The Settlement of the Chesapeake
Reasons for European Migrations to the Americas in the 17 c
Virginia
<ul><li>The Charter of the Virginia Company: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed to  colonists the same  rights as Englishmen...
<ul><li>Late 1606    VA Co. sends out 3 ships </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 1607    land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay. </li></u...
Jamestown Settlement, 1609
Chesapeake Bay Geographic/environmental problems??
Jamestown Fort & Settlement  Map
Jamestown Fort & Settlement (Computer Generated)
Jamestown Housing
Jamestown Settlement
Jamestown Chapel, 1611
<ul><li>1606-1607    40 people died on the voyage to the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>1609    another ship from England ...
Captain John Smith: The Right Man for the Job?? There was no talk…but dig  gold , wash  gold , refine  gold , load  gold …
Pocahontas A 1616 engraving Pocahontas “saves” Captain John Smith
English Migration:  1610-1660
River Settlement Pattern <ul><li>Large plantations [>100 acres]. </li></ul><ul><li>Widely spread apart [>5 miles]. </li></...
Jamestown Colonization Pattern: 1620-1660
High Mortality Rates <ul><li>The “Starving Time”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1607: 104 colonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By ...
“ Widowarchy” High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women  in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy ...
Chief Powhatan <ul><li>Powhatan Confederacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powhatan dominated a  few dozen small tribes  in the Jam...
Powhatan Confederacy
Powhatan Indian Village
Indian Foods
<ul><li>Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General mistrust because of different cultu...
Smith’s Portrayal  of  Native Americans
<ul><li>1614-1622   peace between Powhatans and the English. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1614 peace sealed by the marriage of P...
Powhatan Uprising of 1622
<ul><li>1644-1646    Second Anglo-Powhatan War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last effort of natives to defeat English. </li></ul>...
John Rolfe What finally made the colony prosperous??
Tobacco Plant Virginia’s  gold  and  silver .   -- John Rolfe, 1612
Early Colonial Tobacco 1618  — Virginia produces  20,000 pounds  of    tobacco. 1622  — Despite losing nearly one-third of...
Tobacco Prices:  1618-1710 Why did tobacco prices decline so precipitously?
Indentured  Servitude Headright System Indentured Contract, 1746
Indentured Servitude <ul><li>Headright System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose pas...
Richard Frethorne, Letter to His Parents (1623) Loveing and kind father and mother my most humble duty remembered to you h...
<ul><li>Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing....
Why was  1619  a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?
Virginia House of Burgesses
<ul><li>The House of Burgesses established in  1619  & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England </li></...
<ul><li>James I grew hostile to Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He hated tobacco. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He distrusted ...
English Tobacco Label <ul><li>First Africans arrived in Jamestown in  1619 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their status was not cl...
17 c  Population in the Chesapeake WHY this large increase in black popul.??
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Goods Traded with Africa
The “Middle Passage”
<ul><li>As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat. </li></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Beginning in 1662     “Slave Codes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made blacks [and their children]  property, or  chattel...
<ul><li>Late 1600s    large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little...
<ul><li>Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels resented Berkeley’s clo...
Bacon’s Rebellion:  1676
<ul><li>Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites. </li></ul><ul><li>Governor Berkeley driven f...
Governor Berkeley’s “Fault Line”
<ul><li>It exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantati...
Maryland
<ul><li>A royal charter was granted to George Calvert, Lord  Baltimore, in 1632. </li></ul><ul><li>A  proprietary  colony ...
Colonization of Maryland
St Mary’s City  (1634)
Currency in Early Maryland
<ul><li>Colonists only willing to come to MD if they received land. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists who did come received mode...
<ul><li>Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent repeat of persecution of Catholics by Pr...
MD Toleration Act,  1649
The Toleration Act of 1649 ...whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth upon any occasion of offence otherwise in...
