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CHEESE
PRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION-ETYMOLOGY
 Word ‘cheese’ – Latin “casues”, meaning to
ferment/become sour
HOW OLD IS THE CHESE YOU ENJOY?
 ...
INTRODUCTION
 Ultimately a milk product
 Widely used all over the world as food
product
 Purely a product of microbial
...
DISCOVERY
 Though it is not certain that who made the first cheese
but it is certain that it was accidental.
 Nomadic tr...
Saddlebags
Earthenware bowl
 Valued for portability, long life, and high content
of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
 More compact than milk- ...
DIFFERENT TYPES
Roquefort Cheese
Camembert
Cheese
Brie
Swiss cheese
Gorgonzola
Gouda
Stilton
Grana
Gloucester
 Cheese is completely a milk product.
 Whole milk- compressed, processed and stored to
produce cheese.
 Wide range of c...
PRINCIPLES OF CHEESE PRODUCTION
 Cheese – a way of storing milk over years
 Nowhere near as big as the market for cow’s ...
CHEESE MANUFACTURE
The manufacture of most cheeses involves the following
Pasteurization
Kills nearly all microorganisms ...
Bactofugation
 Process in which a specially designed centrifuge-
bactofuge is been used to separate the bacteria and
spor...
BACTOFUGE
Microfiltration
 A membrane filter with a pore size of approximately 0.2
micron can filter bacteria from a water solution...
 In addition, the protein forms a dynamic membrane that
contributes to the retention of micro-organisms.
 Provides an in...
Additives in cheese milk
 The essential additives in the cheese making process are
the starter culture and the rennet
 U...
Starter
Two principal types of culture are used in cheese making:
 Mesophilic cultures with a temperature optimum between...
 Three characteristics of starter cultures are of primary
importance in cheese making
1. ability to produce lactic acid
2...
 For production of low-fat cheese, and if legally
permitted, disodium phosphate (Na2PO4), usually 10
– 20 g/kg, can somet...
Carbon dioxide (CO2 )
 Addition of CO2 is one method of improving the quality
of cheese milk.
 Carbon dioxide occurs nat...
Rennet
 All cheese manufacture depends upon formation of
curd by the action of rennet or similar enzymes except
in cottag...
The two major processes occurs after the addition of
rennet are
1. Transformation of casein to paracasein under the
influe...
 Rennet is extracted from the stomachs of young calves
and marketed in form of a solution with a strength of
1:10000 to 1...
Diagram showing the action of rennet on the casein micelle. The
enzyme in rennet cleaves the casein releasing a large pept...
Substitutes for animal rennet
 Found substitutes for animal rennet about 50 years
ago, concerning the vegetarians in Indi...
1. Coagulating enzymes from plants and,
2. Coagulating enzymes from microorganisms
 Coagulation ability is best shown by ...
Acid coagulation
 Any soft cheeses are produced without use of rennet, by
coagulating milk with acid, such as citric acid...
CHEESEMAKING
A: vat during stirring
B: vat during cutting
C: vat during whey drainage
D: vat during pressing
Disturbances in cultures
 Slow rate of production of lactic acid or failure to
produce lactic acid.
 Antibiotics used to...
Acidification
Important for the proper release of curd from whey, and
to control the growth of undesirable bacteria
 Ach...
 Fermentation continues for about 6 to 16 hours.
 Amount of starter varies with the variety of cheese to
produce.
 The ...
 About 30 ml of rennet is enough for a 100 liters of milk, to
yield 10 kg of cheese and 90 L of whey.
 Most of the chymo...
 The milk has to set for about 30 minutes after the
rennet has been added.
 The milk coagulum is cut into cubes with spe...
Syneresis
 Syneresis, or shrinking, of the coagulum is largely the
result of continuing rennet action.
 It causes loss o...
Salting
 Salt is added to cheese as a preservative and because it
affects the texture and flavour of the final cheese by
...
