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Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1:  Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication
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Social Web 2.0 Class Week 1: Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication

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Week 1 slides from the class "Social Web 2.0" I taught at the University of Washington's Masters in Communication program in 2007. Most of the content is still very relevant today. Topics: …

Week 1 slides from the class "Social Web 2.0" I taught at the University of Washington's Masters in Communication program in 2007. Most of the content is still very relevant today. Topics: Introduction, History, Web 2.0, Communication

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  • Goals: Support lightweight impression management and impression formation Profiles, blogs, conversations, pictures, music, social maps Increase serendipitous interactions Centralized point of communication and awareness of people in network Increased sense of presence through rich media updates Increased opportunities in UI for bumping into people Extension of social network Exposure to media about people on periphery of network I’ll like people if people I like also like them
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social Web 2.0 Implications of Social Technologies for Digital Media Shelly Farnham, Ph.D. Com 597 Winter 2007
    • 2. Week 1: Agenda
      • 6:00 – 6:15 Brief introductions (10 min)
      • 6:15-6:30 Review syllabus (15 min)
      • 6:30-7:30 Introduction to social technologies (20 min)
      • 7:30-8:00 Break (30 min)
      • 8:00-9:00 Focus group
      • 9:00-10:00 Lab: class mailing lists,
      • blogs, chat
    • 3. Introductions
    • 4. My goals for class
      • Share knowledge
        • Introduce theory, research, related work
        • Review best (and worst) practices
      • Help you apply knowledge
        • Critically evaluate
        • Improve, innovate
      • Learn from you
      • Yours?
    • 5. Review Syllabus
      • Structure:
        • Lectures and guest speakers (1/3 rd )
        • Discussion (1/3 rd )
        • Laboratory (1/3 rd )
      • Assignments:
        • Commentary on reading ~1 a week
          • Share what you have learned and your response with class
          • Inspire deeper discussion
        • Team project
          • Modeled after real work processes for examining a digital media technology
          • Review in depth an area of interest, and creatively explore how might use to innovate on an existing or new system
          • Make as useful to you as possible
    • 6. About Shelly Farnham
      • Academic background:
        • Ph.D. in Social Psychology at UW, 1999
          • Studied interplay between self-concept and group identity
        • Methodological training:
          • Experimental design, statistics
          • Some programming, developing online measure of implicit identity
      • Work Experience:
        • Microsoft Research (1999-2005)
          • Research and advanced development
          • Virtual Worlds, Social Computing, Community Technologies Groups
        • Independent Consulting (2005-present)
          • Helping startup companies integrate social technologies into their web properties ( http://www.farnhamresearch.com ), including Rounders (health social network) realityallstarz (social networking game) and Zillow (real estate site)
      • Personal:
        • Artist
        • Extremely social
        • Part of several art groups: Organize Dorkbot, Ignition NW, SV arts collective
    • 7. Your backgrounds?
    • 8. Introduction to Social Web 2.0
      • Outline:
        • Historical background to social technologies
        • Defining Social Web 2.0
        • Overview of recent trends
        • Approaches to designing social technologies
        • If time, overview of some of my research
    • 9. Why Interact Online? Advantages (and disadvantages)
      • Communicate at a distance, over time
      • Access to greater number of people
        • People who are different, have specialized knowledge
        • More of them through broadcast communication
      • Frequent, continuous access
      • Interactions can be saved
        • Persistent conversations
          • Archived, and searched
        • Transaction history (e.g. who’s talking to whom)
      • Integrate with digital content
      • Identity and context manipulation/play (games)
      • Large scale collaboration, coordination
    • 10. Social technologies defined
      • Technology supporting social interactions
      • Social enhancement of information technology
      more than one human + computing
    • 11. Historical Perspective
      • Human social behavior evolved in different context than what we have today
      • We are still figuring out how to interact in computer-mediated situations
        • How is it different?
        • How is it better, worse?
        • What are unique advantages of computer-mediated?
    • 12. Historical background: Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
      • User Goals:
        • Communicate, collaborate, socialize
        • At a distance
        • Over time
      • Communication is mediated through technology
        • Vary in degree of
          • Medial richness
          • Interactivity
      low high Media Richness Interactivity low high Phone VideoPhone FacetoFace Text to Speech Chat IM Email VoiceMail Fax Usenet WhiteBoard (Whittaker)
    • 13. CMC and computer-mediated cooperative work (CSCW)
      • Early Research
        • Focused on effect of communication modality on performance (task completion, decision making, negotiation)
        • Generally found:
      Whittker, Grudin
    • 14. Studies of Online Social Behavior
      • More recent research:
        • Focused on effect of communication modality on trust, cooperation, bad behavior
        • Generally found:
      Olsons, Mark, Davis
    • 15.