British Colonial Settlements by 1660
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Chesapeake Colonization

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  • The Second Atlantic system was the trade of enslaved Africans by mostly British, Portuguese, French and Dutch traders. The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies and Brazil , as European nations built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. [40] Only slightly more than 3% of the enslaved people exported were traded between 1450 and 1600, 16% in the 17th century. More than half of them were exported in the 18th century, the remaining 28.5% in the 19th century. [41] Under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson , the new state of Virginia in 1778 became the first state and one of the first jurisdictions anywhere to stop the importation of slaves for sale; it made it a crime for traders to bring in slaves from out of state or from overseas for sale; migrants from other states were allowed to bring their own slaves. The new law freed all slaves brought in illegally after its passage and imposed heavy fines on violators. [102] [103] Denmark , which had been active in the slave trade, was the first country to ban the trade through legislation in 1792, which took effect in 1803. Britain banned the slave trade in 1807, imposing stiff fines for any slave found aboard a British ship ( see Slave Trade Act 1807 ). The Royal Navy , which then controlled the world&apos;s seas, moved to stop other nations from continuing the slave trade and declared that slaving was equal to piracy and was punishable by death. The United States Congress passed the Slave Trade Act of 1794 , which prohibited the building or outfitting of ships in the U.S. for use in the slave trade. In 1807 Congress, acting on the request of President Jefferson, outlawed the importation of slaves beginning on January 1, 1808, the earliest date permitted by the United States Constitution for such a ban.
  • A proprietary colony was a colony in which one or more individuals, usually land owners, remaining subject to their parent state &apos;s sanctions, retained rights that are today regarded as the privilege of the state, and in all cases eventually became so. [1] This type of indirect rule eventually fell out of favor as the colonies became established and administrative difficulties eased. The English Sovereigns sought to concentrate their power and authority and the colonies were converted to crown colonies , i.e. governed by officials appointed by the King replacing the people the King had previously appointed and under different terms
  • Chesapeake Colonization

    1. 1. The Settlement of the Chesapeake
    2. 2. Reasons for European Migrations to the Americas in the 17 c
    3. 3. Virginia
    4. 4. <ul><li>The Charter of the Virginia Company: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed to colonists the same rights as Englishmen as if they had stayed in England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This provision was incorporated into future colonists’ documents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists felt that, even in the Americas, they had the rights of Englishmen! </li></ul></ul>English Colonization
    5. 5. <ul><li>Late 1606  VA Co. sends out 3 ships </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 1607  land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked by Indians and move on. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 24, 1607  about 100 colonists [all men] land at Jamestown, along banks of James River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily defended, but swarming with disease-causing mosquitoes. </li></ul></ul>England Plants the Jamestown “Seedling”
    6. 6. Jamestown Settlement, 1609
    7. 7. Chesapeake Bay Geographic/environmental problems??
    8. 8. Jamestown Fort & Settlement Map
    9. 9. Jamestown Fort & Settlement (Computer Generated)
    10. 10. Jamestown Housing
    11. 11. Jamestown Settlement
    12. 12. Jamestown Chapel, 1611
    13. 13. <ul><li>1606-1607  40 people died on the voyage to the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>1609  another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off Bermuda. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers died by the dozens! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gentlemen” colonists would not work themselves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game in forests & fish in river uncaught. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming. </li></ul>The Jamestown Nightmare
    14. 14. Captain John Smith: The Right Man for the Job?? There was no talk…but dig gold , wash gold , refine gold , load gold …
    15. 15. Pocahontas A 1616 engraving Pocahontas “saves” Captain John Smith
    16. 16. English Migration: 1610-1660
    17. 17. River Settlement Pattern <ul><li>Large plantations [>100 acres]. </li></ul><ul><li>Widely spread apart [>5 miles]. </li></ul>Social/Economic PROBLEMS???
    18. 18. Jamestown Colonization Pattern: 1620-1660
    19. 19. High Mortality Rates <ul><li>The “Starving Time”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1607: 104 colonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By spring, 1608: 38 survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1609: 300 more immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By spring, 1610: 60 survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1624 population: 1,200 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult life expectancy: 40 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of children before age 5: 80% </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. “ Widowarchy” High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth!
