Modern biotechnology and biosafety issues


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Importance of Modern Biotechnology in enhancing food security and the need for biosafety regulations and its utilization by African Governments

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Modern biotechnology and biosafety issues

  1. 1. Modern Biotechnology Applications and Biosafety issues Mr. Omena Bernard Ojuederie Department of Biotechnology College of Food Sciences Bells University of Technology Biosafety issues Bells Tech, Only the Best is Good for Bells
  2. 2. OUTLINE Biotechnology Modern Biotechnology/ Recombinant DNA Technology Applications of Modern Biotechnology (GMOs)Applications of Modern Biotechnology (GMOs) Global trends Industrial perspectives (Nigeria) Biosafety Cartagena Protocol/Biosafety system in Nigeria
  3. 3. Biotechnology
  4. 4. Biotechnology Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. -United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity-United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
  5. 5. Biotechnology: A 10,000 years journeyBiotechnology: A 10,000 years journey Bread 3000BC Brewing / Fermentation 6000BC Domestication of plants 8000BC Mendel’s laws 1865-1901 Cell theory - 1839 Plant breeding / Seed trading 1742 Leeuwenhoek (Bacteria) 1683 Plant tissue cultured 1922 - 1934 Discovery of Agrobacterium - 1907 Bt discovered - 1901 Bt discovered - 1901 Cheese / dairy products 1000BC Cheese / dairy products 1000BC
  6. 6. 1st transgenic plants Clone Bt toxin gene 1981 Plant tissue cultured 1922 - 1934 Watson & Crick DNA double helix 1st virus free plants 1953 Schell & Van Montagu Discover plasmids in A tumefaciens 1974 Biotechnology: A 10,000 years journeyBiotechnology: A 10,000 years journey Virus resistance 1986 1st transgenic plants 1983 Human insulin produced 1982 Herbicide resistant soybean, maize, canola Bt cotton commercialized 1996 Bt cotton field trials 2008
  7. 7. • SELECTIVE BREEDING FOR IMPROVED FOOD PRODUCTION • BREEDING FOR DESIRABLE CROP TRAITS Conventional breeding as a means of improving agricultural yield and production of better crops are ancient human practices of biotechnology DESIRABLE CROP TRAITS • BREEDING WILD PLANTS TO PRODUCE MODERN ONES • BREEDING TO ALTER DISEASE VULRABILITY • etc
  8. 8. Modern biotechnology is defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to mean the application of in- vitro nucleic acid techniques, or fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family, that overcome natural,physiological,reproductive / recombination barriers. Modern Biotechnology barriers. It is unique as it allows scientists to precisely introduce a desired trait by inserting only specific genes into plants and animals.
  9. 9. Genetic engineering of plants Genetic engineering of animals Genetic engineering of microbes Recombinant DNA technology Monoclonal antibody production Embryo transfer in animals Modern BiotechnologyIncreasingComplexity Embryo transfer in animals Plant tissue culture Biological nitrogen fixation Microbial fermentation Traditional Biotechnology IncreasingComplexity Increasing Cost Source: Persely (1990)Figure 1. Gradient of biotechnologies
  10. 10. Tools of modern biotechnology Modern Biotechnology tools in research and development deal with the following components Genomics and Proteomics Bioinformatics TransformationTransformation Molecular breeding Molecular diagnostics Vaccine Technology Tissue culture DNA-marker technology
  11. 11. Genetic engineering as well as cell- and tissue culture technologies with applications in biology, agriculture, food science, and medicine…… Molecules
  12. 12. gene isolation plasmid DNA DNA cloning of specific fragments into a self- replicating genetic element so that the DNA molecule can be reproduced gene isolation transformation transformation bacteria Source: Tabien, R. 2000
  13. 13. Basic rDNA technology procedures PCR Recombinant DNA Cloning
  14. 14. rDNA Technology
  15. 15. an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Transgenic organisms, a subset of GMOs, are organisms which have inserted DNA that Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) organisms which have inserted DNA that originated in a different species
  16. 16. an organism resulting from modern biotechnology broadly equivalent to genetically modified organism. Living Modified Organisms are capable of growing, and typically refers to agricultural crops. Living Modified Organism (LMO) crops. Genetically Modified Organisms include both LMOs and organisms which are not capable of growing.
  17. 17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens that causes crown gall in plants is now used to confer protection (insect and herbicide resistance). Applications of modern biotechnology
  18. 18. First-generation Transgenic Crops: This involves Improvement in agronomic traits, such as better resistance to pests and diseases. Second-Generation Transgenic Crops: This includes product quality improvements for nutrition and industrial purposes. Examples are oilseeds with improved Categories of transgenic crops industrial purposes. Examples are oilseeds with improved fatty acid profiles, staple foods with enhanced contents of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins; Third-Generation Transgenic Crops: These transgenic crops are designed to produce special substances for pharmaceutical or industrial purposes. Biopharmaceuticals/biopharming.