Curd Manipulation
Heat treatments
 The application of heat to cheese curd at any of
several different times during the ma...
Stretching the curd
 Stretching the curd is an important operation for several
kinds of cheese, in particular the pasta f...
Pasta filata style Mozarella
Cheddaring
 Cheddaring is a mild form of stretching in which the
cheese curd is piled up and held warm so that water
flow...
Washing
 Washing the curd either in the cheese vat or after de-wheying
helps remove more lactose which changes the pH of ...
Moulding
Maturation or ripening
 Cheese ripening is basically about the breakdown of
proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (acids and...
 Cheese which depend mainly on interior ripening (most
hard ripened cheese such as Cheddar and Italian types)
may be ripe...
Flavour and texture development are strongly
dependent on
 pH profile
 Composition
 Salting
 Temperature
 Humidity
 ...
The ripening of cheese involves three major biochemical
events.
 Glycolysis: Lactose is metabolized to lactic acid, which...
 Proteolysis: Proteins (caseins) are gradually broken
down to form peptides and amino acids by the
enzymes of the coagula...
 The breakdown of the proteins to peptides
(proteolysis) transforms the rubbery and flavourless
cheese curd into a cheese...
Packaging
 Many cheeses are made and matured in large blocks
(e.g. 20 kg) and they are exported as such.
 When they are ...
RIPENING CHEESES
HEALTH ASPECTS OF CHEESE
Nutrition - There is a very high concentration of essential
nutrients in cheese including high qu...
REFERENCE
 http://www.cheesemaking.com/shared/pdf/amandatitus.
pdf
 http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/dairy/3D.pdf
 http...
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Cheese production

  1. 1. CHEESE PRODUCTION
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION-ETYMOLOGY  Word ‘cheese’ – Latin “casues”, meaning to ferment/become sour HOW OLD IS THE CHESE YOU ENJOY?  Gorgonzola 879 AD.  Roquefort 1070  Grana 1200  Cheddar 1500  Gouda 1697  Gloucester 1697  Stilton 1785  Camembert 1791
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Ultimately a milk product  Widely used all over the world as food product  Purely a product of microbial fermentation  Flavor and aroma changes depending upon the microorganism being used.  Before long, people learned that curds can be aged for over weeks and months and then pressed together to form large cakes of cheese.  The art of cheese making have traveled from Asia to the Europe and then spread all over the world CHEDDAR CHEESE
  4. 4. DISCOVERY  Though it is not certain that who made the first cheese but it is certain that it was accidental.  Nomadic tribes of Central Asia are considered to be the legends who “discovered” cheese.  Carried milk in saddlebags that made from animal skin probably from the stomach, which contains the coagulating enzyme known as rennin  Fermentation and curdling would have happened due to the galloping motion of the horse  Effective separation of milk into curds and whey.  Whey had been used as an energy drink and curd was drained in perforated earthenware bowls and slightly salted to have a highly proteinaceous food.
  5. 5. Saddlebags Earthenware bowl
  6. 6.  Valued for portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus.  More compact than milk- longer the shelf life.  Hard cheeses last more than soft cheeses Eg: Cheddar cheese  Made from raw milk. Since it is not pasteurized, higher vitamin contents.  Salmonella, Mycobacterium and Brucella are the pathogens that might have seen in raw milk.  U.S Federal Law- the cheese made from raw milk should be aged for over 60 days to prevent the development of pathogens.
  7. 7. DIFFERENT TYPES Roquefort Cheese Camembert Cheese Brie Swiss cheese
  8. 8. Gorgonzola Gouda Stilton Grana Gloucester
  9. 9.  Cheese is completely a milk product.  Whole milk- compressed, processed and stored to produce cheese.  Wide range of cheese can be produced in countries where milk is legally allowed to process without pasteurization.  In most of the countries the range of cheeses is smaller because of this reason  Whey is a byproduct of cheese production  Like most of other fermented food products such as beer, wine, etc. cheese also can be stored for longer periods, say years.