    21. 21. Chief Powhatan <ul><li>Powhatan Confederacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James River area when the English arrived. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The English called all Indians in the area Powhatans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powhatan probably saw the English as allies in his struggles to control other Indian tribes in the region. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Powhatan Confederacy
    23. 23. Powhatan Indian Village
    24. 24. Indian Foods
    25. 25. <ul><li>Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General mistrust because of different cultures & languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English raided Indian food supplies during the starving times. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1610-1614  First Anglo-Powhatan War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De La Warr had orders to make war on the Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields. </li></ul></ul></ul>Culture Clash in the Chesapeake
    26. 26. Smith’s Portrayal of Native Americans
    27. 27. <ul><li>1614-1622  peace between Powhatans and the English. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1614 peace sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to Englishman John Rolfe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1622-1644  periodic attacks between Indians and settlers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1622  Indians attacked the English, killing 347 [including John Rolfe]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Co. called for a “perpetual war” against the Native Americans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raids reduced native population and drove them further westward. </li></ul></ul></ul>Culture Clash in the Chesapeake
    28. 28. Powhatan Uprising of 1622
    29. 29. <ul><li>1644-1646  Second Anglo-Powhatan War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last effort of natives to defeat English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians defeated again. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace Treaty of 1646 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed the Powhatans from their original land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas! </li></ul></ul>Culture Clash in the Chesapeake
    30. 30. John Rolfe What finally made the colony prosperous??
    31. 31. Tobacco Plant Virginia’s gold and silver . -- John Rolfe, 1612
    32. 32. Early Colonial Tobacco 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
    33. 33. Tobacco Prices: 1618-1710 Why did tobacco prices decline so precipitously?
    34. 34. Indentured Servitude Headright System Indentured Contract, 1746
    35. 35. Indentured Servitude <ul><li>Headright System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indenture Contract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-7 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised “freedom dues” [land, £] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbidden to marry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts! </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Richard Frethorne, Letter to His Parents (1623) Loveing and kind father and mother my most humble duty remembered to you hopeing in God of your good health, as I my selfe am at the makeing hereof, this is to let you understand that I your Child am in a most heavie Case by reason of the nature of the Country is such that it Causeth much sicknes [including scurvy and &quot;the bloody flux&quot;] . . . and when wee are sicke there is nothing to comfort us; for since I came out of the ship, I never at anie thing but pease, and loblollie (that is water gruell)[.] as for deare or venison I never saw anie since I came into this land there is indeed some foule, but Wee are not allowed to goe, and get yt, but must Worke hard both earelie, and late for a messe of water gruell, and a mouthfull of bread, and beife[.] a mouthfull of bread for a pennie loafe must serve for 4 men which is most pitifull if you did knowe as much as I, when people crie out day, and night, Oh that they were in England without their lymbes and would not care to loose anie lymbe to bee in England againe, yea though they beg from doore to doore. . . . I have nothing at all, no not a shirt to my backe, but two Ragges nor no Clothes, but one poore suite, nor but one paire of shooes, but one paire of stockins, but one Capp, but two bands, my Cloke is stollen by one of my owne fellowes, and to his dying hower would not tell mee what he did with it [although some friends saw the &quot;fellowe&quot; buy butter and beef from a ship, probably purchased with Frethorne's cloak]. . . . but I am not halfe a quarter so strong as I was in England, and all is for want of victualls, for I doe protest unto you, that I have eaten more in a day at home than I have allowed me here for a Weeke. . . . O that you did see may daylie and hourelie sighes, grones, and teares, and thumpes that I afford mine owne brest, and rue and Curse the time of my birth with holy Job. I thought no head had beene able to hold so much water as hath and doth dailie flow from mine eyes.
