Cryonics - A Science FictionPresentation Transcript
“Cryonics – A Science Fiction than Serious Science" Presented by : SheetalNarkar
What is CRYONICS ?? “The deep-freezing of human bodies at death for preservation and possible revival in the future” “The preservation of legally dead humans or pets at very low temperature in the hope that future science can restore them to life”
CRYONICS Legal death : is a legal pronouncement by a qualified person that further medical care is not appropriate and that a patient should be considered dead under the law Clinical death : is the term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing James Bedford is the first person known to have been placed in cryonic suspension in 1967.
The word cryonics is derived from the Greek word ‘kryos’ meaning ‘cold’
Scientists search for biological antifreezes on human organs to freeze and thaw them without destroying delicate cells
Cryopreservation halts chemistry, thus “stopping time” in a living organism
Background knowledge In the future, scientists may have the medicine and knowledge to revive the dead The idea is that, if someone has "died" from a disease that is incurable today, he or she can be "frozen" and then revived in the future when a cure has been discovered. Those who believe that revival may someday be possible generally look toward advanced bioengineering, molecular nanotechnology, nanomedicine as key technologies.
CRYONICS PROCESS Legal Death – Cardiac Arrest (After cardiac arrest, the brain cells start dying after 6 minutes) Body is placed on Cardio – pulmonary support (Body cooled to 15 ºC) Simultaneously the body is packed in ice ice
CRYONICS PROCESS Various drugs are administered
Blood Thinners (Heparin)
Calcium Channel Blockers
Free Radical Inhibitors
Blood is replaced by saline solution. This is called as Blood Wash Out (The body is cooled to -10 ºC)
CRYONICS PROCESS Saline is replaced by a glycerol based cryoprotectant. This is called as Perfusion Body is cooled in the Silicone Oil Bath/ Insulated Box with dry ice vapors, cooled with dry ice. ( - 100 ºC , 2 – 7 days )
CRYONICS PROCESS Body is then further cooled in Special Holding Tanks – gradually cooled with liquid nitrogen vapors to – 196 ºC (5-7 days) Finally the body is placed in Insulated Storage Tank – “Dewar” or Fiberglass “Cryostat”
Obstacles to success
Obstacles to success Preservation Injury :
Long-term cryopreservation requires cooling to near -196 °C
This causes injuries that are not reversible with present technology.
Water freezes inside cells causing them to burst is a myth, but damage from freezing can still be serious.
Cryonics uses cryoprotectants to reduce this damage.
Cooling and solidification without freezing is called Vitrification
Obstacles to success 2. Ischemic Injury :
Ischemia means inadequate or absent blood circulation that deprives tissue of oxygen and nutrients
Often in cryonics the brain is without oxygen for long time and at warm temperatures causes ischemic injury
Such ischemic injury to the brain and other tissues makes resuscitation impossible
Obstacles to success 3. Revival :
It is universally agreed by scientists that human cryopreservation is not possible with “any near – term technology”
Revival requires repairing damage from :
Lack of oxygen
Thermal Stress (Fracturing)
Physical Therapy to regain function of the body (similar in coma)
Reversing effects that caused patient death
In many cases, Tissue Regeneration will be necessary
Institutes of cryonics
ALCOR LIFE EXTENSION FOUNDATION
Located at Scottsdale, Arizona
World Leader in the branch of Cryonics
Founded in 1972
Future Patients signed up = 650
Patients cryopreserved = 59
Website : www.alcor.org/index.html
Located at Michigan
Founded in 1976
Total Members = 833
Members with Contract = 398
Volunteers = 16
Website : www.cryonics.org
AMERICAN CRYONICS SOCIETY Located at San Francisco Founded in 1969 Future Patients registered = 1,000 Patients cryopreserved = 150
Located at San Leandro, California
Pioneering Cryonics Service Provider
Conducted their first Cryonics Suspension in 1974
Cryopreserved Patients = 23
Website : www.transtime.com/ttinc.htm
CRYONICS SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA
It is a non-profit organization registered in Victoria
It is a support for residents of Australia, New Zealand and others countries in the region having suspension arrangement.
It is planning to make such arrangement, with any of the major US cryonics organization and seeks to promote the concept generally in Australia
Other institutes :CRYONICS SOCIETY OF CANADAcryocare foundation
Costs of cryonics vary greatly, ranging from $28,000 for cryopreservation by the Cryonics Institute, to $155,000 for whole body cryopreservation for the American Cryonics Society’s most expensive plan
Alcor’s whole body preservation is priced at $150,000
The most common method of paying for cryonics is life insurance, which spreads the cost over many years.
Contrary to popular belief, cryonics is not just for the rich -- in fact, most people signed up for suspension could best be described as "middle class".
It has been claimed that cryonics is “affordable for the vast majority” of people in the industrialized world who really want it and plan for it in advance.
Ethical issues of cryonics
Ethical opinions of cryonics tend to pivot on the issue of whether cryonics is regarded as interment or medicine. If cryonics is interment, then religious beliefs about death and after life may come into consideration.
Resuscitation may be deemed impossible by those with religious beliefs because the soul is gone, and according to most religions only God can resurrect the dead.
Ethical issues of cryonics
Is it immoral to spend money on a doubtful last grasp at life like cryonics, when the same money could be used to save the lives of hundreds of malnourished Third World children?
It is also often argued that death is necessary to remove rigid old minds from positions of power so that humanity can progress. But if technology eliminates aging, minds could continue to grow without becoming rigid or inflexible.