Plantations in ireland


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Plantations in ireland

  1. 1. Plantations in Ireland <ul><li>What is a Plantation? </li></ul><ul><li>The English would </li></ul><ul><li>defeat an Irish clan, </li></ul><ul><li>confiscate their land, </li></ul><ul><li>drive off the native </li></ul><ul><li>people and plant the </li></ul><ul><li>land with loyal English </li></ul><ul><li>and Scottish settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Before the plantation </li></ul><ul><li>The English king considered himself </li></ul><ul><li>king of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>But, the English only controlled the </li></ul><ul><li>area around Dublin known as the Pale </li></ul><ul><li>Woodkerne (Irish soldiers) from </li></ul><ul><li>beyond the Pale attacked it </li></ul><ul><li>The Old English were disloyal </li></ul><ul><li>The Old English and Native Irish were </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul>There were 6 main reasons for the plantations of Ireland
  2. 2. Why did English Monarchs want to plant Ireland? <ul><li>To extend control over Ireland beyond the Pale </li></ul><ul><li>Because the Irish were Catholic , they might side with Catholic Spain and France against England. The reformation made them enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the Irish clans and Old English rebelled against the English, the English wanted to make Ireland loyal </li></ul><ul><li>It would be cheaper to plant Ireland with loyal settlers than have to repeatedly send armies </li></ul><ul><li>They believed the Irish were uncivilized . They believed English customs and laws were superior </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted land to enrich themselves and reward their loyal followers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Immediate cause – the O Moores and O Connors attack the Pale Immediate cause –Desmond Rebellions Munster Plantation The Fitzgeralds of Desmond Queen Elizabeth 1 Kerry, Cork, Limerick, Tipperary, Waterford (1/2 million acres Desmond Rebellion backed by the Pope and Spain Defeat and confiscation Undertakers undertake to only rent land to English Protestant settlers and protect them Spread English customs, law and religion The plantation failed Laois and Offaly O’ Moores and O’ Connors Queen Mary Tudor Queen’s County (Laois) Maryborough town King’s County (Offaly) Defeat and confiscation Only 88 families come Unable to protect the land because of low numbers The plantation failed
  4. 4. <ul><li>Laois and Offaly failed because </li></ul><ul><li>People were too scared of the O Moores & O Connors </li></ul><ul><li>They didn’t come and settle </li></ul><ul><li>Only 88 families settled </li></ul><ul><li>The new landowners had to rent to the Irish </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough settlers to protect the plantation from attack </li></ul><ul><li>The plantation failed to replace the Irish with loyal English settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Munster failed because </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough undertakers came to Ireland. Some even sold their estates and returned to England </li></ul><ul><li>Very few English came to settle so undertakers had to rent land to native Irish </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish constantly attacked the planter and drove them off </li></ul>
  5. 5. Results: Even though they failed, <ul><li>They did build plantation towns like Killarney and Tralee. These were centers of English law, language and customs </li></ul><ul><li>They introduced English farming methods and exported to England </li></ul><ul><li>The planters who survived became the new Protestant ruling class (the Protestant Ascendancy) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Munster: <ul><li>Fitzgeralds, Earls of Desmond </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents try to impose English law </li></ul><ul><li>Earl of Desmond held prisoner in London </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion in 1560s and 1570s </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscation ½ million acres </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation in estates of 4000, 6000, 8000 and 12,000 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Land given to undertakers </li></ul><ul><li>Pay rent </li></ul><ul><li>Bring in English tenants </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Protestant religion </li></ul><ul><li>After 7 years, they will be able to defend estates without help </li></ul>What happened? How was the Plantation done? Problems Not enough undertakers Too few English settlers In the 9 Years War, the plantation was overrun by the native Irish