    37. 37. <ul><li>Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruinous to soil when continuously planted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chained VA’s economy to a single crop. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for cheap, abundant labor. </li></ul></ul>Virginia: “Child of Tobacco”
    38. 38. Why was 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?
    39. 39. Virginia House of Burgesses
    40. 40. <ul><li>The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over finances, militia, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 17 c , H of B was able to initiate legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>A Council appointed by royal governor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly leading planters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions like House of Lords. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members. </li></ul></ul>Growing Political Power
    41. 41. <ul><li>James I grew hostile to Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He hated tobacco. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He distrusted the House of Burgesses which he called a seminary of sedition . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1624  he revoked the charter of the bankrupt VA Company. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, VA became a royal colony, under the king’s direct control! </li></ul></ul>Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony
    42. 42. English Tobacco Label <ul><li>First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their status was not clear  perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery not that important until the end of the 17 c . </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. 17 c Population in the Chesapeake WHY this large increase in black popul.??
    44. 44. The Atlantic Slave Trade
    45. 45. Goods Traded with Africa
    46. 46. The “Middle Passage”
    47. 47. <ul><li>As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery transformed from economic to economic and racial institution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 1600s  differences between slave and servant were unclear. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white indentured servants. </li></ul>Colonial Slavery
    48. 48. <ul><li>Beginning in 1662  “Slave Codes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom. </li></ul></ul>Colonial Slavery
    49. 49. <ul><li>Late 1600s  large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little access to land or women for marriage. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1670  The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men! </li></ul>Frustrated Freemen
    50. 50. <ul><li>Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Berkley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements. </li></ul></ul></ul>Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676 Nathaniel Bacon Governor William Berkeley
    51. 51. Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676
    52. 52. <ul><li>Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites. </li></ul><ul><li>Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown. </li></ul><ul><li>They burned the capital. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels went on a rampage of plundering. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacon suddenly died of fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels. </li></ul>Bacon’s Rebellion
    53. 53. Governor Berkeley’s “Fault Line”
    54. 54. <ul><li>It exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel  BLACK SLAVES!! </li></ul>Results of Bacon’s Rebellion
    55. 55. Maryland
    56. 56. <ul><li>A royal charter was granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, in 1632. </li></ul><ul><li>A proprietary colony created in 1634. </li></ul><ul><li>A healthier location than Jamestown. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco would be the main crop. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives. </li></ul></ul>The Settlement of Maryland
    57. 57. Colonization of Maryland
    58. 58. St Mary’s City (1634)
    59. 59. Currency in Early Maryland
    60. 60. <ul><li>Colonists only willing to come to MD if they received land. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists who did come received modest farms dispersed around the Chesapeake area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between barons and farmers led to Baltimore losing proprietary rights at the end of the 17 c . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the late 1600s, black slaves began to be imported. </li></ul>A Haven for Catholics
    61. 61. <ul><li>Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent repeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High number of Protestants threatened because of overwhelming rights given to Catholics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by the Catholics in MD. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed!! </li></ul></ul>A Haven for Catholics
    62. 62. MD Toleration Act, 1649
    63. 63. The Toleration Act of 1649 ...whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth upon any occasion of offence otherwise in a reproachfull manner or way declare call or denominate any person or persons whatsoever inhabiting, residing, traficking, trading or comercing within this province or within any ports, harbours, creeks or havens to the same belonging, an Heretick, Schismatick, Idolator, Puritan, Independent Presbyterian, Antenomian, Barrowist, Roundhead, Separatist, Popish Priest, Jesuit, Jesuited Papist, Lutheran, Calvenist, Anabaptist, Brownist or any other name or term in a reproachful manner relating to matters of Religion shall for every such offence foreit and lose the sum of ten shillings Sterling or the value thereof to be levied on the goods and chattels of every such offender and offenders... and if they could not pay, they were to be &quot;publickly whipt and imprisoned without bail&quot; until &quot;he, she, or they shall satisfy the party so offended or grieved by such reproachful language....&quot;
    64. 64. British Colonial Settlements by 1660
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