Coming of the Revolution (American History 1)


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Brief chronicle of the events leading up to the American Revolution.

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Coming of the Revolution (American History 1)

  1. 1. Coming of the Revolution American History I
  2. 2. Bacon’s Rebellion • sometimes considered the beginning of the revolutionary era in the colonies • First open defiance of of a duly established government in the colonies • Bacon gathered poor freemen, indentured servants, and some slaves to fight against the government of Virginia essentially over the dealing with Native Americans on the frontier 2
  3. 3. Navigation Acts • According to the policies of mercantilism, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts to ensure that the colonies were trading only with England • laws were enforced using the writs of assistance which was a general search warrant that allowed British officials to search colonists homes • many Massachusetts merchants viewed this as an invasion of privacy 3
  4. 4. Navigation Acts • No country could trade with the colonies unless the goods were shipped in either colonial or English ships • All vessels had to be operated by crews that were at least three-quarters English or colonial • The colonies could export certain products only to England • Almost all goods traded between the colonies and Europe first had to pass through an English port. 4
  5. 5. Board of Trade • the Board of Trade was an advisory group that met in England and recommended laws to improve trade with the colonies 5
  6. 6. French & Indian War • Part of a larger world war: the Seven Years War, fought on 5 continents • England & the colonies v. France & Native-Americans • Fought for key fertile land in the Ohio River Valley 6
  7. 7. Treaty of Paris 1763 • Ends the French & Indian War (and the Seven Years Way) • England gets control of all land east of the Mississippi River • France loses ALL land in North America 7
  8. 8. Proclamation of 1763 • To avoid further conflict with Native Americans. • Forbade all settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. • Proclamation by Britain at the end of the French and Indian war that prohibited settlement by colonists on Indian territory. • Angered colonists who just fought to gain the right to settle on that land 8
  9. 9. Sugar Act (1764) The three parts were: 1. It halved the duty on foreign- made molasses 2. It placed duties on certain imports 3. Strengthened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice- admiralty court rather than in a more sympathetic colonial court. 9
  10. 10. Stamp Act (1765) • It differed from earlier taxes because it directly taxed everyone. • The tax required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every legal document, license, newspaper, pamphlet, and almanac. • Every colonists had to pay and take money out their pocket. 10
  11. 11. Sons of Liberty Form • a secret resistance group to protest Stamp Act and other perceived liberties • formed the Stamp Act Congress • harassed customs workers, stamp agents, and royal governors (when necessary) • successful in preventing the Stamp Act from going into effect Sam Adams 11
  12. 12. Stamp Act Congress Meets • delegates from nine colonies met and issued Declaration of Rights & Grievances • announced Parliament lacked the power to tax the colonies because the colonists were not represented in Parliament • conducted a boycott of British goods • Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, boycott ends 12
  13. 13. Colonists Boycott British Goods • The refusal to purchase the products of an individual , corporation a nation as a way to bring economic pressure for social or political change. • How effective was it and why? effective because merchants forced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. 13
  14. 14. Declaratory Act What the Declaratory Act said: It gave the British rights to tax and make decisions for the colonies. Similar to the idea: “As long as you live under my roof, you will follow my rules!” 14
  15. 15. Townshend Acts What was taxed? Tea, glass, lead, paper, paint Colonial Reaction: They revolted and became enraged. They formed well organized resistances. Lord Charles Townshend 15
  16. 16. Colonists Renew Boycott Examples: Colonist didn’t buy English imports, and instead made their own cloth, clothes, teas, etc. British Response: The British sent 2,000 red coats (soldiers) to Boston and arrested smugglers to restore the control. 16
  17. 17. Boston Massacre • after a fist fight between colonists & poorly paid British soldiers, a mob gathered outside the Customs House that taunted the guards • An armed clash erupted • Crispus Attucks and 4 others are the first civilian deaths at the hands of British soldiers 17
  18. 18. Committees of Correspondenc e • To communicate with other colonists about the Boston massacre and other threats to American liberties, Massachusetts and Virginia were the two colonies. • The Pony Express was the way these letters moved through the colonies 18
  19. 19. Tea Act •the British East India Company could directly sell their tea to the colonies without taxes while colonial sellers still had to charge a tax •colonial sellers were outraged because of their loss of sales and profits 19
  20. 20. Boston Tea Party • a protest of the Tea Act • colonists disguised as Native Americans, dumped 18,000 pounds of East Indian Company tea into Boston Harbor 20
  21. 21. Intolerable Acts (1774) Parliament’s strict response to the Boston Tea Party had 4 Parts: 1) Shut down Boston Harbor to American merchants. 2) Established Quartering Act, requiring colonists to house British soldiers. 3) Appointed Thomas Gage, British military officer, new governor of Massachusetts. 4) General Gage placed Boston under martial law. 21
  22. 22. First Continental Congress Meets 56 delegates from the colonies met in Philadelphia and decided: 1.colonies have the right to run their own affairs 2.supported protests in Massachusetts 3.colonies will fight back against British if force is used 4.reconvene in May 1775 if their demands are not met Carpenter Hall 22
  23. 23. Lexington and Concord (1775) • considered the start of the American Revolution • British troops were sent to seize and destroy all munitions possible • as the colonists were backing down at the command of the British, a shot was fired and the British fired back killing 8 minutemen and injuring 10 more • British troops were ambushed on the road back to Boston by some 3,000 – 4,000 minutemen all the way • British soldiers fell by the dozen to the guerilla tactics of the minutemen 23
  24. 24. Second Continental Congress They talked about each colony having its own government, the colonies being independent, and money to be printed. 3 things it did: 1. Organized the Continental Army and commissioned George Washington as it’s commander 2. Printed paper money to pay the troops 3. Sent the Olive Branch Petition to the King General George Washington 24
  25. 25. Battle of Bunker Hill • to disperse the militiamen, General Gage struck out at Bunker Hill • the British won the Hill but took heavier losses than the Patriots • was the deadliest battle of the Revolutionary War 25
  26. 26. Olive Branch Petition It is the urging of “the former harmony” to return between Britain and the colonies. The king flatly rejected it. 26
  27. 27. Common Sense (1776) Thomas Paine 27 •Written by Thomas Paine •explains how the revolt against the King had begun with Lexington and Concord •urged the colonists to take arms and fight for independence from Britain
  28. 28. Declaration of Independence • based on the enlightenment ideas of John Locke • written by Thomas Jefferson • laid out the logical explanation as to why the colonies had declared independence • adopted July 4, 1776 28