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Bio 20

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Bio 20

  1. 1. Diversity of Life
  2. 2. Why Classify? There are 1.5 million different types of living organisms We need to have a way of identifying them This is called Taxonomy Taxonomy is defined as a discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each one a universally accepted name
  3. 3. Why is this important? This animal is called a cougar, a puma, a panther, or a mountain lion And these are only its English names!
  4. 4. Past Classification Systems Ancient Man: simple classification, non-edible/edible, big/small, dangerous/safe Aristotle: first organized system, plants, animals (split into land, water, or air creatures) During the ‘Age of Discovery’ (1400s-1600s) people were bringing new plants and animals back to Europe and they needed names
  5. 5. Carolus Linnaeus: a Swedish botanist developed a two word naming system called Binomial Nomenclature
  6. 6. 1960s: As time passed and new biochemical techniques and electron microscopes were developed we were able to see more differences between species and a new proposal for a multi-Kingdom system emerged R.H. Whittaker: first proposed the Five Kingdom classification system
  7. 7. Today we still use the basic system that Linnaeus developed
  8. 8. Classification System -Species: group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring e.g. Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos
  9. 9. Genus: group of closely related species e.g. Genus Ursus contains 5 other types of bears Ursus arctos, Ursus maritimus
  10. 10. Family: group of genera that share many characteristics e.g. Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Ursus maritimus and Ursus arctos are in the same family: Ursidae
  11. 11. Order: group of similar families e.g. bears, dogs and cats are all part of the order Carnivora
  12. 12. Class: group of similar orders e.g. order Carnivora is a part of class Mammalia
  13. 13. Phylum: group of closely related classes e.g. class Mammalia is grouped with Aves, Reptilia and Amphibia into phyla Chordata
  14. 14. Kingdom: large taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla E.g. Kingdom Animalia
  15. 15. So to Re-cap We Have... Kingdom It is very important to put these in the correct order Phylum so sometimes people Class use acronyms to remember the correct Order order Family e.g King Philip Came Genus Over For Green Soup, or Species e.g. Kings Play Chess On Funny Glass Stools
  16. 16. Now that we have a classification system, which category do all these different animals fit into? When Linaeus started classifying he split organisms into 2 kingdoms: Plantae and Animalia Then in the late 1800s we added in another Kingdom: Protista, Plantae and Animalia
  17. 17. We currently use a classification system that has 5 different Kingdoms Monera Plantae Protista Animalia Fungi
  18. 18. But... Some biologists feel that in Kingdom Monera there are two distinct groups represented and then Monera is then split into two different Kingdoms called: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
  19. 19. Binomial Nomenclature Classification system in which each species is assigned a two part scientific name Names are in Latin
  20. 20. Rules of Binomial Nomenclature Genus is first and capitalized species is second and lower case both names are underlined OR are in italics
  21. 21. Felis catus
  22. 22. Spodromantis viridis
  23. 23. Homo sapiens
  24. 24. How do we decide which organism goes in which Kingdom, Class, Species Structural features are still the main source of evidence used to compare organisms. But we also use:
  25. 25. Biochemistry: compare DNA, proteins, etc. DNA is 98% the same between Humans and Chimps
  26. 26. Cytological Information: analyzing cell structures, cell organelles
  27. 27. Embryological Information: similarities between embryo development
  28. 28. Behaviour Differences: some behaviour used to differentiate species
  29. 29. Fossil Evidence: provide links with past species
  30. 30. Kingdom Monera 1. sub-kingdom- Archaebacteria unicellular, ancient bacteria prokaryotic (no nucleus) cell wall lives in harsh environments does not have peptidoglycan obtains energy as autotroph and/or heterotroph
  31. 31. 2. sub-kingdom- Eubacteria (true bacteria) unicellular, found in colonies prokaryotic has cell wall has peptidoglycan obtain energy as autotroph and/or heterotroph e.g. disease producing, cyanobacteria, Escherichia coli
  32. 32. Kingdom Protista unicellular, colonial and multicellular eukaryotic (have a nucleus) they are ‘animal’ like, ‘plant or fungi’ like or ‘bacteria’ like they obtain energy as an autotroph and heterotroph e.g. amoeba, paramecium
  33. 33. Kingdom Fungi unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic cells have cell walls like plants, made of chitin reproduce by spores all fungi are parasites or decompose obtain energy by digesting and absorbing whatever is in the ground e.g. mushrooms, mold
  34. 34. Kingdom Plantae multicellular sessile cell wall made of cellulose leaves are specialized obtain energy from sunlight through photosynthesis e.g. roses, ferns, spruce trees
  35. 35. Kingdom Animalia multicellular and motile no cell walls high level of organ and organ system organization sexual reproduction obtain energy by eating other organisms e.g. mammals, insects
  36. 36. Dichotomous Key a device than can be used to identify an unknown organism it consists of a variety of two part statements that describe the characteristics of organisms
  37. 37. Dichotomous Key for pens and pencils
  38. 38. Or it could look like this.
  39. 39. Review Taxonomy Linnaeus Kingdom, Phyla, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 5/6 Kingdoms Binomial Nomenclature Structure, biochemistry, cytological info, embryological info, behaviour, fossil Kingdoms Dichotomous Key

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