  7. 7. <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation towns survived – centers of English law and culture </li></ul><ul><li>English farming methods </li></ul><ul><li>A new Protestant ruling class – the Protestant Ascendancy </li></ul><ul><li>Next </li></ul><ul><li>The Ulster Plantation is the most important for exams </li></ul><ul><li>It is a Special Study (as is Columbus’ Voyage & Martin Luther and the Reformation ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ulster Plantation <ul><li>Before The Plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Ulster is very Gaelic </li></ul><ul><li>Brehon law </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Irish language </li></ul><ul><li>Very little English influence </li></ul><ul><li>Hugh O Neill , Earl of Tyrone </li></ul><ul><li>Red Hugh O Donnell, Earl of Tirconnell </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat & Confiscation </li></ul><ul><li>English Adventurers seize lands </li></ul><ul><li>9 years War </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat of the Irish at the Battle of Kinsale 1607 </li></ul><ul><li>Flight of the Earls </li></ul><ul><li>James 1 declare the Earls traitors and confiscates their land </li></ul><ul><li>4 million acres in Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Derry, Fermanagh and Tyrone </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Plantation <ul><li>Who got Land? </li></ul><ul><li>Undertakers </li></ul><ul><li>Servitors </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted Irish gentlemen </li></ul><ul><li>London guilds </li></ul><ul><li>The Church of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish? </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish went into the hills, bogs and forests </li></ul><ul><li>Bandits called woodkerne or tories </li></ul><ul><li>They attacked the planters </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>Undertakers undertook (promised) to </li></ul><ul><li>Build strongholds with stone castles and enclosed bawns </li></ul><ul><li>Build a village </li></ul><ul><li>Bring loyal Protestant settlers in from Scotland and England </li></ul><ul><li>They were not to take Irish tenants </li></ul>2. Servitors were the men who’s served the king as officials or soldiers They were allowed to take Irish tenants <ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted Irish Gentlemen </li></ul><ul><li>Irish chiefs rewarded for siding with the English </li></ul><ul><li>Estates of 1000 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Twice the rent paid by undertakers </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>London Guilds </li></ul><ul><li>London Derry & Coleraine </li></ul><ul><li>Walled Plantation towns with diamond market place at center </li></ul>5. Church of Ireland Groups
  11. 11. Results of the Ulster Plantation <ul><li>Short Term </li></ul><ul><li>Success (80,000 planters) </li></ul><ul><li>English farming methods and new industries like linen lead to prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation towns like London Derry – centers of English trade, law, defense and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Results </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
  12. 12. Long Term Results <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>The dispossessed Irish become republicans </li></ul><ul><li>The planters become loyalists </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland is still part of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Scots Presbyterians and Irish Catholics dislike each other </li></ul><ul><li>This is called sectarian hatred. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics feel Irish. Protestants feel British </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation replaced the Irish language, law and customs with British </li></ul><ul><li>Today, nationalists play Irish sports, learn Irish language </li></ul><ul><li>Today, loyalists parade t celebrate the defeat of Catholics </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cromwell Plantation <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war in England </li></ul><ul><li>King Charles 1 is executed </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Protector is Oliver Cromwell </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge for the killing of Protestants during the rebellion in 1641 </li></ul><ul><li>Cromwell hated Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Irish Catholics had supported the king in the civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Cromwell needed land to pay soldiers and adventurers </li></ul>
  14. 14. What you need to know about Cromwell in Ireland <ul><li>Cromwell arrives with his army </li></ul><ul><li>His aim is to dispossess the Irish of their land </li></ul><ul><li>He passes the Act of Settlement 1652 </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic landowners who supported the king lost all their land </li></ul><ul><li>Any Catholic who couldn’t prove he’s been loyal lost all their land </li></ul><ul><li>They could go ‘To Hell or to Connacht’ </li></ul><ul><li>Their land was given to Cromwell’s soldiers and adventurers </li></ul>
  15. 15. Results <ul><li>Cromwell hoped to remove Catholics to Connacht. It didn’t work. </li></ul><ul><li>Many English adventurers sold their estates and left </li></ul><ul><li>Some soldiers married Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Only Catholic landowners moved: labourers stayed and worked for the new landowners </li></ul><ul><li>After Cromwell, over 70% of the land was in Protestant hands </li></ul>
  16. 16. Overall Results of all the Plantations <ul><li>Look back at Ireland before the Plantations (English control was in the Pale only) </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland was now firmly in English hands </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the land was in loyal English or Scottish (Protestant) hands </li></ul><ul><li>There was now a new Protestant Ascendancy who rule Ireland for the next 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>Penal Laws persecute Catholics and keep them poor </li></ul>