BIOREMEDIATION <br />AND<br />PHYTOREMEDIATION<br />Presented by :  SheetalNarkar<br />
BIOREMEDIATION  <br />Bioremediation is the productive utilization of living systems to  degrade, detoxify, transform, imm...
BIOREMEDIATION   STRATEGIES<br />Addition  of   genetically   modified  organisms<br />Use  of  indigenous  microorganisms...
   Gene   Manipulation<br />Gene responsible for the degradation of  a pollutant, is introduced or altered and expressed i...
   Gene   Manipulation<br />Enterobacteragglomerans DK3 containing plasmid RP-4 Tn 4371 , encodes for Biophenyl   degradat...
Use  of   Indigenous   Microorganisms<br />Soil  harbours a number of microorganisms with degradative   potential<br />Mic...
Use  of   Indigenous   Microorganisms<br />Cyanobacteria and algae – hydrocarbons<br />Pseudomonas  putida – can  degrade ...
Bioaugmentation<br />Bioaugmentation is  addition of selected organisms to the contaminated site in order to supplement in...
Bioaugmentation<br />Activated    soil   containing    various 	bacteria have been  used to degrade :<br />Pentachlorophen...
Biostimulation<br />Biostimulation is the stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by providing them with necessary nutr...
Biostimulation<br />Biosurfactants have been used to solubilize oil and xenobiotics (PCB and Organophosphates)<br />Acinet...
Bioaugmentation   Field   Testing  for  MTBE   Treatment   (US) :<br />Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Califo...
Phytoremediation<br />Phytoremediation is the use of plants for the removal of contaminants and metals from the soil and w...
Chernobyl Sunflower Project - 1994<br />It is carried out by  Phytotech, a phytoremediation company in Monmouth Junction, ...
 Process   involved  in  Phytoremediation<br />Phytoextraction<br />Phytodegradation<br />Phytovolatilization<br />Phytost...
Phytoextraction<br />Phytoextraction is the removal of contaminants and metals from the soil and their storage in plants<b...
Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil  <br />Chelate based has often been described as a promising te...
Phytodegradation<br />Phytodegradation  is  the  uptake<br />	and  degradation  of  the  organic<br />     compounds     b...
Algal phytodegradation of petroleum naphthenic acid<br />Water Science and Technology Division, Environment Canada, Saskat...
Phytovolatilization<br />Phytovolatilization is the <br />	volatilization of the toxic<br />	pollutants into the atmospher...
Phytostabilization<br />Phytostabilization is the transformation of one species toxic molecule intoless toxic species or r...
Gaseous   Bioremediation<br />Gaseous bioremediation is to pass poluted gas through a vessel in which pollutants are trasf...
Conclusion<br />Bioremediation, the process whereby natural degradation rates are accelerated through stimulation of indig...
Thank  You<br />
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Bioremediation and Phytoremediation

