Buck development

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This presentation is about the Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test.

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Buck development

  1. 1. WESTERN MARYLAND PASTURE-BASED MEAT GOAT PERFORMANCE TEST SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep &Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center www.sheepandgoat.com – sschoen@umd.edu
  2. 2. Which buck is better? Which buck’s offspring will be more likely to survive to weaning? Which buck’s offspring will grow faster? Which buck’s offspring will be more resistant to worms? Which buck’s daughters will produce more lbs. of live kids?
  3. 3. Selection criteria for bucks (and rams) VISUAL APPRAISAL  Live evaluation     Body conformation Live handling Measurements Shows  “Expert” opinion PERFORMANCE RECORDS 1. 2. 3. On-farm performance testing Central performance testing Across-flock performance testing (EPDs)
  4. 4. Central performance testing “A central performance test is where animals from different herds are brought to one central location where performance is recorded. The rationale is that measured differences are more likely due to genetic differences, which will be passed onto offspring, rather than environmental differences which will not. The goal of a central performance test is to identify genetic differences among animals.” Dr. Dan Waldron Texas A&M University 2008 Top-performing buck (Kiko) John Smith, Virginia
  5. 5. Small ruminant performance tests RAMS BUCKS         Kerr Center (OK) North Dakota Penn State Texas A&M Virginia Tech Illinois (?) West Virginia University         Angelo State (TX) Fort Valley (GA) Kerr Center (OK) Langston University Nebraska (?) Penn State Texas A&M University of Maryland Western Illinois
  6. 6. Limitations to central performance testing GENETICS   Limited to traits that can be measured in the young male. What is the repeatability (accuracy) of the data? ENVIRONMENT   Different production environments. Nutrition may be a limiting factor.
  7. 7. Western Maryland Pasture-based Meat Goat Performance Test Established in 2006 to evaluate the performance of weanling male goats on a pasture-only diet with natural exposure to internal parasites. GRAZING FROM EARLY JUNE THROUGH LATE SEPTEMBER
  8. 8. Maryland buck test Most important goal is to identify bucks that are more resistant to internal parasites. RESISTANCE Fecal egg counts (FECs) H2 = 20 TO 50 PERCENT RESILIENCE Packed cell volume (FAMACHA©, Five Point Check©) H2 = 10 TO 20 PERCENT
  9. 9. Eligibility Male goats of any breed or breed cross, born between December 15 (previous year) and March 20 (test year) and weighing 35 to 70 lbs. at the start of the test. Up to 5 goats per consigner (any state).
  10. 10. 12.5-acre pasture system Six paddocks for rotational grazing
  11. 11. Cool season grasses ORCHARDGRASS MAXQ™ TALL FESCUE
  12. 12. Warm season grass DWARF PEARL MILLET (ANNUAL)
  13. 13. Chicory Herb with “anthelmintic-like” properties
  14. 14. Weeds Plant Protei n TDN RFV Mixed weeds 14.1% 65.8 % 111 Chicory 14.3% Lambsquarte 23.2% 75.3 184 Relative feed value of good alfalfa hay is 170 or higher. % 89.6 298
  15. 15. Silvopasture WALNUT TREES + MIXED HARDWOODS
  16. 16. Extremes in forage conditions CONSIDERABLE SEASONAL AND ANNUAL VARIATION IN FORAGE QUALITY AND QUANTITY
  17. 17. June July August September Total 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 2006 2007 2008 2009 Monthly and annual rainfall (in) June-September 2006-2010 Keedysville, Maryland 2010
  18. 18. In the event of severe drought conditions NUTRITIONAL TUBS GRASS HAY
  19. 19. Upon arrival to test site Data collected         Body weights Body condition score (15) Coat condition score (13) Dag score (0-5) FAMACHA© score (1-5) Individual fecal egg count Pooled fecal egg count Larvae ID Treatments administered    Stand in footbath Ear tag Deworm with anthelmintics from two different chemical classes. (usually moxidectin + levamisole)  5-day treatment for coccidia in water.
  20. 20. Every 14 days Low-stress livestock handing – handling by horns  Five Point Check©        Weigh FAMACHA© score Body condition score Coat condition score Dag score Health check: Treat as necessary Collect individual fecal sample Collect pooled fecal sample
  21. 21. Treatment and isolation pens Goats are penned for multi-day treatments and observation. Goats with abscesses or pink eye are isolated for testing and treatment, respectively.
  22. 22. Carcass evaluation Since 2009, 19 bucks have been harvested and deboned to collect carcass data and characterize the carcasses of pasture-reared goats.
  23. 23. New for 2011 Ten goats (half-sibs) are being pen-fed for carcass evaluation. The carcasses of pasture-raised vs. grain (and hay)-fed bucks will be compared.
  24. 24. Number of goats tested Year of test Start test Finish test 2006 31 31 2007 47 47 2008 57 57 2009 60 60 2010 72 68 2011 81 80(?) Five year consigners (L-R) Don Smith, Virginia; and Jeanne Dietz-Band, Maryland
  25. 25. Growth performance Live weight, lbs. Year ADG 85 2006 0.190 80 2007 0.253 2008 0.134 2009 0.206 70 2010 0.121 65 2011 0.103 60 75 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 55 2011 50 45 40 d (-14) d-0 June d-14 d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 d-96 September
  26. 26. Fecal egg counts (eggs per gram of feces) Determined by Delaware State University using the modified McMaster procedure. Fecal egg counts are a measure of parasite resistance (infection). Resistant animals shed fewer eggs onto the pasture. Average fecal egg count (all goats) 4,500 2007 4,000 2008 3,500 2009 2010 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 d (-14) June d-0 d-14 d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 d-96 September
  27. 27. FAMACHA© eye anemia scores FAMACHA© scores are an estimate of packed cell volume (PCV) and are an indication of parasite “resilience” and the need for deworming. Average bi-weekly FAMACHA© score 3.2 2006 3.0 2007 2.8 2008 2009 2.6 2010 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 d (-14) d-0 June d-14 d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 September d-96
  28. 28. Anthelmintic treatments Percent goats requiring anthelmintic treatment FAMACHA© scoring 70% 1 – no Tx 2 – no Tx 3–? 4 – Tx 5 – Tx 60% 50% 2006 40% 2007 2008 30% 2009 2010 20% 10% 0% d-0 d-14 June d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 d-96 September
  29. 29. Fecal coproculture (larvae ID) Other worm species in fecal samples: Trichostrongylus*, Oesophagostomum, Nematodiris, Eimeria, and Moniezia The worm burden has been almost all barber pole worm, espec ially as the summer progresses. Percent Haemonchus contortus 100 95 90 85 2008 80 2009 d-70 d-84 2010 75 70 65 60 d-0 d-14 June d-28 d-42 d-56 d-98 d-112 September
  30. 30. Test specifics  Nomination period April 1- May 15  Testing fee $20 nomination fee $85 total cost  Delivery dates First weekend (Fri-Sat) in June  Sale, field day, and skillathon September 24 or October 1  Top bucks eligible for sale  Sell does via private treaty  Carcass evaluation 2008 Top-consignment Kendall & Dana Barnes, Kentucky http://mdgoattest.blogspot.
  31. 31. Gold, Silver, and Bronze standards
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention. Questions? http://mdgoattest.blogspot.c om SMALL RUMINANT PROGRAM SUSAN SCHOENIAN www.sheepandgoat.com sschoen@umd.edu

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