Th e C r is is ofA u t h o r it y Alberto Lopez Demi Caceres Brandon Alvarado Alyssa Secreto
T h e Yo u t hÒ Patterns of Social t u r e C u l and cultural protest emerged from younger Americans who were protesting: ÉThe political left ÉThe vision of “liberation”
Th e N e w L e ftÒ Young Americans who consisted of the post war baby-boom generation created a new and diverse group called the New Left.Ò The New Left- a group that consisted of college students who drew from the writings of social critics from the 1950s.Ò Inspiration for New Left drew from the Civil Rights Movement.
Th e N e w L e ft ( c o nt.)Ò In 1962 students from prestigious universities gathered in Michigan to form the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) to give voice to their demands.Ò Port Huron Statement expressed the disillusionment with the society they had inherited and their determination to build new politics.Ò SDS moved into inner city neighborhoods without success to mobilize poor, working class politically.
Fre eS peec hM o ve me nt In 1969, Turmoil at Berkeley was caused by students who challenged authorities due to them wanting to pass out literature and recruit volunteers for political causes on campus.
P e o p le ’ s P a r kÒ In 1969, Berkeley became a scene of conflict due to a battle over the efforts of a few students to build “People’s Park” on a vacant lot.Ò By the end of People’s Park battle the Berkeley Campus was completely polarized.
Th e C o u n te r C u lt u r eÒ “Hippies” É A youth culture that were very liberal on drugs, alcohol, and sex.Ò Birth Control ,Abortions, and Sexual RevolutionÒ H a ig h t A s h b u r y É Consisted of “hippies” who were social dropouts and rejected modern society.
Roc k N’ R o llÒ Reflected the new iconoclastic values of the times.Ò Artists who influenced during this time was É Beatles É Rolling Stones É Elvis Presley É Buddy Holly
S e e d s o f In d ia n M ilit a n c yÒ The American Indians or Native Americans were the least prosperous, least healthy, and least stable group in the nation.Ò After the resignation of John Collier, commission of Indian Affairs in 1946, the federal policy toward Indians had been to incorporate them within mainstream American society.Ò The struggles against termination led to the development of the National Congress of American Indians (NCIA).
T h e In d ia n C iv ilR ig h t s M o v e m e n t Ò In 1961, the Declaration of Indian Purpose stressed the Indians’ “right to choose their own way of life.” Ò A you group of Indians created the American Indian Movement (AIM) which drew support from urban areas. Ò A political result of Indian activism was the Indian Civil Rights Act É Recognized legitimacy of tribal laws within reservations
O c c u p a t io n o f Wo u n d e d K n e eÒ On February 1973, members of AIM seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, SD for two months, the site of Sioux massacre in 1890.Ò AIM demanded more changes in the administration of the reservations and long forgotten treaties. É United States v. Wheeler É County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation
L a t in o A c t iv is mÒ Latinos or Hispanic Americans were the fastest growing minority group in the U.S.Ò Large number of Puerto Ricans migrated to eastern cities – Castro’s regime 1960s.Ò During WWII, large numbers of Mexican Americans migrated due to labor shortage.Ò Operation Wetback É deport the illegals but failed due to new arrivals
C e s a r C ha ve z An activist who created the effective United FarmWorkers (UFW) to demand recognition of their union and increase wages and benefits.
L a t in o A c t iv is mÒ Latinos: the issue (ofc o n t . ) bilingualismÒ The issue revolved around bilingualism in education and how it was a barrier to non English speakers.Ò Opponents feared the difficulty and dangers bilingualism posed to American culture.
C h a lle n g in g t h e “ M e lt in g p o t ”Ò The challenges of African Americans, Latinos, Indians, Asians, and others allowed for a considerable degree of cultural pluralism.Ò Recognized and allowed for the integration of of ethnic studies in universities.Ò “Multiculturalism”
G a y L ib e r a t io nÒ Most recent liberation which allowed for major gains of gays and lesbians for political and social acceptance.Ò Allowed for the Gays and Lesbians to express their preferences openly and unapologetic.Ò G&L’s achieved the same stepping stones as some minorities.Ò “Don’t ask don’t tell Policy” (1993)
“ S t o n e W a llOn June 27, 1969 R i o t ” raided the Stone Wall police officers Inn when the police raided and began to arrest patronsfor attending the nightclub. Marked the beginning of the movement.