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES OF CHEESE PRODUCTION  Cheese – a way of storing milk over years  Nowhere near as big as the market for cow’s milk cheese, considerable amount of cheese is made from other milk such as goat and sheep.  Cheese – by coagulating milk (separating curd and whey)  Both raw milk and pasteurized milk can be used for cheese making.  Needs more rennet (up to twice) for homogenized milk than the raw milk.  This milk produces a curd that is smoother and less firm than that of raw milk, so most people add calcium chloride to the cheese
  11. 11. CHEESE MANUFACTURE The manufacture of most cheeses involves the following Pasteurization Kills nearly all microorganisms including pathogens that cause diseases and other undesirable organisms such as yeasts and coliforms (may alter the characteristics by producing CO2z and undesirable proteolysis) Regular HTST pasteurization at 72-730C for 15-20 seconds is commonly applied. Spore forming bacteria Clostridium tyrobutyricum can survive pasteurization and produces butyric acid and large volumes of hydrogen gas by fermenting lactic acid, which will destroy the structure of cheese. Chemical inhibitors such as NaNO3 or H2O2 can be used but in several countries, it has been banned and mechanical modes have been preferred.
  12. 12. Bactofugation  Process in which a specially designed centrifuge- bactofuge is been used to separate the bacteria and spores that present in milk.  Efficient way of reducing the number of spores in milk since their specific gravity is lesser than that of milk.  Normally separate milk into a fraction which is more or less free from bacteria and a concentrate which contains both spores and bacteria.  Example- spore load in cream by Bacillus cereus is reduced.  Typically 60-630C is the temperature applied in Bactofugation
  13. 13. BACTOFUGE
  14. 14. Microfiltration  A membrane filter with a pore size of approximately 0.2 micron can filter bacteria from a water solution  Most of the fat globules and some of the proteins are as large as, or larger than, the bacteria.  This results in the filter fouling very quickly when membranes of such a small pore size are chosen.  In practice, membranes of a pore size of 0.8 to 1.4 micron are chosen to lower the concentration of protein.
  15. 15.  In addition, the protein forms a dynamic membrane that contributes to the retention of micro-organisms.  Provides an indirect sterilization  Due to the high bacteria-reducing efficiency, microfiltration allows production of hard and semi-hard cheese without any need for chemicals to inhibit growth of Clostridia spores.
  16. 16. Additives in cheese milk  The essential additives in the cheese making process are the starter culture and the rennet  Under certain conditions it may also be necessary to supply other components such as calcium chloride (CaCl2) and saltpetre (KNO3 or NaNO3)  An enzyme, lysozyme, has also been introduced as a substitute for saltpetre as an inhibitor of Clostridia organisms
  17. 17. Starter Two principal types of culture are used in cheese making:  Mesophilic cultures with a temperature optimum between 20 and 40°C  Thermophilic cultures which develop at up to 45°C.  The most frequently used cultures are mixed strain cultures, in which two or more strains of both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria exist in symbiosis  These cultures not only produce lactic acid but also aroma components and CO2.  Carbon dioxide is essential for creating the eyes in round- eyed and granular types of cheese
  18. 18.  Three characteristics of starter cultures are of primary importance in cheese making 1. ability to produce lactic acid 2. ability to break down the protein 3. ability to produce carbon dioxide (CO2). Calcium chloride (CaCl2 )  If the milk is of poor quality for cheese making, the coagulum will be soft.  This results in heavy losses of fines (casein) and fat as well as poor syneresis during cheese making.  5 – 20 grams of calcium chloride per 100 kg of milk is normally enough to achieve a constant coagulation time and result in sufficient firmness of the coagulum.
  19. 19.  For production of low-fat cheese, and if legally permitted, disodium phosphate (Na2PO4), usually 10 – 20 g/kg, can sometimes be added to the milk before the calcium chloride is added.  This increases the elasticity of the coagulum due to formation of colloidal calcium phosphate, which will have almost the same effect as the milk fat globules entrapped in the curd.
