The Spanish subjunctive

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The Spanish subjunctive

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  • 07/30/13
  • 07/30/13
  • 07/30/13
  • 07/30/13
  • 07/30/13
  • 07/30/13
  • The Spanish subjunctive

    1. 1. The Spanish Subjunctive: An Introduction (El subjuntivo español: una introducción) Quiero que Ud. pase por el Control de Agricultura.
    2. 2. The Spanish Subjunctive Until now, you have been using verb tenses (present, preterit, and imperfect) in the indicative mood (or mode). The indicative is used to express real, definite, or factual actions or states of being. In this chapter, you will learn about the subjunctive mode. It is used to express the hypothetical or subjective, such as a speaker’s attitudes, wishes, feelings, emotions, or doubts. Unlike the indicative, which states facts, the subjunctive describes reality subjectively, or refers to actions or states that are not yet reality at all (and maybe never will be).
    3. 3. The Spanish Subjunctive Notice the following examples: Creo que Luis va a Cartagena. I believe that Luis is going to Cartagena. (Certainty: indicative) No creo que Luis vaya a San Andrés. I don’t think that Luis is going to San Andrés. (Uncertainty: subjunctive)
    4. 4. hablo como vivo Step 1: Start with the yo form of the verb in the present tense (this applies to all three conjugations): The forms of the subjunctive Before we learn usage, we must learn the forms we will be working with. Think of it as learning the mechanics or “nuts and bolts” before assembling the tool. For all but six verbs in Spanish, we can apply a simple three-step process with which to construct the forms.
    5. 5. If we are careful to begin with this step, verbs with irregular stems and yo forms will be included and will not be considered irregular in the subjunctive: conocer → conozco The forms of the subjunctive hablo como vivo decir → digo hacer → hago perder → pierdo querer → quiero pedir → pido traer → traigo oír → oigo tener → tengo venir → vengo ver → veo dormir → duermo Step 1: Start with the yo form of the verb in the present tense (this applies to all three conjugations):
    6. 6. The forms of the subjunctive habl com viv Step 2: Take off the final o of the yo form: Step 3: Add the “opposite” endings: For -ar verbs: Add -er verb endings. habl habl habl habl habl habl e es e emos éis en Notice that the first- and third-person singular forms are identical. o o o
    7. 7. The forms of the subjunctive Step 3: Add the “opposite” endings: For -er and -ir verbs: Add -ar verb endings to both. com com com com com com a as a amos áis an viv viv viv viv viv viv a as a amos áis an Again, first- and third-person singular forms are identical.
    8. 8. recordar (o  ue) recuerde recuerdes recuerde recordemos recordéis recuerden perder (e  ie) pierda pierdas pierda perdamos perdáis pierdan Remember, however, that stem changes do not apply to nosotros and vosotros forms. The forms of the subjunctive Stem-changing -ar and -er verbs have the same stem changes as in the present indicative.
    9. 9. dormir dormimos dormisteis durmieron dormí dormiste durmió  u duerma duermas duerma durmamos durmáis duerman The forms of the subjunctive You may recall the third-person singular and plural changes that occur in the preterit of stem-changing -ir verbs. The same changes occur in the nosotros and vosotros forms of the subjunctive. These changes occur only in stem-changing -ir verbs.
    10. 10. mentir mentimos mentisteis mintieron mentí mentiste mintió  i mienta mientas mienta mintamos mintáis mientan You may recall the third-person singular and plural changes that occur in the preterit of stem-changing -ir verbs. The forms of the subjunctive
    11. 11. sirvamos sirváis sirvan You may recall the third-person singular and plural changes that occur in the preterit of stem-changing -ir verbs. The forms of the subjunctive servir servimos servisteis sirvieron serví serviste sirvió  i sirva sirvas sirva
    12. 12. -car c  qu The forms of the subjunctive The following spelling changes occur in all forms of the present subjunctive with verbs whose infinitives end in -car, -gar, and -zar. -gar g  gu -zar z  c buscar busque busques busque busquemos busquéis busquen llegar llegue llegues llegue lleguemos lleguéis lleguen empezar empiece empieces empiece empecemos empecéis empiecen
    13. 13. Dar  Ir  Ser  Haber  Estar  Saber  dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan There are only six truly irregular verbs, that is, verbs to which we cannot apply our three-step process. The forms of the subjunctive When listed in the following order, the initial letters of each verb form the acronym DISHES, a useful memory device.
    14. 14. Yo quiero que Juan vaya a la fiesta. main clause subordinate clause S1 V1 S2 V2 The usage of the subjunctive The subjunctive normally occurs in the subordinate clause of a two-part sentence (hence the term subjunctive) and generally is preceded by the relator que or an adverb such as cuando, donde, etc. Normally, the main clause has a different subject and verb than the subordinate clause.