      • Very recent research:
        • Focused on effect of communication modality on conformity, persuasion
        • Generally found:
      Studies of Social Influence Blascovich, mark
    • 16. Why?
    • 17. Problem Space
      • CMC has reduced nonverbal communication
        • Nonverbal communication
          • Facial expressions, nods, gaze, gestures, presence, attire, paraverbal cues
        • Nonverbal communication indicates
          • Affect/attitude
          • Direction of attention
          • Back channel feedback
          • Availability
          • Personality/Identity/demographics
        • Reduced nonverbal communication negatively impact
          • Maintenance of conversational norms: turn taking, initiation, transitions
          • Person perception
          • Social presence – the extent to which a person has the subjective sense of the other person’s goals/attitudes/motives
      Whittaker, Short at al., ??
    • 18. Problem Space
      • CMC has reduced shared environmental context
        • Shared environmental context
          • Objects, location, Activity/events
        • Shared environmental context
          • Coordination of conversational content
          • Achieving joint attention
        • Lack of shared environmental context negative impact
          • Common ground: shared understanding, feeling of being “on the same page”
          • Ability to collaborate
      Common ground folks….
    • 19. Problem Space
      • CMC has reduced social context
        • Social context
          • Persistent identity in shared group of people
          • Place where people “go”
          • Awareness of group/network activities, presence
        • Social context
          • Serendipitous, informal communication
          • Development of reputations, accountability, community
        • Lack of social context negatively impact
          • quantity of social behavior
          • quality of social behavior
      Marc Smith’s book, Jenny Preece’s book
    • 20. Social Technologies Today
    • 21. New Technology Affordances
      • Increased penetration of social technology
        • Everyone has email, cell phones, Internet
        • becoming part of day to day life
      • Prevalence of social information as metadata, capacity for complex processing
        • search, filter, organize, social network analyses, collaborative filtering
      • Prevalence of personal digital media
      • Peer to Peer technology
      • Off the desktop, mobile, wi-fi technology
    • 22. Areas of Innovation
      • Lightweight authoring and syndication
        • Easy for everyone to create content and share
      • Digitization of social identity, social networks, groups
        • Development of persistent identity, reputation systems
        • Representing social interactions, social spaces
          • who’s talking, who knows whom, groups, cliques, social networks, communities
          • Visualizing complex conversation spaces, shared information spaces
        • Why?
          • Increasing accountability, trust, cooperation, community
          • Fostering serendipitous, informal interactions
          • Finding people and content you care about through others
            • Knowledge exchange, dating, shared activities/hobbies, games
      • Mobility and ubiquity of social technology
        • Providing continuous access to, awareness of, communication with coworkers, family and friends
        • Always on, always aware
      • Proliferation of social metadata
        • Find, organizate, filter content you care about
    • 23. Examples
      • Wikis, lightweight collaborative authoring
        • WikiPedia, collaborative encyclopedia,( http://www.wikipedia.com )
      • Blogs, lightweight online journals
        • Blogger: ( http:// www.blogger.com )
      • Social Networks
        • MySpace: ( http:// www.MySpace.com )
        • LinkedIn: ( http:// www.linkedin.com )
      • Reputation systems
        • Ebay ( http://www.Ebay.com )
      • Recommender systems
        • Yelp (http://www.yelp.com)
      • Mobile integration
        • TextAmerica ( http://www.textamerica.com/)
      • Social coordination on a large scale
        • MoveOn ( http://www.moveon.org/ )
        • Meetup (http://www.meetup.com)
        • Dodgeball ( http://www.dodgeball.com/ )
        • Darfur Wall ( http://darfurwall.org/ )
      • Crowd sourcing
        • Amazon’s mechanical turk ( http://www.mechanical
        • The sheep market (http://www.thesheepmarket.com)
      • Peer to peer sharing
        • Napster (http://www.napster.com)
      • Social filtering
        • De.licio.us ( http://del.icio.us/ )
      • Social networking games
        • Xuqa (http://www.XuQa.com)
        • Reality All Starz (http://www.realityallstarz.com)
      • Media sharing
        • Flickr (http://www.flickr.com)
        • YouTube ( http://ww.youtube.com )
        • Vox ( http://www.vox.com )
        • Pandora (http://www.pandora.com)
      • Others? What do you think is cool?
