Mosses, ferns, Douglas fir: conifers, seeds in cones flowering plants Sunflowers: Mosses growing seeds in on trees flowersGo toSection:
Plants – Roles in Ecosystem American chestnut, late 1800s• Food source• Generate oxygen• Provide habitat for humans and wildlife List 3 functional roles that plants play in your life.
Kingdom Animalia Cell Type Eukaryote Bumble bee Jellyfish Number of Cells Multicellular Nutrition Heterotroph Examples Sponges, worms, insects, Sage grouse Hydra fish, mammals Poison dart frog SpongeGo toSection:
Animals – 2 main groups Invertebrates & Vertebrates
God’s Creation Day Creation Branch of Science1 Light Physics, Mathematics2 Sky Meteorology3 Oceanography, Geography, Land, water, plants Marine biology, Botany4 Sun, moon, stars Astronomy, Cosmology5 Birds and Fishes Ornithology, Ichthyology6 Land animals; man Zoology, Cytology,7 Genetics, Ecology God Rested 54
• God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.• Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array.• By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.• Genesis 1:31-Genesis 2:1-2
God’s Creation Day Creation Branch of Science1 Light Physics, Mathematics2 Sky Meteorology3 Land, water, plants Oceanography, Geography, Marine biology, Botany4 Sun, moon, stars Astronomy, Cosmology5 Birds and Fishes Ornithology, Ichthyology6 Land animals; man Zoology, Cytology,7 Genetics, Ecology God Rested 56 Very good, Completed,