  20. 20. Carbon dioxide (CO2 )  Addition of CO2 is one method of improving the quality of cheese milk.  Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in milk, but most of it is lost in the course of processing  Adding carbon dioxide by artificial means lowers the pH of the milk: the original pH is normally reduced by 0.1 to 0.3 units.  This will then result in shorter coagulation time.  The effect can be utilized to obtain the same coagulation time with a smaller amount of rennet
  21. 21. Rennet  All cheese manufacture depends upon formation of curd by the action of rennet or similar enzymes except in cottage cheeses.  Coagulation of casein is the fundamental process in cheese making.  It is generally done with rennet, but other proteolytic enzymes can also be used.  The active principle in rennet is an enzyme called chymosin, and coagulation takes place shortly after the rennet is added to the milk.
  22. 22. The two major processes occurs after the addition of rennet are 1. Transformation of casein to paracasein under the influence of rennet 2. Precipitation of paracasein in the presence of calcium ions  The whole process is governed by the temperature, acidity, and calcium content of the milk as well as other factors  The optimum temperature for rennet is in the region of 40°C, but lower temperatures are normally used in the practice, basically to avoid excessive hardness of the coagulum
  23. 23.  Rennet is extracted from the stomachs of young calves and marketed in form of a solution with a strength of 1:10000 to 1:15 000, which means that one part of rennet can coagulate 10000 – 15000 parts of milk in 40 minutes at 35°C.  Bovine and porcine rennet are also used, often in combination with calf rennet (50:50, 30:70, etc.).  Rennet in powder form is normally 10 times as strong as liquid rennet.
  24. 24. Diagram showing the action of rennet on the casein micelle. The enzyme in rennet cleaves the casein releasing a large peptide. The surface of the micelle changes from being hydrophilic and negatively charged to hydrophobic and neutral. As a consequence, the micelles aggregate to trap fat globules and microorganisms in developing curd.
  25. 25. Substitutes for animal rennet  Found substitutes for animal rennet about 50 years ago, concerning the vegetarians in India, Israel and the Middle East who refused to accept the cheese with animal rennet.  Use of porcine rennet is out of the question in Muslim world, also was a reason to find substitute for animal rennet.  In recent years the quality of the animal rennet is a concern which also is a reason.  There are two main types of substitute coagulants
  26. 26. 1. Coagulating enzymes from plants and, 2. Coagulating enzymes from microorganisms  Coagulation ability is best shown by plant enzymes, but the cheese will be having a bitter taste during storage.  Enzymes from thistle or cynara are used in some traditional cheese production in the Mediterranean  Phytic acid, derived from unfermented soybeans, or Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) may also be used  Today, the most widely used Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) is produced either by the fungus Aspergillus niger or Kluyveromyces lactis
  27. 27. Acid coagulation  Any soft cheeses are produced without use of rennet, by coagulating milk with acid, such as citric acid or vinegar, or the lactic acid produced by soured milk.  Cream cheese, paneer, and rubing are traditionally made this way  The acidification can also come from bacterial fermentation such as in cultured milk
  28. 28. CHEESEMAKING A: vat during stirring B: vat during cutting C: vat during whey drainage D: vat during pressing
  29. 29. Disturbances in cultures  Slow rate of production of lactic acid or failure to produce lactic acid.  Antibiotics used to cure udder diseases.  Bacteriophages, thermo-tolerant viruses found in the air and soil.  Detergents and sterilising agents used in the dairy.
  30. 30. Acidification Important for the proper release of curd from whey, and to control the growth of undesirable bacteria  Achieved by the addition of lactic acid bacteria that convert lactose to lactic acid.  Such, carefully selected culture of lactic acid producing bacteria is called “starter”, without which cheese cannot be made.  New Zealand Diary Research Institute- an agency which identifies and distributes special starter cultures in deep frozen form to different cheese plants.  The starter will be added to the homogenized milk for culturing in large volumes and the temperature will be set to 220C, ideal for the growth of starter.