28,407 views

Published on

Published in: Technology

Bioremediation and Phytoremediation

  1. 1. BIOREMEDIATION <br />AND<br />PHYTOREMEDIATION<br />Presented by : SheetalNarkar<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. BIOREMEDIATION <br />Bioremediation is the productive utilization of living systems to degrade, detoxify, transform, immobilize or stabilize toxic environmental contaminants<br />Goal ---- to degrade the pollutants that are either undetectable or if detectable to concentrations that are safe or acceptable by the regulatory agencies<br />RENOVOGEN – NEXT GENERATION BIOREMEDIATION<br />
  4. 4. BIOREMEDIATION STRATEGIES<br />Addition of genetically modified organisms<br />Use of indigenous microorganisms<br />Biostimulation<br />Bioaugmentation<br />Phytoremediation<br />
  5. 5. Gene Manipulation<br />Gene responsible for the degradation of a pollutant, is introduced or altered and expressed in the suitable bacteria e.g. E coli<br />Gene opd of Flavobacterium encoding proteins responsible for the degradation of carbonates are introduced in fungi , Gliocladiumvirens, who expresses the gene<br />
  6. 6. Gene Manipulation<br />Enterobacteragglomerans DK3 containing plasmid RP-4 Tn 4371 , encodes for Biophenyl degradation<br />This donar strain when added to the soil disappears quickly, but the plasmid is transferred to the other microbes present, which carry out the biophenyl degradation<br />
  7. 7. Use of Indigenous Microorganisms<br />Soil harbours a number of microorganisms with degradative potential<br />Microbes are ubiquitous in distribution<br />The have developed enzymatic systems to tackle environmental contaminants<br />
  8. 8. Use of Indigenous Microorganisms<br />Cyanobacteria and algae – hydrocarbons<br />Pseudomonas putida – can degrade benzoate completely<br />Rate of degradation depends upon <br /> the structure of the compound<br />Central chronicle (M.P) : sewage near her KautilyaMarg residence in New Delhi.<br />
  9. 9. Bioaugmentation<br />Bioaugmentation is addition of selected organisms to the contaminated site in order to supplement indigenous microbial population and speed up degradation<br />Bioaugmentation has been successfully<br /> carried out by using activated soil rather<br /> than pure cultures<br />Activated soil – soil containing indigenous microbial population recently exposed to contaminants<br />
  10. 10. Bioaugmentation<br />Activated soil containing various bacteria have been used to degrade :<br />Pentachlorophenol<br />Atrazine<br />Chloro benzoate<br />
  11. 11. Biostimulation<br />Biostimulation is the stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by providing them with necessary nutrients<br />Principle :<br />Microbes cannot use pollutants as a sole source of energy. Hence they need to be provided with other essential nutrients<br />
  12. 12. Biostimulation<br />Biosurfactants have been used to solubilize oil and xenobiotics (PCB and Organophosphates)<br />Acinetobacterradioresistens produces a protein bioemulsifier – Alasan<br />Alasansolubilizes PAHS<br />Principle : the gene is cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli <br />
  13. 13. Bioaugmentation Field Testing for MTBE Treatment (US) :<br />Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, California<br />The ether-metabolizing bacterial culture was grown on an MTBE enriched activated sludge culture for three to four months at ambient outdoor temperatures<br />Biostimulation – Degradation of Hydrocarbon<br />Contaminated Soils at Crude Oil Production Sites in West Texas and New Mexico - Amoco Production Co.<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Phytoremediation<br />Phytoremediation is the use of plants for the removal of contaminants and metals from the soil and water, or to render them harmless<br />It is basically the decontamination or stabilization of the polluted area using plants <br />
  16. 16. Chernobyl Sunflower Project - 1994<br />It is carried out by Phytotech, a phytoremediation company in Monmouth Junction, N.J.<br />Rafts with sunflowers growing on them float on a small pond at the Chernobyl nuclear accident site in the Ukraine. <br />The roots dangle in the water to suck up the cesium 137 and strontium 90.<br />This sunflower project is one of many international efforts at phytoremediation<br />Government Agencies and Private Companies:<br />Exxon Corp.<br />DuPont<br />
  17. 17. Process involved in Phytoremediation<br />Phytoextraction<br />Phytodegradation<br />Phytovolatilization<br />Phytostabilization<br />
  18. 18. Phytoextraction<br />Phytoextraction is the removal of contaminants and metals from the soil and their storage in plants<br />It is also known as Phytoaccumulation<br />Sunflower – used for uranium removal<br />Water hyacinth – detoxification of copper<br />Poppler - trichloroethylene<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil <br />Chelate based has often been described as a promising technique to remediate heavy metal from contaminated agricultural land<br />The application of chelating agents has shown positive effects in increasing the solubility of heavy metals in soil and therefore in enhancing phytoextraction<br />Various synthetic aminopolycarboxylic acids, such as ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid, and natural ones such as, ethylene diaminedisuccinate and nitrilotriacetic acid<br />Phytoextraction<br />
  21. 21. Phytodegradation<br />Phytodegradation is the uptake<br /> and degradation of the organic<br /> compounds by the plants<br /><ul><li>Plants contain :</li></ul>Nitroreductases<br />Dehalogenases<br />Laccases<br />Plants containing dehalogenases - trichloroethylene<br />Plants containing peroxidases are capable of degrading xenobiotics<br />
  22. 22. Algal phytodegradation of petroleum naphthenic acid<br />Water Science and Technology Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon<br />The algal phytodegradation of a model naphthenic acid (4-methylcyclohexaneacetic acid) and an oilsands mixture of naphthenic acids (NAs) were evaluated in support of studies to remediate recalcitrant NAs in soils and water<br />Phytodegradation<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Phytovolatilization<br />Phytovolatilization is the <br /> volatilization of the toxic<br /> pollutants into the atmosphere<br />Some Plants have the ability<br /> to convert the toxic metal<br /> ions into volatile species<br />Phytovolatilization reduces the toxicity and aid in disposal through the stomata<br />Poplar Plants – Trichloroethylene<br />Eucalyptus – methyl-t-butyl-ether (MTBE) <br />
  25. 25. Phytostabilization<br />Phytostabilization is the transformation of one species toxic molecule intoless toxic species or reduction of mobility<br />Various bacteria can convert Cr+6 into less toxic Cr+3<br />Loliumperenne in the soil from the Iron treatment plants produced vegetative cover without the loss of the metal. <br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Gaseous Bioremediation<br />Gaseous bioremediation is to pass poluted gas through a vessel in which pollutants are trasferred to the water medium and further degraded by microorganisms<br />Sources :<br />Petrochemical indutry<br />Pesticides<br />Textile industry<br />Explosives<br />Gases like SO2, CFCs, nitrous oxides, green house gases like CO2 , CH4 are released in the atmosphere from the above sources<br />
  28. 28. Conclusion<br />Bioremediation, the process whereby natural degradation rates are accelerated through stimulation of indigenous microorganisms is an effective ecologically and economically effective reclamation alternative<br />Site - specific (soil properties, geology) and contaminant – specific (composition, concentration, age, bioavailability) must be considered<br />
  29. 29. Thank You<br />

×