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an overview of a very famous technique nowdays that is cryopreservation

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  1. 1. Cryopreservation GROUP 5
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION By Tayyaba Shafique Khan
  3. 3. • Process by which any living cells, tissues, organs or entire bodies are protected from decay by storing them at extremely low temperatures. • Typically -80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or - 196 °C using liquid nitrogen. • At low enough temperatures, any enzymatic or chemical activity which might cause damage to the biological material is effectively stopped.
  4. 4. • Cryopreservation methods seek to reach low temperatures without causing additional damage caused by the formation of ice during freezing. • Traditional cryopreservation has relied on coating the material to be frozen with a class of molecules termed Cryoprotectants. • New methods are constantly being investigated due to the inherent toxicity of many cryoprotectants • According to the Cryonics Institute, the fundamental goal is "to give people a second chance at life".
  5. 5. History • Early theoreticians of cryopreservation was James Lovelock (born 1919) known for Gaia theory • He suggested that damage to red blood cells during freezing was due to osmotic stress. • 1949 – Ernest John Christopher Polge, was a English biologist who solve the mystery of how to preserve living cells and tissues at very low temperatures. • He accidentally discovered the cryoprotective properties of glycerol on fowl sperm.
  6. 6. • 1953 – Jerome K. Sherman was a doctoral candidate at the University of Iowa. His research led him to successfully freezing and thawing human sperm. • He founded the world’s first sperm bank. • 1964 – The term cryobiology was invented. It can be literally translated as : “cryo” = cold, “bios” = life, and “logos” = Science
  7. 7. • 1988 – Yves Menezo is a French biologist who gave his name to the first commercial culture media used in in-vitro fertilization. • 1995 – Edouard Servy and the biologist Zishu Liu were the first in the world to successfully transplant a cryopreserved blastocyst following intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
  8. 8. • Companies offer the option of cryopreservation to revive patients and even cure or treat the diseases that killed them in order to give them a new chance at life. • The Cryonics Institute believes it is allowing people to "buy time until technology catches up and is able to fully repair and restore the human body."
  9. 9. Why do people Go for It • Fear of Death • Love of life • Hope for a cure for their disease • Curiosity about their future • Or even wanting to be immortal
  10. 10. How much does it cost • The process is expensive. Fees start at $28,000 and go up to $200,000, paid upon death by either the patient or their insurance policy. • Companies often also require membership ahead of the procedure and may apply surcharges for people outside the country.
  11. 11. Types Of Cryopreservation By Hina Ahmed and Myra Akhtar
  12. 12. Neuropreservation:  The theory is that only the information stored in the brain is important, and that a body to contain the revived brain could be cloned or regenerated in the future.  The goal of Neuropreservation is to preserve the whole brain, as well as the nerve connections of our most complex senses such as vision and hearing, without injury.
  13. 13. Cont…… • The brain is kept enclosed inside the cranium to prevent injuries caused by surgical removal. • Thus the head is surgically removed from the body at the sixth cervical vertebra in the neck. • Neuroseparation, the isolation of the brain from the body, has led to the mistaken idea that Neuropreservation preserves “heads,” however the main target of preservation is the brain
  14. 14. HOW WILL NEUROPRESERVED PATIENTS BE RECOVERED? • Regeneration has existed in nature for hundreds of millions of years. Our cells have the ability to regenerate new organs, tissues, and limbs. This complex program for regrowing parts of or whole human bodies is encoded and lies dormant in our genes. • Extending these regenerative capabilities will allow for new bodies to regrow around the preserved brain from single cells. The new regenerated body will essentially be a younger, healthier clone of the original body. • Programming a brain to regrow a new body may seem incredible, but nature already does things that are even more incredible.
  15. 15. FURTHERMORE, COMPARED TO CRYONICS... • It is less expensive for it cost less to maintain just the brain than the whole body. • The quality of brain preservation is much better in neuropatients. Cryoprotectants are more equally distributed through out the hemispheres of the brain and optimized without the interference of the other organs of the body. • Newer and improve cryonic technologies are often made available to neuropatients before whole body patients.
  16. 16. Embryo cryopreservation: • Cryopreservation of embryos is the process of preserving an embryo at sub-zero temperatures, generally at an embryogenesis stage corresponding to pre-implantation, that is, from fertilization to the blastocyst stage • Embryo freezing is a great way to preserve your fertility. Although women are most fertile from their teens until age 35, that time frame is not always ideal for a woman to start a family. Freezing eggs allows women to harvest their eggs when they are most viable and healthy.