T h e R e b ir t hÒ The publication of Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique in 1963 É Claimed that the suburbs provided no opportunities for women to use their intelligence, talent, and education.Ò National Organization for Women (NOW) É Responded to women’s complaints by demanding greater educational opportunities for women. É Called for “a fully equal partnership of the sexes, as part of the worldwide revolution of human rights.”
Wo m e n ’ sÒ By the early 1970s, young r a t i o n L ib e feminists expressed harsher critiques of American society than that of Freidan’s É Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics (1969) argued that “every avenue of power within the society is entirely within male hands” so that women could unite to assault male power structure. É http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E9TlSiMSdPk
E x p a n d in gÒ A c h i e v half m e n t s By the mid-1970s, nearly e of all married women and 90 percent of women with college degree worked.Ò Women were beginning to compete effectively with men for elected and appointed positions. É First Supreme Court justice (1981) – Sandra Day O’Connor É Democratic vice presidential candidate (1984) – Geraldine Ferraro of New York É Democratic presidential candidate (2008) – Hillary
E x p a n d in g A c h ie v e m e n t s . . .Ò In 1972, Congress approved the Equal Rights Act (ERA) Amendment to the Constitution.Ò The ERA failed in 1982 because people feared it would disrupt traditional social patterns.
T h e A b o r t io n C o ntro ve rs yÒ By the beginning of the twentieth century, abortion was banned by statute in most of the country until the 1960s.Ò Women created strong new pressures to legalize abortion: É Roe v. Wade invalidated all laws prohibiting abortion during the “first trimester”
E n v ir o n m e n t a lis m in a t u r b u le n t s o c ie t y
T h e N e w S c ie n c e o f E c o lo g yBy the twentieth Century, Scientists began to create a new belieffor rationale for environmentalism: ecologyEcology was the scientific belief that there was interrelatednesswithin the natural world.Zoologist Stephen A. ForbesAldo Leopold, 1949 The Sand County Almanac“Land Ethic”Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring-influential book that influenced theDDT in the U.S in 1972Between 1945 and 1960, ecological science was funded bygovernment agencies, universities, foundations, etc. it graduallybecame a field of its own.
E n v ir o n m e n t a l Ad vo c a c yImportant environmentalorganizations predated the riseof modern ecological science.(The Sierrra Club, TheWilderness Society, etc.)Out of organizations emergednew generation of professionalenvironmental activists able tocontribute to the legal andpolitical battles of themovement.Scientists, lawyers, lobbyists.
E n v ir o n m e n t a l D ecaused by the postwar era wasThe damage g r a d a t io nimpossible to ignore by 1960s.Water pollution was seen in major cities, unpleasantsight and odor in rivers and lakes.Air was becoming unhealthy due to toxic fumes fromfactories and power plants. Automobiles werepoisoning the atmosphere.Weather forecasts began using the word “smog.”Environmentalists put public attention to depletion ofoil and other fossil fuels, “acid rain,”destruction of vastrain forests.
E a rth D a y a nd B people gatheredd over the US forOn April 22, 1970 e y o n allthe first “Earth Day.”originally proposed by Wisconsin senator GaylordNelson.“Earth Day” appealing to many who avoided theradical left and did not want to involve themselves withthreatening rallies.20 million Americans participated making it the largestsingle demonstration in nation’s history.1970 National Environmental Protection ActThe Clean Air Act 1970 and Clean Water Act 1972
V ie t n a m iz a t io nPresident Nixon appointed Henry Kissinger, a Harvardprofessor, as his national security adviser.Despite the fact that both William Rogers, secretary ofstate, and Melvin Laird, secretary of defense, weremuch more experienced in public life than Kissingerwas, he immediately established dominance over bothof them.Nixon and Kissinger set out to find an acceptablesolution to the stalemate in Vietnam.The new Vietnam policy was an effort to limit domesticopposition to the war.