  31. 31.  Fermentation continues for about 6 to 16 hours.  Amount of starter varies with the variety of cheese to produce.  The amount of lactic acid produced and the moisture in the finished cheese regulate and control the biochemical activities that takes place during the maturation/ripening of the cheese. Coagulation of casein  The pH is lowered and rennet is added  Rennet- extracted from the stomach of calves; chymosin and bovine pepsin are active components.  Chymosin- responsible for the coagulation of casein (curdling), gives the curd a smooth texture
  32. 32.  About 30 ml of rennet is enough for a 100 liters of milk, to yield 10 kg of cheese and 90 L of whey.  Most of the chymosin is removed with whey  Chymosin can also be produced by genetically modified yeasts and bacteria, but such chymosin is not preferred in Sweden  Some fungi produced proteases can also be used which have similar function as that of chymosin.  Since this enzyme has some other functional characteristics compared to animal chymosin, used only in certain circumstances (for “vegetarian” cheeses)
  33. 33.  The milk has to set for about 30 minutes after the rennet has been added.  The milk coagulum is cut into cubes with special tools.  The size of the cubes differs depending on the kind of cheese being made.  Rennet- partial proteolysis of casein by cleavage at the Phe105-Met106 .  A rennet coagulum consists of a continuous matrix of strands of casein micelles, which incorporate fat globules, water, minerals and lactose and in which microorganisms are entrapped
  34. 34. Syneresis  Syneresis, or shrinking, of the coagulum is largely the result of continuing rennet action.  It causes loss of whey, and is accelerated by cutting, stirring, cooking, salting or pressing the curd, as well as the increasing amount of acid produced by the starter, and gradually increases during cheese making.  As a result, the cheese curd contracts and moisture is continuously expelled during the cooking stages.
  35. 35. Salting  Salt is added to cheese as a preservative and because it affects the texture and flavour of the final cheese by controlling microbial growth and enzyme activity.  The salt can be added either directly to the curd after the whey is run off and before moulding or pressing into shape,  Also can immerse the shaped cheese block in a salt brine for several days following manufacture.  Addition of salt to the cut curd draws more whey from the cheese curd and some of the salt diffuses into the curd.  The pH of the curd, the contact time and the salt particle size and structure are all important in determining how much salt is absorbed by the curd.
  36. 36. Curd Manipulation Heat treatments  The application of heat to cheese curd at any of several different times during the manufacture of particular cheese varieties, such as Cheddar, Mozzarella or Emmentaler, is to selectively stop the growth of certain types of bacteria and consequently influence the maturation pathway of the cheeses  It also alters the composition and texture of the cheese by increasing the syneresis without increasing the acidity.
  37. 37. Stretching the curd  Stretching the curd is an important operation for several kinds of cheese, in particular the pasta filata style, Mozzarella being the best known.  Traditionally the curd was immersed in hot (about 800C) water, and the fluid mass of cheese was pulled into strands to align the protein fibers and then poured into a container to cool.  It was then immersed in brine  Large scale production means that special machines are used for stretching.
  38. 38. Pasta filata style Mozarella
  39. 39. Cheddaring  Cheddaring is a mild form of stretching in which the cheese curd is piled up and held warm so that water flows under the force of gravity.  The pH of the curd falls during this process and whey continues to exude.  Again, in large scale manufacture, this is done in large machines
  40. 40. Washing  Washing the curd either in the cheese vat or after de-wheying helps remove more lactose which changes the pH of the cheese.  It also reduces syneresis and is important in the manufacture of cheeses such as Colby, Gouda and Egmont. Moulding  The formation of the final cheese shape into spheres, flattened spheres, discs, cylinders or rectangular blocks is traditional but for some varieties, e.g. Camembert, it affects the maturation pathway.  Some cheeses are pressed in moulds (nowadays made of plastic or stainless steel) under the whey for a short time whereas others are compressed at high pressures for several hours.
