Classification of living things


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  • Growth, with increases in size and number of cells, is part of development. Development involves many stages from conception until death.
  • Classification of living things

    1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS By JGHT Repetition is the mother of learning. Latin Proverb
    2. 2. Why do we need to classify and name living things? <ul><li>There are so many fauna and flora in the world and just like human beings we are all baptized and given names. </li></ul><ul><li>We even have full names, that is, First Name, Middle Name and Last Name. </li></ul><ul><li>This is so that we can be identified individually and know from which family tree we came from. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone classifies. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that there are over ten million different species on Earth. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Methods of classification <ul><ul><li>Numerical (1,2,3……….) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetical Order (A-Z) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetical and Numerical Order is not applicable in Biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likeness of Object (Method used in Biological Classification) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Biological classification is: <ul><ul><li>The process of grouping organisms based on similar characteristics and shared ancestry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison (similarities and differences) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to find things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to study and identify </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What then is Taxonomy? <ul><ul><li>The practice of classifying organisms is called taxonomy (Taxis means arrangement and nomos means law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biologist dealing with problems in classification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not all taxonomists agree (Texts Disagree) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b.1 Great numbers and kinds of living things </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b.2 NOT FACT ( Opinion based on Facts ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All agree that organisms with similar traits should be grouped together </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Aristotle (384 BC–322 BC) classified animal species in his work the History of Animals </li></ul><ul><li>And his pupil Theophrastus' (c. 371–c. 287 BC) wrote a parallel work on plants Historia de Plantis (Enquiry into Plants) </li></ul>HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION
    7. 7. Further subdivided into Green and doesn’t move Not Green and moves PLANTS ANIMALS
    8. 8. <ul><li>Further subdivided plants into </li></ul>SIZE HERBS SHRUB TREES Small Medium Large
    9. 9. <ul><li>Further subdivided animals into </li></ul>Water Land Air HABITAT
    10. 10. The Modern Taxonomic System <ul><li>used simple physical characteristics of organisms to identify and differentiate between different species. </li></ul><ul><li>developed a hierarchy of groups for taxonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>To distinguish different levels of similarity, each classifying group, called taxon (pl. taxa) is subdivided into other groups. </li></ul>2 kingdoms by Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) Linnaeus wrote a huge encyclopedia of life “ Systema Naturae” (system of nature), containing all living things at that time. PLANTS ( Regnum Vegetabile) ANIMALS (Regnum Animale)
    11. 11. <ul><li>At present, the Domain is the broadest category, while species is the most specific category available. </li></ul><ul><li>The taxon Domain was only introduced in 1990 by Carl Woese, as scientists reorganise things based on new discoveries and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, textbooks from the United States use a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archae, Bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>while British, Australian and Latin American textbooks may describe five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Prokayota or Monera). </li></ul>
    12. 12. Historically, the number of kingdoms in widely accepted classifications has grown from two to six. However, phylogenetic research from about 2000 onwards does not support any of the traditional systems.
    13. 13. Modern Classification <ul><li>7 Major Groups in the levels of classification </li></ul><ul><li>Their basis is on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homologus Structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common Ancestory (Evolutionary Relationships) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA and RNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many others </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Most General (Largest Group) Most Specific (Smallest Group)
    16. 16. <ul><li>Sub or Super </li></ul><ul><li> added to Levels to </li></ul><ul><li> form more groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superclass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subclass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group names come from </li></ul><ul><li> trait used to form group : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ jointed legged animals” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum Echinodermata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ spiny skin animals” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each group comes from the </li></ul><ul><li>group before it </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>The more groups </li></ul><ul><li> organisms are placed in </li></ul><ul><li> together the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More traits they have in common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More closely the organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are related </li></ul></ul>KINGDOM Animal Animal Animal Animal PHYLUM Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata CLASS Mammilia Mammilia Mammilia Mammilia ORDER Carnivora Carnivora Carnivora Carnivora FAMILY Felidae Felidae Felidae Canidae GENUS Felis Felis Panthera Canis SPECIES domesticus leo pardus lupus
    18. 18. Which two organisms are most closely related? KINGDOM Animal Animal Animal Plant PHYLUM Chordata Chordata Arthropoda Tracheophyta CLASS Mammilia Reptilia Insecta Angiospermae ORDER Primates Chelonia Diptera Fagales FAMILY Hominidae Emydidae Culicdae Fagaceae GENUS Homo Terrapene Theobaldia Quercus SPECIES sapiens carolina anulata alba
    19. 21. <ul><li>Keeping a species Unique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elephants and Blue Crabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot mate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leopard Frog eggs fertilized by a Bullfrog do not make it past youth </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><ul><li>Donkey and Horse yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a Mule? (NOT SAME SPECIES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar Bear and Alaskan Brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> can mate and produce fertile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offspring? (NOT SAME SPECIES ) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 24. Confusion in using different names in all languages
    22. 27. Roadrunner Speedea blazi Coyote Hungrais maximus
    23. 28. FIRST SECOND Genus species Capatilized Lower case Italicized or Underlined
    24. 29. Example: Felis domesticus F. domesticus
    25. 30. Latin or Greek names are understood by all taxonomists
    26. 33. <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryote – NO Nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes - Nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular – ONE Cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular – MANY Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autotroph – MAKES Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotroph – USES others for Food </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 34. <ul><li>Broadest , most inclusive taxon </li></ul><ul><li>Three domains </li></ul><ul><li>Archaea and Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) </li></ul><ul><li>Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles </li></ul>Domains
    28. 35. Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved. Sewage treatment plants, thermal vents, etc.
    29. 36. Eubacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth. Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially. Live in the intestines of animals
    30. 37. Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms <ul><li>Protista (protozoans, algae…) </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) </li></ul><ul><li>Plantae (multicellular plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Animalia (multicellular animals) </li></ul>
    31. 38. Protista <ul><li>Most are unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Some are multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Some are autotrophic , while others are heterotrophic </li></ul>
    32. 39. Fungi <ul><li>Multicellular, except yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls made of chitin </li></ul>
    33. 40. Plantae <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls made of cellulose </li></ul>
    34. 41. Animalia <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on plants or animals </li></ul>
    35. 44. Taxons <ul><li>Most genera contain a number of similar species, with the exception of Homo that only contains modern humans </li></ul><ul><li>Classification is based on evolutionary relationships </li></ul>
    36. 46. Basis for Modern Taxonomy <ul><li>Homologous structures (same structure, different function) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar embryo development </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity in DNA, RNA , or amino acid sequence of Proteins </li></ul>
    37. 47. Homologous Structures show Similarities in mammals.
    38. 48. Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos
    39. 49. Cladogram <ul><li>Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales </li></ul>
    40. 50. Primate Cladogram
    41. 52. Dichotomous Keying <ul><li>Used to identify organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics given in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism </li></ul>
    42. 53. Example of Dichotomous Key <ul><li>1a Tentacles present – Go to 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1b Tentacles absent – Go to 3 </li></ul><ul><li>2a Eight Tentacles – Octopus </li></ul><ul><li>2b More than 8 tentacles – 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3a Tentacles hang down – go to 4 </li></ul><ul><li>3b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone </li></ul><ul><li>4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5 </li></ul>
    43. 54. Weblinks <ul><li>Animal Classification Jeopardy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Animal classification game </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>A Touch of Class an interactive online Game </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Classification Millionaire </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Aliens in your neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to the principles of taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Tigons and Ligers – Interbreeding </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    44. 55. THANK YOU. <ul><li>You can download or print this for your lesson. </li></ul>