Chemistry - Chp 3 - Scientific Measurement - Study Guide
Name _________________________________________ Date ____________________ Chapter 3 – Scientific Measurement Study Guide• Qualitative vs. Quantitative measurements• Scientific notation decimal number o Ex.) 3.45 x 10-3 o Ex.) 6.02 x 109• Decimal number scientific notation o Ex.) 450,000,000 o Ex.) .0000000045• Multiply and divide numbers in scientific notation o What are the rules? What do you do with the coefficient? What do you do with the exponent? o Ex.) (5 x 10-5) x (11 x 104) o Ex.) (8 x 106) / (4 x 103)• Add and subtract numbers in scientific notation o What are the rules? What do you do with the coefficient? What do you do with the exponent? o Ex.) (4 x 103) + (3 x 102) o Ex.) (2 x 102) – (4 x 101)• % error (know how to use the formula) o Ex.) If the observed value for a density is 0.80 g/ml and the accepted value is 0.70 g/ml, what is the percent error?
• Rules of counting significant figures o 0.078 o 798003 o 8000 o 8000.0• Know how to round calculated answers to a given number of significant figures o Ex.) Round 0.251 to 1 sig. fig.• Rules for significant figures when adding and subtracting• Rules for significant figures when multiplying and dividing• What are the fundamental units of the SI system of measurements?• SI prefixes and their meaning (Table C)• What is volume?• How does volume change with temperature?• What is the difference between mass and weight?• What are the Celsius and Kelvin scales of temperature?• How do you convert from Celsius to Kelvin or Kelvin to Celsius?
• Know how to use dimensional analysis to convert from one unit to another • What is density? • Know how to find Density using the formula • Know how to find mass given the density and volume • Know how to find volume given the mass and density • How does density change as temperature increases? Answers to example problems…1.) 0.00345 2.) 4.5 x 108 3.) 4.5 x 10-9 4.) 6,020,000,000 5.) 5.5 x 100 6.) 2 x 103 7.) 4.3 x 103 8.) 1.6 x 102 9.) 14. %10.) 2 11.) 6 12.) 1 13.) 5 14.) .3