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Biodiversity classification 2013


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Biodiversity classification 2013

  1. 1. Biodiversity of Life: Introduction to Biological Classification S106Go toSection:
  2. 2. Biosphere• While the earth is huge, life is found in a very narrow layer, called the biosphere. If the earth could be shrunk to the size of an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the apples skin. Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
  3. 3. Biosphere• The biosphere, like the human body, is made up of systems that interact and are dependent on each other.
  4. 4. • Biosphere is part of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere that contains living organisms. Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
  5. 5. • The biosphere’s systems are called ECOSYSTEMS.• All ecosystems must have a constant source of energy (usually the sun) and cycles or systems to reuse raw materials.• Examples: water, nitrogen and carbon cycles etc. Mader: Biology 8th Ed.
  6. 6. Ecological Levels
  7. 7. BiodiversityWhat does “Diversity” mean? Diversity = Variety
  8. 8. BiodiversityBiodiversity is the variety of life on Earth and the essential interdependence of all living things. Diversity = Variety
  9. 9. Biodiversity• Biodiversity:  The total number of species (est. 15 million)  The variability of their genes, and  The ecosystems in which they live• Extinction:  The death of the last member of a species9  Estimates of 400 species/day lost worldwide
  10. 10. 3 components of biodiversity1. Diversity of genes Chihuahuas, beagles, and rottweilers are all dogs—but theyre not the same because their genes are different. Chihuahua Beagle Rottweilers
  11. 11. 3 components of biodiversity2. Diversity of species For example, monkeys, dragonflies, and meadow beauties are all different species.Saki Monkey Golden Skimmer Meadow Beauty
  12. 12. 3 components of biodiversity3. Variety of Ecosystems Prairies, Ponds, and tropical rain forests are all ecosystems. Each one is different, with its own set of species living in it. Paines Prairie Florida Sand Pond Hoh Rain Forest
  13. 13. The Challenge• Biologists have identified and named over 15 million species so far.• They estimate that about 100 million species have yet to be identified.
  14. 14. Why Do We Classify Organisms?• ____________• is the branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying organisms.• Systematics– Broader science of classifying organisms based on similarity, biogeography, etc.– Systematic zoologists have three goals • To discover all species of animals • To reconstruct their evolutionary relationships • To classify animals according to their evolutionary relationships
  15. 15. Finding Order in Diversity • 1. Why Classify? – To study the diversity of life – To organize and name organisms • 2. Why give scientific names? – Common names are misleading jellyfish silverfish star fishGo to None of these animals are fish!Section:
  16. 16. Why Scientists Assign Scientific Names to Organisms Some organisms have several common This cat is names commonly known as: •Florida panther •Mountain lion Scientific name: Felis concolor •Puma Scientific name means “coat of •Cougar one color”Go toSection:
  17. 17. Origin of Scientific Names• By the 18th century, scientists realized that naming organisms with common names was confusing.• Scientists during this time agreed to use a single name for each species.• They used Latin and Greek languages for scientific names.
  18. 18. Linnaeus: The Father of Modern Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus developed system of classification – binomial nomenclature a. Two name naming system b. Gave organisms 2 names Carolus von Linnaeus Genus (noun) and species (1707-1778) (adjective) Swedish scientist who laid the foundation for modern taxonomyGo toSection:
  19. 19. Linnaeus: The Father of Modern Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus Rules for naming organisms 1. Written is Latin (unchanging) 2. Genus capitalized, species lowercase 3. Both names are italicized or Carolus Linnaeus underlined EX: Homo sapiens: wise / thinking manGo toSection:
  20. 20. Hierarchical Classification• Taxonomic categories – Kingdom King – Phylum Philip – Class Came – Order Over – Family For – Genus Green – Species Soup
  21. 21. Kingdoms and Domains• In the 18th century, Linnaeus originally proposed two kingdoms: Animalia and Plantae.• By the 1950s, scientists expanded the kingdom system to include five kingdoms.
  22. 22. The Five Kingdom SystemMonera bacteriaProtista Amoeba, slime mold mushrooms, yeasts, moldsFungi flowering plants, mosses, ferns,Plantae cone-bearing plants mammals, birds, insects, fishes,Animalia worms, sponges
  23. 23. The Six Kingdom System• In recent years, biologists have recognized that the Monera are composed of two distinct groups.• As a result, the kingdom Monera has now been separated into two kingdoms: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, resulting in a six- kingdom system of classification.
  24. 24. Classification of Living Things The three-domain system Bacteria Archaea Eukarya The six-kingdom system Archae-Eubacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia bacteria
  25. 25. The Three-Domain System• Scientists can group modern organisms by comparing ribosomal RNA to determine how long they have been evolving independently.• This type of molecular analysis has resulted in a new taxonomic category —the domain.
  26. 26. The Three Domains• The three domains, which are larger than the kingdoms, are the following:• Eukarya – protists, fungi, plants and animals• Bacteria – which corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria.• Archaea – which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria.
  27. 27. Modern Classification• Modern biologists group organisms into categories representing lines of evolutionary descent.• Species within a genus are more closely related to each other than to species in another genus. Genus: Felis Genus: Canis
  28. 28. Similarities in DNA and RNA• Scientists use similarities and differences in DNA to determine classification and evolutionary relationships.• They can sequence or “read” the information coded in DNA to compare organisms.
