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Taxonomy ppt

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Taxonomy ppt

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION Finding Order in Diversity
  2. 2. DEFINE TAXONOMY <ul><li>Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name. </li></ul>TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
  3. 3. WHY CLASSIFY? <ul><li>1. How do biologists use a classification system to study the diversity of life? </li></ul><ul><li>to name organisms and group them in a logical manner. </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHY CLASSIFY? <ul><li>2. How do taxonomists group organisms when they classify them? </li></ul><ul><li>Into groups that have biological significance. </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHY CLASSIFY? <ul><li>3. How does classification make life easier? </li></ul><ul><li>grouping things makes them easier to find and work with </li></ul><ul><li>3a. What are some things we classify? </li></ul>
  6. 6. C. ASSIGNING SCIENTIFIC NAMES <ul><li>1. Many organisms may have several different common names. </li></ul><ul><li>1a.The cougar is also known as the mountain lion, catamount, or puma …thus the need for a scientific name. </li></ul>Felis concolor Photo courtesy Texas Parks and Wildlife Department © 2004
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. A Swedish botanist named Carolus Linnaeus developed Binomial Nomenclature , a two-word naming system for naming all species on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>What do botanists </li></ul><ul><li>study? </li></ul>ASSIGNING SCIENTIFIC NAMES
  8. 8. ASSIGNING SCIENTIFIC NAMES <ul><li>2a. The first part of the scientific name is the genus. </li></ul><ul><li>This word is always written first and capitalized. </li></ul><ul><li>It appears in italics or is underlined. </li></ul>Homo sapien Ursus arctos horribilis Grizzly bear picture is reproduced with permission from WWF. © 2004 WWF- World Wide Fund For Nature (Formerly World Wildlife Fund). All Rights Reserved. www.panda.org.
  9. 9. ASSIGNING SCIENTIFIC NAMES <ul><li>2b. The second part of the scientific name is the species name. </li></ul><ul><li>This word is always written second and is not capitalized. </li></ul><ul><li>It appears in italics or is underlined. </li></ul>Homo sapien Ursus arctos horribilis
  10. 10. LINNAEUS’S SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>1. Linnaeus’ hierarchical system of classification includes seven levels called taxa. </li></ul><ul><li>They are, from largest to smallest, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species . </li></ul>
  11. 11. LINNAEUS’S SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>2. The Kingdom is the largest and most inclusive (includes) of the taxonomic categories. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Species is the smallest and least inclusive of the taxonomic categories. </li></ul>
  12. 12. LINNAEUS’S SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species . </li></ul>Place the taxa in the correct level of the pyramid. More specific More general
  13. 13. LINNAEUS’S SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>4. The more taxonomic levels that two organisms share, the more closely related they are considered to be. </li></ul>
  14. 14. LINNAEUS’S SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>What do the scientific names of the polar, grizzly and panda bears tell you about their similarity to each other? </li></ul>Ursus maritimus Ursus arctos horribilis Ailuropoda melanoleuca Pictures reproduced with permission from WWF. © 2004 WWF- World Wide Fund For Nature (Formerly World Wildlife Fund). All Rights Reserved. www.panda.org.
  15. 15. THINKING CRITICALLY M. domestica C. lupus F. domesticus Species Musca Canis Felis Genus Muscidae Canidae Felidae Family Diptera Carnivora Carnivora Order Insecta Mammalia Mammalia Class Arthropoda Chordata Chordata Phylum Animalia Animalia Animalia Kingdom Fly Wolf Cat Organism
  16. 16. THINKING CRITICALLY <ul><li>1. What type of animal is Musca domestica ? </li></ul><ul><li>2. From the table, which 2 animals are most closely related? </li></ul><ul><li>3. At what classification level does the evolutionary relationship between cats and wolves diverge (become different)? </li></ul>Animal; insect Cat and Wolf Family Level
  17. 17. E. EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>1. Biologists group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny, not just physical similarities. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define Phylogeny: The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms. </li></ul>
  18. 18. E. EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>3. Classification using Cladograms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Cladograms are diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. A phylogenic tree is a specific type of cladogram. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. E. EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Example of a phylogenic tree. </li></ul>A B C D E F Speciation: formation of two new species from one Clade or lineage TIME
  20. 20. 3. CLADOGRAMS <ul><li>c. This cladogram shows the evolutionary relationship among several vertebrates. </li></ul>Fur & Mammary Glands Jaws Lungs Claws or Nails Feathers Hagfish Fish Frog Lizard Pigeon Mouse Chimp
  21. 21. 3. CLADOGRAM <ul><li>d. Characteristics listed below the line are called derived characters (traits). </li></ul>Fur & Mammary Glands Jaws Lungs Claws or Nails Feathers Hagfish Fish Frog Lizard Pigeon Mouse Chimp
  22. 22. 3. CLADOGRAM <ul><li>e. When the derived character is above an organism, the organism lacks that derived character. </li></ul>Do hagfish have jaws? Do frogs have mammary glands? Fur & Mammary Glands Jaws Lungs Claws or Nails Feathers Hagfish Fish Frog Lizard Pigeon Mouse Chimp
  23. 23. 3. CLADOGRAM <ul><li>f. When the derived character is below the organism, the organism possesses that derived character. </li></ul>Do lizards have jaws? Do pigeons have claws or nails? Fur & Mammary Glands Jaws Lungs Claws or Nails Feathers Hagfish Fish Frog Lizard Pigeon Mouse Chimp
  24. 24. 4. VENN DIAGRAMS <ul><li>Venn Diagrams can be used to make models of a classification scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Venn diagrams show hierarchy and grouping relationships of organisms. </li></ul>A . B . C . D.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Four groups are represented by circular regions </li></ul><ul><li>Each region represents different taxonomic levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Regions that overlap, share common members. </li></ul><ul><li>Regions that do not overlap do not have common members. </li></ul>A . B . C . D.
  26. 26. <ul><li>Matching: </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Animals with backbones </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>All animals </li></ul>C B D A A . B . C . D.

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