Biological classification

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Biological classification

  1. 1. Biological Classification
  2. 2. Why classify? • Humans have developed classification systems in order to make sense of the abundant biological diversity that exists in nature.
  3. 3. Taxonomy • the science of naming organisms and assigning them to groups • Taxonomists search for previously unknown organisms, determining their relationships to known organisms, and giving them names.
  4. 4. Chordata Panthera The Biological Classification System • The system is hierarchical. – Larger groups are more general and smaller groups are more specific. – For example, the phylum Chordata includes both lions and lionfish, but the genus Panthera includes only lions.
  5. 5. The Biological Classification System • The system is phylogenetic. – It is meant to reflect the evolutionary interrelatedness among groups. – For example, the grey wolf and the dog both are placed in the genus Canis because of their close evolutionary relationship.
  6. 6. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species
  7. 7. Kingdom, Phylum…what? • An easy way to remember the classification levels: “King Philip Came Over From Great Spain” • Try to make up your own!
  8. 8. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification for the… • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species Grizzly Bear
  9. 9. Kingdom • The most general of the seven levels. • Most biologists currently recognize six different kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals
  10. 10. Phylum (plural: phyla) • Each kingdom is subdivided into smaller, more specific groups called phyla.
  11. 11. Class • Each phylum is subdivided into smaller groups called classes.
  12. 12. Order • Each class is subdivided into smaller groups called orders.
  13. 13. Family • Each order is subdivided into smaller groups called families.
  14. 14. Genus (plural: genera) • Each family is subdivided into smaller groups called genera.
  15. 15. Species • Each genus is subdivided into smaller groups called species. • The species is the most specific level of classification.
  16. 16. Scientific Names • The scientific name of an organism contains two parts—the name of the genus and the name of the species.
  17. 17. Writing Scientific Names • The rules for writing scientific names: -CAPITALIZE the first letter of the genus name. -Do not capitalize the species name. -Both names must be underlined or italicized. • Example: human = Homo sapiens
  18. 18. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification for the… • Kingdom-Animalia • Phylum-Chordata • Class-Mammalia • Order-Carnivora • Family-Felidae • Genus-Panthera • Species-leo Lion
  19. 19. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification for the… • Kingdom-Animalia • Phylum-Chordata • Class-Mammalia • Order-Primates • Family-Hominidae • Genus-Homo • Species-sapiens Huma n
  20. 20. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification for the… • Kingdom-Protista • Phylum-Sarcodina • Class-Rhizopoda • Order-Amoebida • Family-Amoebidae • Genus-Amoeba • Species-proteus Amoeba
  21. 21. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification for the… • Kingdom-Animalia • Phylum-Chordata • Class-Mammalia • Order-Carnivora • Family-Canidae • Genus-Canis • Species-familiaris Dog
  22. 22. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification for the… • Kingdom-Plantae • Phylum-Tracheophyta • Class-Anthophyta • Order-Asterales • Family-Compositae • Genus-Taraxacum • Species-officinale Dandelion
  23. 23. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification for the… • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Mammalia • Order: Xenarthra • Family: Myrmecophagidae • Genus Tamandua Collared Ant eat er
  24. 24. Assignment (Due Monday) • Find and write down all seven major levels of taxonomic classification for the organism of your choice.

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