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Theme4part2 the english in north america


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Theme4part2 the english in north america

  1. 1. The English in North America Theme 4 Part 2 Patricia Bigler History 140
  2. 2. American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies 1650-1750 <ul><li>Commonweaths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to share power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to pay taxes that were not authorized by their own elected representatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English colonial system restricted power to free men who did owned land. </li></ul><ul><li>Power and liberties were denied to indentured servants, women, and freedman who did not own land. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthiest planters dominated the country system of local governement. </li></ul><ul><li>The governer appointed judges , the sherrif and the county clerk from the local elite. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 7-Chesapeake Colonies (continued) <ul><li>Most English men and women believed that stability and social order depended on bringing together church and state– linking religious devotion and political obedience. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1668 Virginia ha 62 Anglican churches. </li></ul><ul><li>Chesapeake colonists had Political Hierarchy with 4 tiers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The County Court and Parish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The family household (or “little commonwealth” which included servants and kin.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Labor <ul><li>Too much labor-too few colonists. </li></ul><ul><li>9 months a year tobacco required attention to sow, transplant, weed, trim, cut, pack and ship. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1619 some planters brought slaves from Africa- but slavery was not economical. </li></ul><ul><li>Indentured servants were preffered for a term of 4-5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1650 there were only 300 enslaved Africans making up only 2% of the Chesapeake population. </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1640 most indentured servants lead short lives due to a combination of disease, overwork, and the enviromental change. In 1648 this changed, only 1 n 9 immigrants died compared to 1 in 4. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Labor <ul><li>At the end of the 17 th century African slaves became a better investment. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1698 Parlement lifted the monopoly on slave trade and slave numbers increased from 300 to 13,000 by the 1700’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony Johnson aquired a 250 acre tobacco plantation and a slave. His white neighbors lured the slave away. Johnson took them to court and won.Having the courts support an African against whites showed that slavery and racism had not yet become intertwined. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Property <ul><li>New English thought they were entitled to the land- the colonists believed it was up to them how much land the Indians received. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians and The New English did not understand the deeds in the same way. The Indians thought they would share the land and have access to hunting and fishing, but by signing the deeds they gave up all rights to their land. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonists cleared the land to make room for their animial and it became more alien to the Indians-The colonists eliminated the animals and plants that were crucial to the Indians clothing and diet. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians reacted by eating their livestock. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pequot War-1636 <ul><li>The Pequot war was the first major conflict between the indians and the New English. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonial leaders were determined to extend their authority into the Mystic River Valley of southeastern Connecticut. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The colonial leaders demanded that the Pequot pay heavy tribute by giving up several of their children as hostages and surrender those who were accused of killing a trader. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The colonial leade3rs got the Narragansett and Mohegan peoples to help fight the Pequot. </li></ul><ul><li>They surrounded their village and set it on fire, most dying from the fire or trying to escape the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Many criticized the New English including the Narragansett and the Mohegan because they believed the New English way of war was “…too furious and slays too many people.” </li></ul>