  41. 41. Moulding
  42. 42. Maturation or ripening  Cheese ripening is basically about the breakdown of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (acids and sugars) which releases flavour compounds and modifies cheese texture.  Ripening varies from nil for fresh cheese to 5 years for some hard ripened cheese.  Like a good wine, a good aged cheese should get better and better with age.  Ripening processes are broadly classified as interior and surface ripened.
  43. 43.  Cheese which depend mainly on interior ripening (most hard ripened cheese such as Cheddar and Italian types) may be ripened with rind formation or may be film wrapped before curing. In the broadest terms there are three sources of cheese flavor:  Flavors present in the original cheese milk, such as natural butter fat flavor and feed flavor.  Breakdown products of milk proteins, fats and sugars which are released by microbial enzymes, enzymes endogenous to milk, and enzyme additives.  Metabolites of starter bacteria and other microorganisms. These include products from catabolism of proteins, fats and sugars.
  44. 44. Flavour and texture development are strongly dependent on  pH profile  Composition  Salting  Temperature  Humidity  Experience
  45. 45. The ripening of cheese involves three major biochemical events.  Glycolysis: Lactose is metabolized to lactic acid, which may then be catabolised (broken down into smaller molecules) to form acetic and propionic acids, carbon dioxide, esters and alcohol by the enzymes of the microorganisms in the milk, including the added starter.  Lipolysis: The lipids are broken down to form free fatty acids, that may then be catabolised to form ketones, lactones and esters by natural milk enzymes and those that are added to create the flavour in particular cheese varieties, e.g. Romano, Blue Vein and Feta cheese.
  46. 46.  Proteolysis: Proteins (caseins) are gradually broken down to form peptides and amino acids by the enzymes of the coagulant, the natural milk enzymes and the enzymes of the starter bacteria and other added microorganisms,  e.g. moulds such as Penicillium camemberti used in the manufacture of Camembert and Penicillium roqueforti used in the manufacture of blue-veined cheeses such as Roquefort, Camembert and Stilton.  The enzymes of these mould species typically result in a high level of proteolysis in these cheese types  The rind formation on he cheese depends on the mold being added during ripening
  47. 47.  The breakdown of the proteins to peptides (proteolysis) transforms the rubbery and flavourless cheese curd into a cheese that has a desirable texture and flavour  Further proteolysis produces amino acids and the further biochemical glycolysis and hydrolysis result in the formation of amines, aldehydes, alcohols and sulphur compounds that add to the flavour of the cheese.
  48. 48. Packaging  Many cheeses are made and matured in large blocks (e.g. 20 kg) and they are exported as such.  When they are to be sold in supermarkets, they are usually cut into appropriate size blocks and either shrink wrapped in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, which dissolves into the body of the cheese.  The subsequent anaerobic environment prevents mold growth on the cheese surface.  Many cheeses, such as the Brie and Camembert, are ready for sale at maturation and are packaged in special aerating wrapping and in porous boxes.
  49. 49. RIPENING CHEESES
  50. 50. HEALTH ASPECTS OF CHEESE Nutrition - There is a very high concentration of essential nutrients in cheese including high quality proteins and calcium . There are also other elements in cheese such as phosphorous, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, and vitamin B12. PREVENTS THE FOLLOWING HEALTH PROBLEMS  Cavity Prevention  Cancer Prevention  Weight Gain  Bone Strength  Osteoporosis
  51. 51. REFERENCE  http://www.cheesemaking.com/shared/pdf/amandatitus. pdf  http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/dairy/3D.pdf  http://www.ales2.ualberta.ca/afns/courses/nufs403/PDF s/chapter14.pdf  https://www.uoguelph.ca/foodscience/cheese-making- technology/section-e-manufacture-ripening-process- control-and-yield-efficiency/ripen-0
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