    15. 15. S1 V1 S1 V2 The usage of the subjunctive If there is no change of subject, that is, if the subject of the main clause is the same as that of the subordinate clause, the subjunctive is generally not used, especially with verbs of volition, such as querer, and verbs that express emotion. Yo quiero que yo vaya a la fiesta. main clause subordinate clause Although there are two different verbs . . . . . . there is only one subject.
    16. 16. In these cases only one clause is necessary . . . S AV INF The usage of the subjunctive If there is no change of subject, that is, if the subject of the main clause is the same as that of the subordinate clause, the subjunctive is generally not used, especially with verbs of volition, such as querer, and verbs that express emotion. Yo quiero ir a la fiesta. . . . utilizing a subject, auxiliary verb, and infinitive.
    17. 17. 1. Cause or prevention. 3. Falseness or unreality. 2. Personal bias or emotion. The usage of the subjunctive The verb or expression in the main clause determines whether to use the subjunctive or the indicative in the subordinate clause. Three simple principles can be applied in almost every case. If the main clause expresses . . . . . . the subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause.
    18. 18.  Benjamín quiere que Antonio ponga la mesa.  Yo insisto en que tú hagas el trabajo.  Prohibimos que los clientes fumen en la oficina. (Notice that que unites the two clauses.) (indicative: pone) (indicative: haces) (indicative: fuman) The usage of the subjunctive 1. Cause or prevention: When the subject in the main clause uses a verb that tends to cause or prevent something in the subordinate clause, the subjunctive is always used in the subordinate clause.
    19. 19. Cause querer insistir recomendar mandar pedir permitir aconsejar obligar necesitar sugerir ser importante, imprescindible, permisible, necesario, innecesario, preferible, mejor, urgente Prevention impedir prohibir no permitir The usage of the subjunctive Following are some common verbs and expressions that might be used to cause or prevent.
    20. 20. NOTE: It is in this area of Spanish that the subjunctive is most quickly falling into disuse, and is being replaced by the indicative. Nevertheless, for instructional purposes, we will always use the subjunctive in these cases. The usage of the subjunctive 2. Personal bias or emotion: When the verb in the main clause expresses a feeling, emotion, or personal bias, the subjunctive is usually (but not always) used in the subordinate clause.
    21. 21.  Me alegro de que tú saques buenas notas.  ¡Qué lástima que ellos no sepan su número de teléfono!  Lamento que hayas perdido tu dinero.  Me gusta que Alfredo te ayude. (indicative: sacas) (indicative: saben) (indicative: has perdido) (indicative: ayuda) The usage of the subjunctive 2. Personal bias or emotion: When the verb in the main clause expresses a feeling, emotion, or personal bias, the subjunctive is usually (but not always) used in the subordinate clause.
    22. 22.  Me alegro de sacar buenas notas.  Lamento haber perdido mi dinero.  Me gusta ayudarte. The usage of the subjunctive But, again, just as with verbs of volition, if there is no change of subject, a single clause with infinitive is used rather than the subjunctive.
    23. 23. gustar alegrarse (de) apenar asombrar sorprender entristecer temer esperar sentir ser triste ser una lástima ser maravilloso ser bueno, terrible, horroroso, fantástico, etc. estar alegre, contento, triste, etc. ojalá The usage of the subjunctive Following are some common verbs and expressions that express personal bias or emotion.
    24. 24.  Es verdad que los niños comen demasiado.  Estoy seguro que Alonso tiene su pasaporte.  No creemos que vaya a nevar mañana.  Mis amigos dudan que yo pueda pilotear el avión.  No hay nadie que sepa la verdad. The usage of the subjunctive 3. Falseness or unreality: If the main clause indicates that something is true or indeed exists, the indicative is used in the subordinate clause. By contrast, if the main clause indicates doubt, falseness or unreality, the subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause.
    25. 25.  No estoy seguro de tener mi pasaporte.  No creo saber la verdad.  Dudo poder pilotear el avión. (No estoy seguro de que yo tenga mi pasaporte.) (No creo que yo sepa la verdad.) (Dudo que yo pueda pilotear el avión.) The usage of the subjunctive But, once more, if there is no change of subject, one clause with an infinitive can be used in many cases.
    26. 26. Truth creer estar seguro jurar afirmar confirmar asegurar ser cierto ser indudable ser evidente ser obvio ser verdad ser (estar) claro Falseness no creer negar no estar seguro dudar no poder creer ser (im)posible ser (im)probable no ser verdad no ser cierto The usage of the subjunctive Following are some common verbs and expressions that express truth or falseness.
    27. 27. E S C A P A en caso de que sin que con tal (de) que antes (de) que para que a menos que (in case) (without, unless) (provided that) (before) (so that, in order that) (unless) The usage of the subjunctive Finally, the subjunctive is always used after the following phrases (and a few other similar ones). When listed in the order shown below, they form the acronym ESCAPA, a useful memory device.
    28. 28. FIN

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