    • 24. Impact
      • 73% of adult Americans go online
        • 90% email
        • 80% seek out information
        • 60% buy online
        • 50% IM
        • 30% play games
        • 20% create content
        • 10% seek out others (probably increased since report)
      • 100 million on MySpace (80% of all social networks)
      • YouTube delivers 100 million videos a day
    • 25. Web 2.0
      • The web as platform
      • Data is key
      • End of software release cycle
      • Lightweight programming
      • Above level of single device
      • Rich user experience
      http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
    • 26. Social Web 2.0
      • The web as tool for awareness of, access to, communication with others
        • Any time (asynchronous), any place (not co located), many at a time
        • Integration of communication and collaboration tools
      • People are key, social meta-data is key
        • Standardizing data across applications to enable interoperability
      • Key role of users in generating content (democratization of content)
      • Harnassing collective intelligence
        • social metadata for structuring and organizing information
        • Social metadata for defining sharing
      • Mega-collaboration and coordination
    • 27. The Programmable Web
      • http://www.programmableweb.com/
      • http://www.mashable.com/
    • 28. Approaches to Designing Social Technologies
    • 29. R&D Process meeting social goals Prototyping Deployment & Evaluation Study Target Users Design
    • 30. Social Engineering
      • Technologies are social environments
        • Mediating complex social interactions
      • Technology are interventions
        • Produce changes in environment that facilitate desired social outcomes
      • Use understanding of social processes to inform design
      • Use understanding of unique impact of technology to inform design
    • 31. Example
      • Goal: design a profiling and matchmaking system to increase likelihood of two people finding each other and having successful dating experience
      • Psychological principles:
        • Attraction based on similarity, frequency of exposure
        • Matching hypothesis
        • Balance theory: balance in who you like
        • Process of reciprocal self-disclosure
      • System design, based on principles:
        • Match on similarity in demographics, lifestyle
        • Provide opportunities for frequent exposure, interaction
        • Match based on equivalence
        • Show how connected to you (if my friend likes you I probably will)
        • Varying levels of communication, from anonymous to identified, asynchronous to real-time
    • 32. Principles of Social Engineering
      • Define User’s Goals
        • Social goals
          • To like myself
          • That others like me
          • Sense of belonging
        • Mastery, self-efficacy
          • Acquiring Information
          • Task completion
        • Implicit vs. explicit
    • 33. Principles of Social Engineering
      • Take perspective of user
        • Phenomenology
          • What is there, and what they think is there, not always the same
          • People are responding to what they *think* is there
      • Behavior is function of person AND situation
          • To predict and change behavior, must understand all the forces
          • Some internal, some physical environment, some social
    • 34. Principles of Social Engineering
      • Individual differences have meaningful impact
        • Personality
          • E.g. introversion vs. extroversion
        • Life stage
          • E.g. adult pre-family, family
        • Culture
          • E.g. American vs. Korean
    • 35. On Designing Social Systems
      • The best technologies are invisible to the user
        • they are thinking only about their goals, not the technology
      • Usability, then sociability
        • Usability: Human-computer interaction, people interact and perform tasks intuitively and easily
        • Sociability: human-human interaction
    • 36. On Designing Social Systems
      • Social Translucence
        • Building blocks for social interaction:
          • Visibility
          • Awareness
          • Accountability
        • Making activity visible
          • Realistic (teleconferencing)
          • Mimetic (virtual environments, avatars)
          • Abstract (text, symbols)
    • 37. On Designing Social Systems
      • Discussion of two cool projects
        • How designing social translucence?
        • How might increase participation using social engineering principles?
      • The sheep market
        • http://www.thesheepmarket.com/
      • The darful wall
        • http://darfurwall.org/
    • 38. Key Questions from My Research
      • What are people’s social goals in using social software?
        • Used to compensate for lack of face to face contact?
          • email friends from long distance; get a date; forge weak social ties with people with specialized knowledge;
        • Or, communication integrated with face to face contact?
      • Is social software good for you?
        • For geeky losers who can’t get a date , addictive, like video games
        • prevents people from developing real social connections
          • Kraut et al. (1998); Nie and Irbring (2000)
        • Or, helps people keep in touch with family and friends, meet new people?
      • How does what we know about the use of social software impact design?
    • 39. Highlights my past projects: Interacting with known people
      • HutchWorld
        • Provided Internet access and community support software
        • to patients and caregivers following BMT
        • #1 reason people used Internet was to interact with
        • family and friends, not to meet other cancer
        • patients/caregivers
        • Access to Internet had buffer effect on feelings of
        • loss of social support/life satisfaction following BMT
          • “ It kept us connected on a daily basis to friends and family
          • which was extremely important.”
          • “ It gave me the feeling that I could connect with the outside
          • world. Cancer is very isolating and the computer broke that isolation.”
      • Mall Study
        • Explored how 56 people interacted with important people in their lives
        • 18% chatted, 75% used emailed, emailed friends over two hours a week
        • Chat and face to face interactions positively correlated ( r = .40, p < .05)
        • Email and face to face interaction no correlation ( r = -.04, ns)
    • 40. Highlights from past projects: Interacting with known people (cont’d)
      • Online Relationships Study
        • Explored impact of use of email and IM on quality of romantic relationships
        • People emailed/IMed with partner
        • more when dating than when committed
        • Email use positively related to
        • relationships satisfaction for committed
    • 41. Highlights from past projects: Interacting with people not known
      • MSN Communities data mining
        • Explored people’s social goals using random sample of 20,000 communities
        • used for adult content (21%), dating (17%)
        • Used for finding similar others: similar demographically (13%) or similar interests (22%)
        • Used for information exchange (9%)
      • Reputation information study
        • Explored what reputation information people cared about the most in selecting a chat partner.