V ie t n a m iz a t io nThe administration devised a n t . ) ( c o new “lottery” system, throughwhich only a limited group would be subject to conscription;the limited group usually consisted of 19 year olds with lowlottery numbers.By 1973, the Selective Service System was on its way to atleast temporary extinction.The new policy of “Vietnamization” of the war: The training and equipping of the South Vietnamese military to take over burden of combat from American forces. It helped quiet domestic opposition to the war.
E s c a la t io n : Nixon and Kissinger developed an effective way to tip the military balance in America’s favor by destroying the bases in Cambodia. • The Americans believed that the North Vietnamese were launching their attacks from Cambodia. • In the spring of 1970, possibly with U.S. encouragement and support, conservative military leaders overthrew the neutral government of Cambodia and established a new, pro-American regime under General Lon Nol.• On April 30, Nixon televised his announcement in which he spoke about ordering troops American troops across the border into Cambodia to “clean out” the bases that the enemy had been using for its “increased military
C o n t in u e dUnfortunately for President Nixon, millions of Americans were upset with hisactions that the most widespread and vocal antiwar demonstrations wereseen in the first days of May.The mood of the crisis intensified greatly on May 4, when four collegestudents were killed and nine other injured when members of the NationalGuard opened fire on antiwar demonstrators at Kent State University in Ohio.By 1971, nearly two-thirds of those interviewed in public opinion polls wereurging American withdrawal from Vietnam.In March 1972, the North Vietnamese mounted their biggest offensive sine1968 (the so-called Eastern offensive).Despite the lack of support from the Americans, American and SouthVietnamese forces managed to halt the communist advance.
“ P e a c e w it h H onor”In April 1972, the president dropped his longtimeinsistence on a removal of North Vietnamese troops fromthe south before any American withdrawal.On October 26, only days before the presidential election,Kissinger announced that “peace was at hand” in whichAmericans and North Vietnamese were ready to acceptthe Kissinger-Tho plan for a cease-fire.On December 17, American B-52s began the heaviestand most destructive air raids of the entire war on Hanoi,Haiphong and other North Vietnamese targets as a resultof the failed negotiations between the two nations.On December 30, Nixon ended the “Christmas Bombing.”
“ P e a c e w it h H 27, 1973, both the United States ando nVietnameseOn January o n o r ” ( c North t . )signed an “agreement on ending the war and restoring peace inVietnam.”The terms of Paris accord were little different from those Kissingerand Tho had accepted in principle a few months before: There would be an immediate cease-fire. The North Vietnamese would release several hundred American prisoners of war.
D e f e a t in In d o c h in aAmerican forces were hardly out of Indochina before the Paris accords collapsed.In March 1975, the North Vietnamese launched a full-scale offensive against thenow greatly weakened forces of the south.Thieu appealed to Washington for assistance; the president (now Gerald Ford;Nixon had resigned in 1974) appealed to Congress for additional funding;Congress refused.Late in April 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon, shortly after officials ofthe Thieu regime and the staff of the American embassy had fled the country inhumiliating disarray.A beautiful land had been ravaged, its agrarian economy left in ruins; for manyyears after, Vietnam remained one of the poorest and most politically oppressivenations in the world.
N ix o n , K is s in g e r , a n d t h e W o r ldThe Vietnam War provided a dismal backdrop to : theconstruction of a new international order.America wanted to adopt a new “multipolar” InternationalStructure in which China, Japan, and Western Europewould become major independent forces.The U.S. , China, Soviet Union, and Japan would helpbalance each other , not playing one against the other.
C h in a a n d t h e S o v ie t U n io nNixon and Kissinger wanted to forge a newrelationship between the Chinese communists- in partto strengthen them as a counterbalance to the SovietUnion.The United Nations admitted the Communist Chinaand expelled the Taiwan Regime.In 1972 the United States began to have low-leveldiplomatic relations with China.Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)- US andSoviet Union met and talked about the limitation ofnuclear weapons.