  19. 19. Transfer of a gene from a soil bacteria that codes for a proteinprotein Protein becomes a toxin and kills selected insects
  20. 20. Bt Corn resistant to corn borer Corn borer damage in corn rice enriched in beta carotene or provitamin AThe first genetically modified product was Flavr Savr tomato developed by Calgene, Inc, a biotechnology company in Califonia.
  21. 21. Some GM Foods on the market
  22. 22. Global trends Adoption of biotechnology for crop improvement is on the increase
  23. 23. Global trends
  24. 24. Global trends
  25. 25. GM crops have directly contributed to alleviating poverty for some 10 million farmers globally The biotechnology industry has more than Global trends The biotechnology industry has more than tripled in size since 1992, with revenues up to $39.2 billion between 1996-2010 About 500 publicly held biotechnology companies in the United States 19 out of 29 biotech countries are Developing-planted 50% of global area
  26. 26. According to the ISAAA report on the global status of commercialized biotech/GM Crops in 2010, the area used for biotechnology crops was on the increase between 1996 to 2010 with only three Global trends between 1996 to 2010 with only three African countries South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt growing biotech crops by small-scale farmers to meet the needs citizenry.
  27. 27. Green Biotechnology: agricultural biotechnology Red Biotechnology: pharmaceutical and medical biotechnology. Antibiotics, Vaccines, Biotechnology Industry Organization Hormone production Biodiagnostics, Biopharmaceuticals Biovaccinces, Gene therapy.
  28. 28. Medical/pharmaceutical applications Use of modern biotechnology to cure sickle cell anemia
  29. 29. Biopharmaceuticals-Production of drugs and vaccines using plants as bioreactors, e.g human growth hormone with the gene inserted into the chloroplast DNA of tobacco plants, hepatitis B virus. Development of vaccine against HIV, Medical/pharmaceutical applications Development of vaccine against HIV, Molecular diagnosis for genetic diseases DNA fingerprinting and paternity testing Gene therapy-manipulation of DNA to tx diseases by altering individuals genes. (CF, PKU) ETHICAL ISSUES
  30. 30. White Biotechnology: industrial biotechnology Industrial biotechnology- the development of large- scale bioenergy refineries, involves dedicated genetically modified crops as well as the large-scale bioprocessing and fermentation as is used in some Biotechnology Industry Organization bioprocessing and fermentation as is used in some pharmaceutical production. the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes includes, Manufacturing: pulp and paper, cotton, leather use of transgenic plants for phyto-remediation alternative energy (biofuel production from plants) Production of biogas from organic wastes.
  31. 31. Declining agricultural growth Population explosion Worsening economic development Widespread poverty and food The Industrial perspective (Nigerian Situation) Widespread poverty and food insecurity
  32. 32. 2001: NABDA established 2003: Six (6) National Biotechnology Centers of Excellence established in the universities (one each in the six geo‐political zones across the country) 2003: Nigeria Agriculture & Biotechnology Project Historical Development of Modern Biotechnology in Nigeria ‐ 2003: Nigeria Agriculture & Biotechnology Project (NABP) launched 2005: 1st National training workshop on plant genetic transformation held at the Advanced Biotechnology Laboratory, SHESTCO. 2005: 1st Biosafety review of application for confined field trial of transgenic cassava
  33. 33. •The project commenced in October 2009 •Funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation& others •Successful Confined Field Trials completed in 2010 (Beta-carotene); 2011 (Iron)
  34. 34. – The project commenced in Nigeria in 2009 – First Confined Field Trial in July 2011 for introgression of traits into 3 adapted Nigerian Varieties. – Harvest of the First CFT completed in December 2011 – Proof of concept and Identification of traits ongoing In terms of tonnage, sorghum is Africa's second most important cereal. The continent produces about 20 million tonnes of sorghum per annum, about one-third of the world crop.
  35. 35. The project commenced in Nigeria in July 2008 Funded by AATF aided by USAID and others Successful Confined Field Trials 2009-2011 Maruca-Resistant Cowpea African Agricultural Technology Foundation Containment Trial in the Containment facility commences in 2012 The Nigerian Government approved confined field trials on cowpea Maruca resistance at IAR-SAMARU Zaria to stop the menace of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata Maruca pod borer at work Source:Larry Beach African Agricultural Technology Foundation maruca- resistant cowpea: frequently asked questions [] webcite
  36. 36. NABDA in collaboration with TRINITY BIOTECH of IRELAND has set up locally, a manufacturing facility for production offacility for production of HIV/AIDS kits to be followed later by Malaria and Hepatitis-B Diagnostic kits
  37. 37. Biosafety Modern biotechnology has the potential to generate benefits for humankind and contribute to sustainable development. Nevertheless, there are concerns that living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology may have negative effects on biodiversity and Biosafety may have negative effects on biodiversity and human health. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology
  38. 38. Mission To promote the basic tenets of biosafety as enunciated in the Cartagena protocol on biosafety To enforce Nigeria National biosafety regulatory regimes to ensure the safe application and use of Mission & Vision of Biosafety in Nigeria regimes to ensure the safe application and use of biotechnology products. o Vision To ensure that the process and procedures of modern biotechnology are undertaken within limits of a regulatory system that assures its safe use, protection of Nigerian biodiversity and with minimal risks to human health and environment
  39. 39. To determine in advance when hazards to human health and natural systems will result if any particular GMO is released into the environment. To anticipate when a GMO or any of its product( will be harmful if consumed in food. To discern whether a GMO actually will yield the Goals of Biosafety To discern whether a GMO actually will yield the benefits it was designed to provide and lastly To make as certain as possible that hazards will not occur when GMOs are transported intentionally or internationally, among different ecosystems and nations.