        • Found they cared the most about ratings by friends, then about similarity to self. Cared less about overall measures of rank/ratings.
    • 42. Use of Technology in Social Life
      • Argument: future of social software
      • Ess ential to everyone for maintaining their (colocated) social lives, for planning, sharing, re-experiencing with friends and family
      • Study of highly social people with internet access
        • 45 people (21 male and 23 female)
        • Educated, 30 yrs of age, artists and professionals
        • 33% used internet 6-16 hrs a week online, 51 % > 16
        • Recruited at a social gathering
    • 43. Use of Technology in Social Life Time spent Socializing with Friends Extent to which People used Internet for Social Purposes
    • 44. Integration with Face to Face Interactions % of People Also Interact with Face to Face How People Plan Face to Face Social Activities
    • 45. Impact of Use of Technology on Quality of Friendship Relationships
    • 46. Impact on Design
      • Target audience: people with friends as center of social life, want to plan, share, and re-experience with co-located friends
      • General goals:
        • Continuous access to and awareness of your social circle
        • Develop and maintain new social relationships (find similar others, dates)
      • Software goals:
        • Increased serendipity
          • Centralized point of communication and awareness of people in network
          • Increased sense of presence through rich media updates
          • Increased opportunities in UI for bumping into folks, planning social activities (calendar), broadcasting plans (mailing list/bulletin boards)
        • Extension of social network
          • Exposure to media about people on periphery of network
          • I’ll like people if people I like also like them
        • Lightweight impression management and impression formation
          • Profiles, blogs, conversations, pictures, music, social maps, text search
    • 47. Wallop embed interactions in social context to activate prosocial norms Sean Kelly :: Shelly Farnham :: Alwin Vynmeister :: Richard Hughes :: Will Portnoy :: Ryszard Kott :: Lili Cheng
      • Blog, share media, build conversations in context of social network
      • Use communication and sharing behavior to build implicit network
      • Use network to define scope of search, notifications, sharing
    • 48. Wallop Basic Usage Statistics
      • People building conversations, responding to each other’s content
        • Total threads with > 1 messages: 47,074
        • ~38% of blog entries have a threaded conversation
        • Average thread length: 2.98
        • Average # participants: 2.53
        • Longest thread: 40
      • People customizing look of blog
        • 48% active users have selected profile image
        • 23% have selected a background image
    • 49. Wallop Basic Usage Statistics
      • Social Network of Active Users
      • Average number of people in visible network: 8.25
      • People wanted ability to explicitly add/remove people, but did not use too heavily
        • Each user explicity include 1.7 people on their network
        • Each user explicitly excluded .7 people from their network
      • Size of network largely determined by invite quota: r = .56
    • 50. Managing Viral Growth
      • Invite only membership
      • Tiered invite process
        • Limited invites by generations to optimize “seed” person’s network.
      1 st Generation: 10 invites 2 nd Generation: 5 invites 3 rd Generation: 5 invites 4 th Generation 0 invites
    • 51. Managing Viral Growth
      • Goal: linear system growth
      • Daily/lifetime activity quotas
      • Daily recapture of invite quota from inactive users
      • Prioritize and promote healthy users for granting invite quota requests
      • Invite allocation = Function (System cap - Current registered users - Outstanding Invitation Liability)
      •  
      •  
      •  
    • 52. Promoting Healthy Users
      • Health =
      • Function ((logins, content creation, commenting) * recency * longevity)
      • Characteristics of a Healthy User
      • Many active contacts in network
      • Daily posts with pictures and music
      • Multiple comments from contacts on each post
      • Rich customization of profile and blog
      • Visits lots of other people’s pages
      • Long discussion threads
    • 53. Wallop Deployment Lessons
      • Implicit network effective for bootstrapping, low maintenance
        • Communication and invitations most useful measures of connection
        • People still want ability add/remove/pin people
      • People valued identity play and social interactions
        • Personalization and value expressive features rated most important by users
        • Conversation around blogs and media actively used feature
    • 54. Focus Group
      • Goal: Generate awareness of areas would like to focus on for presentations, discussions and group projects
      • Who are we?
      • What do we care about regarding social technologies?
        • Complete brief questionnaire
        • Discussion
    • 55. Lab – setting up for class
      • Blogs:
        • RSS feeder: I recommend bloglines
        • Join group blog
            • http://socialweb20.blogspot.com/
      • Sign up for mailing list:
        • [email_address]
      • Group Chat
        • MSN Messenger, socialweb
    • 56.
      • Apophenia

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