  17. 17. Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation: • Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female. • Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is of interest to women who want fertility preservation beyond the natural limit, or whose reproductive potential is threatened by cancer therapy,[1] for example in hematologic malignancies or breast cancer.[2] It can be performed on prepubertal girls at risk for premature ovarian failure, and this procedure is as feasible and safe as comparable operative procedures in children.
  18. 18. Preservation of microbial culture Bacteria and fungi can be kept short-term refrigerated  Cell division and metabolism is not completely arrested and thus is not an optimal option for long- term storage (years) or to preserve cultures genetically or phenotypically, as cell divisions can lead to mutations or sub-culturing can cause phenotypic changes.  A preferred option, species-dependent, is cryopreservation.
  19. 19. Preservation of fungal culture  Fungi, notably zygomycetes, ascomycetes and higher basidiomycetes, regardless of sporulation, are able to be stored in liquid nitrogen or deep-frozen.  Cryopreservation is a hallmark method for fungi that do not speculate but have delicate spores are pathogenic or are to be used for genetic stocks.  As with many other organisms, cry protectants like DMSO or glycerol (e.g. filamentous fungi 10% glycerol or yeast 20% glycerol) are used.  Differences between choosing cry protectants are species dependent, but generally for fungi penetrating cry protectants like DMSO, glycerol or polyethylene glycol are most effective (other non- penetrating ones include sugars manifold, sorbitol, dextran, etc.
  20. 20. Non-sporulation fungi or embedded mycelia 10% glycerol is added to the tube and agar plugs of fresh culture are added and immediately frozen in liquid-nitrogen vapor (−170 °C).  Cultures are thawed at 37 °C and plated.
  21. 21. Spores or mycelia from agar plate 10% glycerol or 5% DMSO spore or mycelia suspension are made and frozen
  22. 22. Liquid mycelia  Mycelia are macerated (not for use with human pathogenic fungi) and mixed to make a final concentration of 10% glycerol or 5% DSMO.
  23. 23. Preservation of bacterial culture Fresh culture plates Deep freezing method
  24. 24. Fresh culture plates From a fresh culture plate, one single colony of interest is chosen and liquid culture is made. From the liquid culture, the medium is directly mixed with equal amount of glycerol; the colony should be checked for any defects like mutations. All antibiotics should be washed from the culture before long-term storage
  25. 25. Fresh culture plate method
  26. 26. Deep freezing method Bacteria can be frozen using a solution of 15% glycerol.  The process is simple and requires screw cap microfuge tubes and sterile glycerol.  The glycerol is diluted to 30% so that it is easy to pipette.  Equal amounts of 30% glycerol and culture broth are mixed, dispensed into tubes and frozen
  27. 27. Deep freezing method
  28. 28. Cryonics(human body preservation)
  29. 29. Diagrammatic representation
  30. 30. Cryonics(full human body conservation)  Introduction Cryonics (from Greek 'kayos-' meaning 'cold') is the low-temperature preservation (usually at −196°C) of people who cannot be sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that resuscitation and restoration to full health may be possible in the far future.  Cryopreservation of humans is not reversible with present technology Cryonicists hope that medical advances will someday allow cryopreserved people to be revived.
  31. 31. Diagrammatic representation
  32. 32. Cryonics regarded with skepticism  Cryonics is regarded with skepticism within the mainstream scientific community and is not part of normal medical practice.  Cryonics depends on beliefs that death is a process rather than an event, that clinical death is a prognosis of death rather than a diagnosis of death, and that the cryonics patient has not experienced information-theoretic death.  Cryonics procedures can only begin after legal death, and cryonics "patients" are considered legally dead.  Cryonics procedures ideally begin within minutes of cardiac arrest and use cryoprotectants to prevent ice formation during cryopreservation.
  33. 33. Basic Protocol By Ayesha Rehman and Javaria Khan
  34. 34. Cell Harvesting Media preparation for Cell And Tissue Cryopreservation Temperature Freezing Thawing Cryopreserved Cells Storage Viability Assessment
  35. 35. Cell Harvesting Handle the cells gently during harvesting since damaged cells will not survive the additional damage that occurs during the freezing and thawing processes.
  36. 36. Media for Cell and Tissue Cryopreservation A typical media contains 90% serum + 10% cryoprotectant.
  37. 37. CPRS Cryoprotective agents reduce the freezing point of the medium and also allow slower cooling rate, greatly reducing the risk of ice crystal formation, which can damage cells and cause cell death during freezing.
  38. 38. Cryoprotectants Glycerol and DMSO are the most commonly employed cryoprotective agents. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is often used in mammalian cryopreservation solutions, but it is not a cryoprotective agent. Salts, such as magnesium chloride, have been reported to be cryoprotective agents. Dextrans, glycols, starches, sugars, and polyvinylpyrrolidone provide considerable cryoprotection in a variety of biologic systems.
