Geology
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Geology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PlotMaker Geology Blackout day presentation - 27 th June 2008 VENKAT M. QA-Minex
  • 2. GEOLOGY June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. GEO – Earth LOGUS – Speech/Study Geology – Study of earth James Hutton , the Scottish geologist, naturalist, chemist and experimental farmer, is the father of modern geology.
  • 3. Earth June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. The Crust The thin skin of Earth - 3 to 40 miles thick. The Mantle This deep layer of warm rock accounts for two-thirds of the mass of our planet. The Outer Core Made of molten iron, nickel, and other ingredients yet to be determined. Streaming at possibly one to several miles per week. The Inner Core a ball of iron alloy one-third the size of the moon in the center of earth. This metal ball is broiling hot at 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit, comparable to the surface of the sun, but it remains solid because of the enormous weight of all the rest of Earth bearing down on it.
  • 4. Earth - Magnet June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. The rotational forces of the liquid iron are reasonable for the earths magnetism. So, there is true and magnetic north due to the tilt in the axis of rotation of the earth. The angle between true and magnetic north is called Declination .
  • 5. Plate Tectonics June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
    • The Earth's surface is made up of a series of large plates (like pieces of a giant jigsaw puzzle).
    • These plates are in constant motion travelling at a few centimeters per year.
    • Convection currents beneath the plates move the plates in different directions.
    • The source of heat driving the convection currents is radioactive decay which is happening deep in the Earth.
  • 6. Plate Tectonics June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. A Small Video
  • 7. Geological Time Scale June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
    • The geological time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of Earth.
    • The vast expanse of geological time has been separated into eras, periods, and epochs.
    • Younger formations are on top and as we go down in GTS we will get the older formations and between each formation there is a unconfirmity.
  • 8. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 9. Mineral June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
    • Naturally occurring
    • Solid crystalline substance
    • Generally inorganic
    • With a specific chemical composition.
    A Founded in nature, not synthetic.
      • Formed independently of plants and animals (organic material - carbon).
    Unique combination and arrangement of atoms: can be represented with a chemical formula. Composed of atoms arranged in an orderly, repeating, 3-D array.
  • 10. Minerals June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Examples: Gold, iron, copper, salt, diamonds, feldspar, calcium, phosphorus, etc. Iron Feldspar Gold
  • 11. Rocks June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. More than one kind of mineral stuck together forms a ROCK.
  • 12. Rocks - Types June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 13. Rocks - IGNEOUS June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
    • Deep inside the Earth, rocks and minerals melt under tremendous heat. This forms magma .
    • When the magma cools back down, it hardens and forms new rocks. These rocks are called IGNEOUS rocks.
  • 14. Rocks - IGNEOUS June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 15. Rocks - IGNEOUS June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 16. Rocks - IGNEOUS June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. These BASALT columns near Fingal’s Cave form the base of the Scottish island of Staffa. The columns formed when cooling lava flows met bedrock and the region’s cold weather.
  • 17. Rocks - IGNEOUS June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Mount Rushmore - Keystone, South Dakota
  • 18. Rocks - IGNEOUS June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. BASALT – Extrusive igneous rock GRANITE – Intrusive igneous rock
  • 19. Rocks - SEDIMENTARY June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 20. Rocks - SEDIMENTARY June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 21. Rocks - SEDIMENTARY June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Sandstone Limestone Shale Conglomerate
  • 22. Rocks - SEDIMENTARY June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Bryce Canyon, Utah. The sea dried up, the sandstone was uplifted to form a vast plateau. The Paria River eroded the layers to form the spectacular scenery.
  • 23. Rocks - SEDIMENTARY June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 24. Rocks - SEDIMENTARY June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Hatshepsut Temple, Luxor, Egypt. This Temple was carved directly from the limestone cliff walls.
  • 25. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
    • When rocks are subjected to greater heat and pressure inside the Earth, they are changed into rocks which are different from the original.
    • This change occurs while the original rocks are still in a solid state.
    • Thus the new rocks formed are called metamorphic rocks.
    Meta – Change , Morphos - Shape , Metamorphic – Change in shape or form
  • 26. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 27. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 28. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 29. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Parent Rock Metamorphic Rock Granite Gneiss Shale Slate Sandstone Quartzite
  • 30. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Michelangelo's Pieta
    • Made of marble resulted from the metamorphism by heat of limestone or dolomite.
    • Usually whitish but can be found in other colours due to impurities.
  • 31. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Mt Arapiles, Australia is a world famous rock climbing site. Mountain is quartzite.
  • 32. Rocks - METAMORPHIC June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. TAJ MAHAL Finished in 1648 with Red sandstone base. Marble walls inlaid with semiprecious gems.
  • 33. Rock Cycle June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 34. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Coal is formed by the decomposition of organic (vegetable) matter under high pressure and heat. It is neither Mineral nor Rock but it’s a fossil fuel.
  • 35. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 36. Coal – Stages of Formation June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. PEAT LIGNITE BITUMINOUS ANTHRACITE
  • 37. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Geological Map of INDIA
  • 38. Strike - Dip June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
    • Strike – A horizontal line used to represent the orientation/direction/trend of the beds.
    • Dip – It is the angle from horizontal in which the beds are lying.
  • 39. Fault & Fold June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
    • Fault (def)- a break in a body of rock along which some displacement has occurred.
    • Fold (def)- a bend in a body of rock, which is generally being squeezed.
  • 40. Fault & Fold - Mechanism F O L D F A U L T
  • 41. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Fault – Normal Fault
    • Normal Faults are produced by tensional forces.
    • The upper block (Hanging wall) moves down to the lower block (Foot wall).
  • 42. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Fault – Reverse Fault
    • Reverse Faults are produced by Compressive forces.
    • The upper block (Hanging wall) moves up relative to the lower block (Foot wall).
  • 43. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Fault – Strike Fault
    • Strike Faults are produced by shearing forces.
    • The movement of the blocks is along strike direction.
  • 44. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Fault – Strike Fault San Andreas Fault, California
  • 45. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Fold – Terminology
  • 46. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Fold – Anticline Anticlines are folds where the originally horizontal strata has been folded upward, and the two limbs of the fold dip away from the hinge of the fold
  • 47. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Fold –Syncline
    • Synclines are folds where the originally horizontal strata have been folded downward, and the two limbs of the fold dip inward toward the hinge of the fold.
    • Synclines and anticlines usually occur together such that the limb of a syncline is also the limb of an anticline.
  • 48. Folds June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 49. Few more Geological Terms… June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 50. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Bedrock - The general term referring to the rock underlying other unconsolidated material, i.e. soil.
  • 51. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Sills and dykes are formed when magma intrudes into rock. Sills form where magma intrudes between layers, they run parallel to the layer. Dykes form when magma intrudes into a rock along lines of weakness such as fractures and fissures. Dykes cut beds and range in size from a few cm to several km.
  • 52. Outcrop – Any place where bedrock/seam is visible on the surface of the earth. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 53. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 54. Intrusion – A sudden appearance of different rock in the middle of other rock formation. June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc.
  • 55. Questions… Please June 3, 2009 Copyright 2007, Gemcom Software International Inc. Finally…
  • 56. VENKAT M. QA-Minex