  29. 29. Hierarchical Ordering of Classification Grizzly bear Black bear Giant Red fox Abert Coral Sea star panda squirrel snake KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia As we move from the kingdom level ORDER Carnivora to the species level, more and more FAMILY Ursidae members are removed. GENUS Ursus Each level is more specific. SPECIES Ursus arctosGo toSection:
  30. 30. Kingdom Archaebacteria Cell Type Prokaryote Number of Cells Unicellular Nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph Location Extreme Environments Volcanoes, Deep Sea Vents, Yellowstone Hot Springs Examples Methanogens ThermophilesGo toSection:
  31. 31. Kingdom Eubacteria Cell Type Prokaryote Number of Cells Unicellular Nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph E. coli Examples Streptococcus, Escherichia coli (E. coli) StreptococcusGo toSection:
  32. 32. Bacteria and Archaea Roles in Ecosystem• Can cause disease – Lyme disease, strep throat, syphilis• Photosynthesis and oxygen production• Food source• Nutrient transfer• Decomposition Spirulina• Some oil deposits attributed to cyanobacteria
  33. 33. Kingdom Protista Cell Type Eukaryote Number of Cells Most Unicellular, some multicellular Paramecium Nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph Examples Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Green algae The “Junk-Drawer” Kingdom AmoebaGo toSection:
  34. 34. Protista – Roles in Ecosystem• Photosynthesis and oxygen production• Food source (brown, red, green algae) – Animal feed, fertilizers – Algae sheets used in some Japanese dishes – Additive to puddings, ice cream, salad dressing, candy (carrageenan and alginate)• Can cause disease – Avian malaria, human malaria, amoebic dysentery
  35. 35. Protista and Red Tides • Population explosion of dinoflagellates • Neurotoxin released • Shellfish concentrate toxin • Humans can be killed by eating shellfish contaminated by toxin
  36. 36. Kingdom Fungi Cell Type Eukaryote Number of Cells Most multicelluar, some unicelluar Nutrition Heterotroph Mildew on Leaf Example Mushroom, yeast, mildew, mold Most Fungi are DECOMPOSERS MushroomGo toSection:
  37. 37. Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem• Food source – Mushrooms, truffles, morels – Fungal colonies in cheeses give them American chestnut, late 1800s their flavor – Beer and wine produced with yeasts• Antibiotics• Crop parasites – Cause loss of food plants, spoilage, infectious disease • Claviceps purpurea causes a crop disease called wild ergot (natural source for LSD) • Dutch elm disease and Chestnut blight Claviceps purpurea
  38. 38. • Benefit wildlife – Food, nest sites, hiding cover Caribou feeding on lichens
  39. 39. Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem• Symbiosis - mutualism – Lichens (fungus+alga) – Mycorrhizae Lichen Mycorrhizal fungi
  40. 40. Kingdom Plantae Ferns : Cell Type Eukaryote seedless vascular Number of Cells Multicellular Nutrition Autotroph Examples Mosses, ferns, Douglas fir: conifers, seeds in cones flowering plants Sunflowers: Mosses growing seeds in on trees flowersGo toSection:
  41. 41. Plants – Roles in Ecosystem American chestnut, late 1800s• Food source• Generate oxygen• Provide habitat for humans and wildlife List 3 functional roles that plants play in your life.
  42. 42. Kingdom Animalia Cell Type Eukaryote Bumble bee Jellyfish Number of Cells Multicellular Nutrition Heterotroph Examples Sponges, worms, insects, Sage grouse Hydra fish, mammals Poison dart frog SpongeGo toSection:
  43. 43. Animals – 2 main groups Invertebrates & Vertebrates
  44. 44. Animals - Invertebrates• Phylum Porifera• Phylum Cnidaria• Phylum Mollusca• Phylum Echinodermata• Phylum Arthropoda
  45. 45. Animals - Invertebrates• Phylum Proifera – Sponges, primitive filter feeders• Phylum Cnidaria – Jellyfish, corals, sea anemones• Phylum Mollusca – Bivalves - scallops, oysters, mussels, clams – Gastropods – snails, slugs – Cephalopods – squids, octopi• Phylum Echinodermata – Sea urchins and sea stars• Phylum Arthropoda – Spiders, scorpions, crabs, shrimp, insects, millipedes, and more
  46. 46. Animals - Vertebrates• 50,000 vertebrates• 2 groups – Jawless forms (Class Agnatha) • Hagfishes, lampreys – Jawed forms – most of the animals we know • Condrichthyes – cartilaginous fishes, sharks, rays • Osteichthyes – bony fishes • Amphibia – salamanders, frogs, toads • Reptilia – snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodiles • Aves – birds • Mammalia - mammals
  47. 47. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Condrichthyes
  48. 48. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Osteichthyes
  49. 49. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Amphibia
  50. 50. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Reptilia
  51. 51. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Aves
  52. 52. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Mammalia
  53. 53. God’s Creation Day Creation Branch of Science1 Light Physics, Mathematics2 Sky Meteorology3 Oceanography, Geography, Land, water, plants Marine biology, Botany4 Sun, moon, stars Astronomy, Cosmology5 Birds and Fishes Ornithology, Ichthyology6 Land animals; man Zoology, Cytology,7 Genetics, Ecology God Rested 54
  54. 54. • God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.• Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array.• By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.• Genesis 1:31-Genesis 2:1-2
  55. 55. God’s Creation Day Creation Branch of Science1 Light Physics, Mathematics2 Sky Meteorology3 Land, water, plants Oceanography, Geography, Marine biology, Botany4 Sun, moon, stars Astronomy, Cosmology5 Birds and Fishes Ornithology, Ichthyology6 Land animals; man Zoology, Cytology,7 Genetics, Ecology God Rested 56 Very good, Completed,