  39. 39. Types of Cryoprotectants • Intracellular cryoprotectants with low molecular weights that permeate cells. Intracellular cryoprotectants, such as glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide at concentrations from 0.5 to 3 molar, are effective in minimizing cell damage in many slowly frozen biological systems. • Extracellular cryoprotectants with relatively high molecular weights that do not penetrate cells. Extracellular cryoprotective agents, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroxyethyl starch, are more effective at protecting biological systems cooled at rapid
  40. 40. Temperature When adding the cryopreservation media to the sample it is important that the solutions be cold (∼4°C). Cell exposure to warm solutions containing DMSO can result in substantial cell damage and death.
  41. 41. Freezing Methods for Cryopreservation 1. Step Down Freezing 2. Blast Freezing 3. Direct Plunge Freezing 4. Slow Freezing using a programmable freezer 5. Vitrification
  42. 42. Step Down Freezing The samples are placed in a refrigerator overnight at 4ᵒC, and then transferred to a -70ᵒC (-94ᵒF) freezer for a period of time, and moved to cryo storage. However ,this freezing process is time consuming, difficult to repeat and document, and does not provide the controlled cooling rates and ice nucleation associated with a true controlled rate freezer.
  43. 43. Blast Freezing Blast freezing is a method designed for speed rather than maximum viability, and it’s used to decrease a specific volume of material by a set temperature in a fixed amount of time. Blast freezing is commonly used for large amounts of material, like blood bags or large volumes of protein. It’s important to note that there are purpose-built blast freezers designed for this process.
  44. 44. Direct Plunge Freezing In Liquid Nitrogen Submersion, or Plunge Freezing, samples are loaded into a heat block, and that block is submerged into LN2 and then placed in storage. This method has been used successfully for small numbers of low volume straws and vials.
  45. 45. Slow Freezing using a Programmable Freezer The cell vessels/vials are placed in freezer which cools using cold nitrogen vapors. The temperature inside the cooling chamber can be accurately controlled and the time course of the temperature can be programmed. However, the time course of temperature inside the straws may be different due to the generation of heat of fusion.
  46. 46. Vitrification The term “Vitrification” refers to any process resulting in “glass formation”, the transformation from a liquid to a solid in the absence of crystallization so the cells that are properly slow frozen become “vitrified”. Vitrification involves using high concentrations of cryoprotectants to prevent ice formation but this technique is under developed.
  47. 47. Storage Store cryopreserved cells at minus 80ᵒC in freezer for at least 4 hours and up to 24 hours prior to transfer to an archive storage such as a freezer capable of continually maintaining temperature below minus 130°C or a gaseous phase liquid nitrogen storage vessel.
  48. 48. Thawing/Warming Cryopreserved Cells Rapid thawing (60 to 90 seconds at 37°C in water bath) provides the best recovery for most cell cultures as it reduces or prevents the formation of damaging ice crystals within cells during rehydration. Since some cryoprotective agents may damage cells upon prolonged exposure, remove the agents as quickly and gently as possible by centrifugation
  49. 49. Viability Assessment Accurate sample assessment is critical to determining preservation success and downstream utility of cell and tissue systems, for both research and clinical use. Comparing samples to pre-freeze levels 1 day after thawing with metabolic or biochemical assays provide more accurate determinations of cell viability.
  50. 50. Variables to Optimize Controlling the cooling rate by using an appropriate freezer Using appropriate cryoprotective agents Maintaining appropriate storage temperatures Controlling the warming rate
  52. 52. Advantages • Cryopreservation helps in the preservation of biological materials. • Cryopreservation is used to maintain the biosynthetic properties of plants • Sperm, gametes, embryos, tissues, bone marrow, organ can be preserved. • Helps to study the adapting nature of plants and animals under the low temperature. • Used to preserve the genetic materials of the plants which are on the verge of extinction • Prevent in breeding • Reduced risk of microbial contamination • Reduced risk of cross contamination with other cell lines • Reduced risk of genetic drift and morphological changes
  53. 53. • Embryo cryopreservation is used most often to store good quality excess embryos resulting from an IVF treatment cycle. • Embryos can be stored for a patient who elects to have her eggs fertilized with donor sperms. Pregnancies have been reported from embryos stored for 16 years. • Human sperm cryopreservation is widely used to store donor and partner spermatozoa to preserve sperms • It also ensure the recovery of a small number of spermatozoa in several male factor infertility17 . • It is commonly called sperm-banking is a procedure to preserve sperm cells.
  54. 54. Cryopreservation of oocyte • Human oocyte cryopreservation is a new technology in which a woman’s eggs are extracted, frozen or stored. • Egg freezing benefits two groups of women. • One those who are diagnosed with a medical condition • The second who are delaying their childbearing for personal reasons.