  40. 40. Risks for animal and human health: toxicity & food/feed quality/safety; allergies; pathogen drug resistance Risks for the environment: gene flow; invasiveness( of GMOs might become predominant); susceptibility of non-target organisms , changes to biodiversity. Topics of concern non-target organisms , changes to biodiversity. Horizontal gene transfer : genetic pollution through pollen or seed dispersal & transfer of foreign gene to micro-organisms (DNA uptake) or generation of new live viruses by recombination (transcapsidation, complementation, etc.)
  41. 41. Risks for agriculture: resistance/tolerance of target organisms; super weeds; alteration of nutritional value (attractiveness of the organism to pests),loss of familiarity/changes in agricultural practice Topics of concern General concerns: ethical issues (eg. labeling); risk assessment/risk management; general biosafety; public attitudes, perception; legislation, monitoring; socio- economics (eg. situation of poor farmers in developing countries); IPR (Intellectual Property Rights); GM traceability / commodity segregation Biosafety bibliography database In 2002, US President George Bush accused the European Union of blocking efforts to fight famine in Africa because of "unfounded and unscientific " fears over genetically modified foods.
  42. 42. Biosafety has similarly been defined as “the avoidance of risk to human health and safety, and to the conservation of the environment, as a result of the use for research and commerce of infectious or genetically modified organisms” (Zaid, 2001). Relevant scientific disciplines underpin biosafety studies ---molecular biology, plant breeding, genetics, plant pathology, agronomy, weed science, entomology and ecology, among others.
  43. 43. In 1992 the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) came into force. Its objectives include the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out ofand equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources”. o It identified the emergence of GMOs/LMOs as a group of items produced by modern biotechnology that required special attention due to their potential adverse impacts on biodiversity and human health
  44. 44. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety was negotiated and became available for signature in 2000. It was signed by Nigeria in 2000 and ratified in 2003. The protocol came into force on the 11th ofThe protocol came into force on the 11th of September 2003 and as at 2007, has 138 signatory countries.
  45. 45. Biosafety Bill Developed under United Nations Environment Program-Global Environment Facility (UNEP-GEF) National Biosafety Framework project of 2002-2006. The guidelines permit for the testing of GM crops for research purposes but not for commercialization Passed by the National Assembly (NASS) and presently awaiting presidential assent. Biosafety Bill Passed by the National Assembly (NASS) and presently awaiting presidential assent. When passed into law, it will give a holistic approach to the practice and regulation of modern biotechnology activities in Nigeria and prevent her from serving as a dumping ground for illegally GMOs. In the absence of the National Biosafety law, Nigeria may face international sanctions for failing to abide by the protocol it signed and ratified. There will be lack of confidence in the practice of modern biotechnology. www://nig.biosafetyclearing
  46. 46. Biotechnology as a process is not likely to stop, but its products can be modified and adopted as found suitable, beneficial or useful Hence, the issue is not that of total adoption or rejection of Biotechnology and its products, but that of determining most suitable and appropriate Are there alternatives to modern biotechnology? that of determining most suitable and appropriate use The scientific facts indicate that biotech products are safe, and that their benefits far outweigh the risks The research and development process for genetically-enhanced foods, drugs etc is extremely precise, heavily regulated, and carefully controlled.
  47. 47. Nigeria’s population is escalating by the day and may reach 250 million by 2025: Food production must also increase by 60 % to keep pace. Technology transfer to Nigeria will strengthen our technological competence to assimilate, further Recommendations technological competence to assimilate, further develop, and effectively apply the technologies for enhanced agricultural productivity. Political will for R&D of biotechnology is imperative. Policy and institutional arrangements necessary Biosafety units should be set up at Institutions & Universities utilizing modern biotechnology The public need to be educated on biotechnology
  48. 48. Biotechnology is set to play a pivotal role in the future of the medical, agricultural, environmental, food pharmaceutical and industrial sectors of the economy. Conclusion The concern should be on how to tap into modern biotechnology, maximize the benefits of the technology and minimize the risks in terms of environmental harm and human health risks
  49. 49. Biosafety laws must be put in place to ensure that the crops released are environmentally safe. The end users the farmers need to be educated on the benefits of modern biotechnology in crop improvement as their confidence in Government would hasten acceptability. Well trained scientists in this expanding field of biological science are therefore required to enhance economic growth and sustain food security in Sub Saharan Africa. For Nigeria to achieve its vision 20:20:20, scientific research must be taken very seriously and accorded priority in funding, encouragement, recognition and utilization of research findings.
  50. 50. Bells Tech, Only the Best is Good for Bells