Subjunctive - Spanish II


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Subjunctive - Spanish II

  1. 1. SubjuntivoPresent Subjunctive, Imperfect Subjunctive,Present Perfect Subjunctive, and PluperfectSubjunctive
  2. 2. When to Use the Subjunctive Subjunctive is used when the situation is not factual, but rather when the action is subjective or hypothetical. In Spanish, the speaker simply needs to recognize when the action is real and objective (He brings me the towel) and when it is subjective (I hope that he brings me the towel) to know which endings to use.
  3. 3. When to Use Subjunctive If the answer to the following two questions is yes, the subjunctive mood should be used:1. Is there a possibility that this action has not occurred or is not now occurring?2. Is the action or event contained in a dependent clause?
  4. 4. When to Use Subjunctive In Spanish, just as in English, there are 3 grammatical moods:1. The Imperative (Commands)2. The Indicative (Describes real or objective actions or events)3. The Subjunctive (Describes subjective or hypothetical actions or events)
  5. 5. When to Use Subjunctive In English, very few structural changes are employed to signify a change in mood. In Spanish, mood changes necessitate different verb endings. Correctly using the subjunctive is one of the most non-intuitive aspects of Spanish for English-speaking students.
  6. 6. When to Use Subjunctive WEIRDO!
  7. 7. When to Use Subjuctive WEIRDO W – wishes, hopes, and desires E – emotions I – impersonal expressions R – requests D – doubts O – opinions
  8. 8. Wishes, Hopes, and Desires When the verb in the independent clause is a verb such as desear (to wish), querer (to want), esperar (to hope), or preferir (to prefer), the dependent clause uses the subjunctive. Example: I prefer that you not watch that show. Prefiero que no veas ese programa.
  9. 9. Emotions When verbs such as alegrarse (to be happy), sorprenderse (to surprise), sentir (to regret), or temer (to fear), are used in the independent clause, the subjunctive is used in the dependent clause. Example: I am afraid that he won’t return on time. Temo que no vuelva a tiempo.
  10. 10. Impersonal Expressions Use subjunctive after the following conjunctions, if doubt or anticipation is implied: A menos que – unless A pesar de que – in spite of Antes de que – before Aunque - although
  11. 11. Impersonal Expressions Después de que – after En caso de que – in case En cuanto – as soon as Hasta que – until Para que – so that
  12. 12. Requests When using verbs such as aconsejar (to advise), pedir (to ask for), or recomendar (to recommend) in the independent clause, use the subjunctive in the dependent clause. Example: They advised me to leave. Me aconsejaron que saliera.
  13. 13. Doubts When doubt is expressed by verbs in the independent clause such as dudar (to doubt), no creer (to disbelieve), or negar (to deny), then use the subjunctive in the dependent clause. Example: They don’t believe I know. No creen que sepa. Example: We deny that it is the truth. Negamos que sea la verdad.
  14. 14. Opinion Use subjunctive in the dependent clause after the following expressions, provided that doubt, uncertainty, or emotion is suggested or implied: Quizás, acaso, tal vez – perhaps Es bueno – It is good Es difícil – It is hard
  15. 15. Opinion Es dudoso – It is doubtful Es importante – It is important Es imposible – It is impossible Es incierto – It is uncertain Es malo – It is bad Es mejor – It is better Es necesario – It is necessary Es posible – It is possible
  16. 16. Opinion Es una lástima – It is a pity Example: Perhaps she is visiting this fall. Quizás visite este otoño. Example: It is good that she knows. Es bueno que ella sepa.
  17. 17. Present Subjunctive While the present indicative mood is used to describe an actual situation, the present subjunctive mood expresses uncertainty, feelings, desires, and hypothetical situations. To form the present subjunctive, drop the –o from the first person singular form of the present indicative and add the subjunctive endings.
  18. 18. Present Subjunctive In the subjunctive, -ar verbs take –e and –er/-ir verbs take –a. -ar endings: -e, -es, -e, -emos, -en -er/-ir endings: -a, -as, -a, -amos, -an Example: I will go to the movies when I have money. Iré al cine cuando tenga dinero.
  19. 19. Irregulars There are only 6 irregular verbs total in the subjunctive tense. Dar – to give Dé Demos Des Dé Den
  20. 20. Irregulars Estar – to be (temporary) Esté Estemos Estés Esté Estén Haber – to have (auxiliary) Haya Hayamos Hayas Haya Hayan
  21. 21. Irregulars Ir – to go Vaya Vayamos Vayas Vaya Vayan Saber – to know (facts/information) Sepa Sepamos Sepas Sepa Sepan
  22. 22. Irregulars Ser – to be (permanent) Sea Seamos Seas Sea Sean
  23. 23. Imperfect Subjunctive The imperfect or past subjunctive is used in situations where the verb in the independent clause is in the past or conditional tense. This tense is used to express something that might have been or would have been.
  24. 24. Imperfect Subjunctive The imperfect subjunctive tense is formed by:1. Taking the verb’s third person plural (ellos) form of the preterite tense (-ar verb ending is –aron and –er/-ir verb ending is –ieron),2. Dropping the –ron from the end, and3. Adding the endings on the next slide.
  25. 25. Imperfect Subjunctive The following are the endings for all –ar, -er, and –ir verbs: -ra, -ras, -ra, -ramos, -ran Example: I doubted that he killed the cat. Dudaba que matara el gato.
  26. 26. Imperfect Subjunctive There are no irregularities in the imperfect subjunctive tense because any irregularities in conjugation will already be reflected in the third person plural preterite form. The present subjunctive expresses the same set of situations as the present subjunctive (WEIRDO) in the past.
  27. 27. Present Perfect Subjunctive The present perfect subjunctive is used to express the English term “may have”. It is formed by having the subjunctive conjugation of the verb Haber (to have – auxiliary) together with the past participle.
  28. 28. Present Perfect Subjunctive Haber – to have (auxiliary) Haya Hayamos Hayas Haya Hayan
  29. 29. Present Perfect Subjunctive Example: We may have thought that we used to know all the answers. Hayamos pensado que sabíamos todas las contestas.
  30. 30. Pluperfect Subjunctive The pluperfect (or past perfect) subjunctive is used to express the English “might have”. It is formed by having the imperfect subjunctive conjugation of Haber (to have – auxiliary) together with the past participle.
  31. 31. Pluperfect Subjunctive Haber – to have (auxiliary) Hubiera Hubiéramos Hubieras Hubiera Hubieran
  32. 32. Pluperfect Subjunctive Example: It might have rained if the wind changed direction. Hubiera llovido si el viento cambiaría dirección.
  33. 33. When to Use Subjunctive WEIRDO!
  34. 34. Use Subjunctive Correctly…or I’ll EAT A PLANET!!!