Social Web 2.0 Class Week 2: Computer Mediated Communication


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Week 2 slides from the class "Social Web 2.0" I taught at the University of Washington's Masters in Communication program in 2007. Most of the content is still very relevant today. Topics: Computer Mediated Communication.

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Social Web 2.0 Class Week 2: Computer Mediated Communication

  1. 1. Social Web 2.0 Implications of Social Technologies for Digital Media Shelly Farnham, Ph.D. Com 597 Winter 2007
  2. 2. Week 2 <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction continued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring social uses of technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of Communication Technologies </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. On the Social Uses of Technology <ul><li>What are people’s social goals in using social software? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to compensate for lack of face to face contact? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>email friends from long distance; get a date; forge weak social ties with people with specialized knowledge; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, communication integrated with face to face contact? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is social software good for you? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For geeky losers who can’t get a date , addictive, like video games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents people from developing real social connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kraut et al. (1998); Nie and Irbring (2000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, helps people keep in touch with family and friends, meet new people? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does what we know about the use of social software impact design? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview Communication Technologies
  5. 5. Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) <ul><li>User Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate, collaborate, socialize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication is mediated through technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medial richness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul></ul></ul>low high Media Richness Interactivity low high Phone VideoPhone FacetoFace Text to Speech Chat IM Email VoiceMail Fax Usenet WhiteBoard (Whittaker)
  6. 6. Social Presence Theory <ul><li>How successfully media convey sense of others being physically present (also, Media Richness Theory) </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face as benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>Increase social presence with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-verbal, body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts sense of emotion, intimacy, immediacy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Importance of Social Presence <ul><li>Common ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving shared understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turn-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Infer meaning from context </li></ul><ul><li>Activating pro-social norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of social presence, increased aggression, decreased trust </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Common Ground Theory <ul><li>Coordinating both content and process </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving shared understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual knowledge, beliefs, assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grounding behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to achieve common ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacted by communication medium and task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gazes, nodding, pointing, facial expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checking, repeating, rephrasing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Media opportunities <ul><li>Co-presence, same place, same time </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Audibility </li></ul><ul><li>Cotemporality (as sending, other is also receiving) </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneity (can send and receive at same time) </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentiality (messages in sequence) </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewability </li></ul><ul><li>Revisability </li></ul>
  10. 10. Media opportunities by Media Type
  11. 11. Social Information Processing Theory <ul><li>People seek to develop relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Need to acquire information, and test theories, to develop impression about another person </li></ul><ul><li>Impression formation through CMC slower, but possible if given enough time </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation of future interaction activates impression seeking behavors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>makes people more friendly, seeking info from others, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. IN CSCW (also GDSS) (computer supported cooperative work and group decision support systems) <ul><li>CMC can be good, or bad, depending on your goals </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Interpersonal affect </li></ul><ul><li>Increased task focus </li></ul><ul><li>emphasizing content, minimizing social influences </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced group solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>More equal participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have multiple synchronous participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shy people less inhibited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More criticism from lower-status individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely to have leader emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Takes more time to make a decision (need 4 or 5 times more time to have same # of exchanges), but </li></ul><ul><li>Less influence in group decision-making by leaders </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hyperpersonal CMC <ul><li>Online interactions become hyperpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In absence of prior information, over generalize from what information the do have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency towards overly positive impressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-group identity (same group, must be good) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wishful thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinhibition from low social presence, more self-disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimized self-presentation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Communication Technologies in a social context <ul><li>Real time face to face not always preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Why select a medium? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time, over location, over many people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central, no multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vs. peripheral, enabling multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interruptivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vs. backchannel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. save phone # on cell phone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always available (cell phone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict harder face to face </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Email <ul><li>Still the Killer App </li></ul><ul><li>Time based notification with read/unread flag </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes threaded (GMail) </li></ul><ul><li>Most sharing (URLs, files, pictures) in context of email </li></ul>
  16. 16. Email as Habitat <ul><li>People use throughout day </li></ul><ul><li>Major means of non face to face </li></ul><ul><li>Main means of document exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Co opted to do lists, contact management </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting event coordination </li></ul><ul><li>RSS sometimes integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Common to have email “personas”: work email, home email, junk email </li></ul><ul><li>Any communication application *not* intregrated with e-mail missing important opportunity for user attention </li></ul>
  17. 19. Zimbra <ul><li>Very web 2.0, web based email </li></ul><ul><li>Because web-based, can integrate open API’s, widgets </li></ul><ul><li>See demo: (click on topic index, then View a map demo) </li></ul>
  18. 20. Instant Messaging MSN Messenger Standard IM client Adium Integrates multiple IM accounts
  19. 21. Other IM services <ul><li>Skype – IM that enable Voice over IP </li></ul><ul><li>Trillian – Mac based, integrates multiple IM accounts into one </li></ul><ul><li>Campfire – group IM </li></ul>
  20. 22. Meebo <ul><li>Very web 2.0 IM service </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates different accounts </li></ul>
  21. 23. Meebo <ul><li>Rich client look and feel </li></ul><ul><li>Can use widget to plug into web pages, blogs </li></ul>
  22. 24. Discussion Groups <ul><li>Yahoo </li></ul><ul><li>Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates w/email </li></ul>
  23. 25. Discussion Groups <ul><li>WholeNote </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded conversations </li></ul>
  24. 26. Yahoo <ul><li>Message threading </li></ul>
  25. 27. Same conversation in Gmail
  26. 28. 2001 MSN Communities Analysis Analysis of 20K communities Now called MSN Groups
  27. 29. 2001 MSN Communities Analysis <ul><li>What are people using discussion groups for? </li></ul>
  28. 30. 2001 MSN Communities Analysis <ul><li>How does type of group impact measures of health? </li></ul>
  29. 31. Conversation through photo sharing <ul><li>Check out: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Positional Play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking, pointing at other pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Image quote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take image, modify, repost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text in picture </li></ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul><ul><li>Theme </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Story </li></ul>
  30. 32. Contextualized Conversation <ul><li>Messages and threaded messaging on primary content, content provides context </li></ul><ul><li>Largely blogs, but can appear anywhere </li></ul>
  31. 33. Newsvine messages <ul><li>Embedded reply </li></ul>
  32. 34. Large scale conversation
  33. 35. Netscan – analysis of Usenet discussion lists
  34. 36. Netscan -- Conversation Analytics
  35. 37. Netscan -- Treemap
  36. 38. Conversation Map <ul><li>Warran Sack </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley </li></ul>
  37. 39. Sociable Media Group <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Many interesting visualizations, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualizing people emailing </li></ul></ul>