N ix o n , K is s in g e r , a n d t h e W o r ld The Problems with Solarity
T h e P r o b le m s o f M u lt ip o la r it y Nixon and Kissinger believed that great-power relationships could not alone ensure international stability, for the “Third World” remained the most volatile and dangerous source of international tension. Nixon Doctrine: 1969-1970 The United States would “participate in the defense and development of allies and friends” but would leave the “basic responsibility” for the future of those “friends” to the nations themselves. In practice, it meant a declining
The “Six Day War” • In 1967, Israel gained control of the city of Jerusalem and was able to gain some new territory along the way. In October 1973, on the Jewish High Holy Day of Yon Kippur, Egyptian and Syrian forces attacked Israel. • It was a strong and effective counteroffensive which lasted for ten days. • Meanwhile, the U.S. was applying a great amount of pressure on the Israelites. The Arab Oil Embargo was an event where Arabs had placed an embargo on oil causing a great amount of suffering on the Israeli supporters. It provided an ominous warning of the costs of losing access to the region’s resources.P r o b le m s o f M u lt ip o la r it y
e P r o b le m s o f M u lt ip o la r it y • Richard Nixon responded to the Arab Oil Embargo by signing the Emergency Highway Conservation Act. • The law offered the states a choice: impose a 55 mph maximum speed limit or forego federal highway funds • It was impossible for the U.S. to ignore the interest of the Arab nations. • The U.S. could no longer depend on cheap, easy access to raw materials as it had in the past.
P o lit ic s a n dE c o n o m ic sU n d e r N ix o n
D o m e s t ic In it ia t e Nixon’s domestic policies were a response to the demands of conservative middle class people who he liked to call “silent majority.” Nixon began to reduce or dismantle many of the social programs of the great society.
F r o m th e Wa r r e n C ourt T O T H E N IX O N C OURT
Wa r r e n C o u r tÒ In 1950s and 1960s, none had evoked more anger and bitterness than the Supreme Court due to its rulings on racial matters and its staunch defense of civil liberties. É Engel v. Vitale (1962) É Roth v. United States (1957) É Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) É Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) É Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Wa r r e n C o u r tÒ One of the most important decisions of the Warren Court in the 1960s was Baker v. Carr (1962) which required state legislatures to apportion electoral districts so that all citizens’ votes would have equal weight.
N ix o n C o u r tÒ Nixon was determined to use his judicial appointments to give the court a more conservative cast.Ò He appointed Warren Burger, Clement F. Haynsworth (rejected because Nixon believed he was from the South). É Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) É Furman v. Georgia (1972) É Roe v. Wade (1973) É Milliken v. Bradley (1974)Ò Bakke v. Board of Regents of California (1978) was a celebrated action by the Nixon court because it established restrictive new guidelines for programs in the future
E l e c t i o n o f 19 7 2Ò Nixon entered the presidential race refraining from campaigning and concentrating on publicized international decisions and state visits.Ò Nixon’s Democratic opponent George Wallace was assassinated at a rally in Maryland.Ò The Democrats nominated George McGovern in replacement.Ò On election day, Nixon won reelection by one of the largest margin in history: 60.7% of the popular vote compared with 37.5% for McGovern, and an electoral margin of 520 to 17.
T h e Tr o u b le d E c onomyÒ Inflation became the most disturbing economic problem of the 1970s caused by a significant increase in federal deficit spending that began in the 1960s.Ò Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) began to use its oil as economic tool and political weapon.Ò US manufacturing faced major competition from abroad as they established major footholds in the US markets.Ò The 1970s marked painful process of deindustrialization in which thousands of factories across the country closed their gates and millions of workers lost their jobs.
T h e N ix o n R e s pons eÒ The Nixon administration responded to the mounting economic problems by focusing on the one thing it thought it could control: Inflation.Ò In 1971, Nixon imposed a 90 day freeze on all wages and prices at their existing levels.Ò Nixon launched an economic plan called Phase II, mandatory guidelines for wage and prices increases to be administered by a federal agency.