  55. 55. Preservation of Micro-biology cultures • Bacteria and fungi can be kept short term refrigerated • However, cell division and metabolism is not completely arrested • It is not an optimal option for long term storage genetically or phenotypically as cell divisions can led to mutations.
  56. 56. In Medical Science • Low temperature have been used in medicine • Used to prevent food spoilage • Now- a- days it is used in fertility treatment the transport of human organs and the long- term storage of biological specimens • To conserve plant biodiversity
  57. 57. In Animal Husbandry:- • The introduction of cryopreservation technology leads a major breakthrough in animal husbandry7 .Since the 1st successful cryopreservation of bull semen has been used to propagate the rare and endangered species using assisted reproduction techniques. Every year, more than 25 millions cows are artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed bull semen8 and many bovine calves have been produced using the transfer of cryopreseved embryos into cow
  58. 58. Disadvantages There are few disadvantages to storing eggs. • During the cycle where the eggs are harvested, patients undergo a traditional IVF protocol. • There are known side effects with fertility medication including the risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome or OHSS. • The lengthy process of slow-rate freezing and the subsequent long-term storage of these valuable cells can often be costly, consuming large amounts of energy to accurately maintain such low temperatures.
  59. 59. Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) • Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) affects women taking injectable hormone medications to stimulate the development of eggs in the ovaries. • This may occur in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination. • Too much hormone medication in system can lead to OHSS, in which ovaries become swollen and painful. • A small number of women may develop severe OHSS, which can cause rapid weight gain, abdominal pain, vomiting and shortness of breath. • Less often, OHSS happens during fertility treatments using medications you take by mouth, such as clomiphene (Clomid, Serophene).
  60. 60. Treatment • Anti-nausea medication, prescription painkillers or both • Frequent physical exams and ultrasounds • Daily weigh-ins and waist measurements to check for drastic changes • Measurements of how much urine you produce each day • Blood tests to monitor for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and other problems • Adequate fluid intake • Drainage of excess abdominal fluid using a needle inserted in your abdominal cavity • Support stockings, to help prevent blood clots
  61. 61. Obstacles and Recent stories and Conclusion By Syeda Zomia Naqvi Shah
  62. 62. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 67 Obstacles In Cryopreservation • Upto 60% human body is composed of water. What’s the issue then? • Actually the freezing point of water is 0 degree centigrade while the cryoscopy temperature can be as low as -90 degree centigrade. • Very expensive Technique
  63. 63. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 68 • Ice formation can result in the needle shaped crystals resulting in the damage to cell membrane. • Unequal distribution or over distribution of cryoprotectants. • Moreover, thermal gradients can induce mechanical stress due to uneven expansion or contraction in the biomaterial.
  64. 64. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 69 • The cooling rate required for optimal survival varies by several orders of magnitude between different cell types. • Mass transfer limitations
  66. 66. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 71 What you can do waking up after 100 years ? Let me just show you.
  67. 67. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 72 JUSTSLEEPPPfor1000ofyears Andwakeup innewWorld
  68. 68. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 73 KIM SUAZY She also had her doubts but she said that we need to have our faith in technology. She was curious to see future
  69. 69. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 74 • A Swedish radiologist from Vänersborg, who survived after a skiing accident in 1999. • She was left trapped under a layer of ice for 80 minutes in freezing water. • After rescue, Bågenholm was transported to the Tromsø University Hospital, where a team of more than a hundred doctors and nurses worked in shifts for nine hours to save her life. • Bågenholm woke up ten days after the accident, Anna Elisabeth Johansson Bågenholm
  70. 70. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 75 “I preserve people to cheat death.” Max More
  71. 71. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 76 • CEO of ALCOR life Extension Foundation • Existing Location: California • $200,000.00 Whole Body Cryopreservation Who is Max More
  72. 72. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 77 • The Cryonics Institute (CI) is an American member-owned-and-operated not-for-profit corporation • Location : Clinton Township, Macomb County, Michigan • As of December 31, 2016, The Cryonics Institute has 1,630 members in total (including 145 preserved bodies & 135 Assoc. Members). • Prize $40,000 CRYONICS INSTITUTE
  73. 73. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 78
  74. 74. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 79 Cryopreservation is preserving your blood, organs, tissues, or even your whole body. But Why?????? • Fear of Death • Love of life • Hope for a cure for their disease • Curiosity about their future • Or even wanting to be immortal Conclusion
  75. 75. 3/5/2017 Free Template from 80 BUT As a Muslim we believe So its Now up to you weather its useful or not.
  76. 76. Any Questions??????