An organization is basically the association of human beings and a major problem of today’s organization is how to get maximum possible efforts and contributions of the human beings determining these efforts and contributions, those responsible for managing the organization must understand the way human beings behave. It is to be noted that the world of human work consists of individual performing jobs in some setting, usually in some organization.
The fact that there are tremendous differences among individuals and among jobs is the basis of the frequently expressed notion of “matching” people and jobs and of the expression “round pegs in square holes” when the “match” is not a good one. Mismatches can occur in any setting.
Individual behavior means some concrete action by a person.
The behavior of an individual is influenced by various factors, some of the factors lie within himself like his instincts, personality traits, internal feelings etc.. While some lie outside him comprising the external environment of which he is part.
WHAT IS PERSONALITY? Personality. - The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others. - Combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels. - Predictable relationships are expected between people ’s personalities and their behaviors. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
DETERMINANTS Heredity and environment. - Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics. - Environment determines development within these limits. – About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. - Cultural values and norms play a substantial role in the development of personality. - Social factors include family life, religion, and many kinds of formal and informal groups. - Situational factors reflect the opportunities or constraints imposed by the operational context. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Personality and the self-concept. - Personality dynamics. • The ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits, values and motives, personal conceptions, and emotional adjustments. - Self-concept. • The view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings. • Self-esteem. • Self-efficacy. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
HOW DO PERSONALITIES DIFFER? Social traits. - Surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings. - An important social trait is problem-solving style. • The way a person goes about gathering and evaluating information in solving problems and making decisions. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Information gathering in problem solving. - Getting and organizing data for use. - Sensation-type individuals prefer routine and order and emphasize well-defined details in gathering information. - Intuitive-type individuals like new problems and dislike routine. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Information evaluation in problem solving. - Making judgments about how to deal with information once it has been collected. – Feeling-type individuals are oriented toward conformity and try to accommodate themselves to other people. - Thinking-type individuals use reason and intellect to deal with problems and downplay emotions. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Big Five Personality Traits Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Personality type theory aims to classify people into distinct CATEGORIES. i.e. this type or that. Personality types are synonymous with "personality styles".
Types refers to categories that are distinct and discontinuous. e.g. you are one or the other. This is important to understand, because it helps to distinguish a personality type approach from a personality trait approach, which takes a continuous approach .
Meyer Friedman, an American cardiologist, noticed in the 1940's that the chairs in his waiting room got worn out from the edges. They hypothesized that his patients were driven, impatient people, who sat on the edge of their seats when waiting. They labelled these people "Type A" personalities. Type A personalities are work-aholics, always busy, driven, somewhat impatient, and so on. Type B personalities, on the other hand are laid back and easy going. "Type A personality" has found its way into general parlance.
One: Rational, conscientious, and responsible, Type Ones organize their energy around doing what is right and good. Self-controlled and sometimes resentful, they can be critical of self and others. They are also idealistic, purposeful, and tend to adhere to ethics, standards, and principles.
Two: Caring, empathic, and generous, Type Twos organize their attention around being loving and giving. Thoughtful and attentive, they can also become demanding and overly-intrusive if they feel their kindness isn't appreciated. They may neglect their own needs to serve others. Good-natured and friendly, they are also competent and reliable.
Three: Efficient, effective high-achievers, Threes believe they must be successful to be loved. Industrious, practical, and goal-oriented, they can also be impatient and insensitive to others, when they can tune-out their feelings to accomplish tasks. They are at their best when they learn to balance work with relaxation and achieving with feeling.
Four: Expressive, empathetic, and moody, Fours base their identity on their feelings. They tend to cultivate only certain feelings, while rejecting others. They may focus on what's distant and special and have an aversion to the ordinary. Artistic, authentic, and sensitive, they are able to process painful experiences more easily than other types.
Five: Intense, cerebral, and isolated, Fives place their attention on thinking, learning, and observing. They identify with having ideas and expressing unusual and insightful concepts. Doubting their competency leads Fives to become withholding, detached, and overly private. At their best, they are analytical, original thinkers who explore unknown territory.
Six: Engaging, responsible, and committed, Sixes can also be fearful/anxious or rebellious/confrontational. They have an ambivalent relationship to authority, wanting an outside authority to ensure their safety, while doubting the authority figure can deliver. On the high side, Sixes are intuitive and loyal. They make excellent troubleshooters who can see through false pretenses.
Seven: Energetic, positive, and future-oriented, Sevens seek fun, new experiences. They avoid anxiety and pain by staying busy, planning, and through achievements. Spontaneous and adventurous, Sevens can become distracted and scattered, trying to do too many things at once. On the high side, they are often multi-talented, accomplished, and bring levity and "joie de vivre" to those around them.
Eight: Powerful, decisive, and action-oriented, Eights focus on being strong and tough to earn respect and survive in a hostile world. When threatened, they can become aggressive, quick to anger, and extremely confrontational. Decisive and confident, they make excellent leaders, protecting the weak and fighting injustice.
Nine: Agreeable, gentle, and easygoing, Nines focus their attention on blending in with others and going with the flow. Since they are conflict-averse, it can be challenging for Nines to be direct, state what they want, and take action. Their ability to see both sides makes Nines excellent mediators. They are also loyal friends and steadfast partners.
The self-concept is the accumulation of knowledge about the self, such as beliefs regarding personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles. Beginning in infancy, children acquire and organize information about themselves as a way to enable them to understand the relation between the self and their social world. This developmental process is a direct consequence of children's emerging cognitive skills and their social relationships with both family and peers. During early childhood, children's self-concepts are less differentiated and are centered on concrete characteristics, such as physical attributes, possessions, and skills.
During middle childhood, the self-concept becomes more integrated and differentiated as the child engages in social comparison and more clearly perceives the self as consisting of internal, psychological characteristics. Throughout later childhood and adolescence, the self-concept becomes more abstract, complex, and hierarchically organized into cognitive mental representations or self-schemas, which direct the processing of self-relevant information.
Impulses from the id threaten to get out of control
The ego perceives danger from the environment
The ego deals with the problem through:
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Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator – MBTI
Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung developed a theory early in the 20 th century to describe basic individual preferences and explain similarities and differences between people
Main postulate of the theory is that people have inborn behavioral tendencies and preferences
Your natural response in daily situations
Used when we are generally not stressed and feel competent, and energetic
Could be defined as those behaviors you often don’t notice
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Four MBTI Dichotomies 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL Extr a version – Introversion E - I Dichotomy Where do you prefer to focus your attention – and get your energy? Sensing – Intuition S - N Dichotomy How do you prefer to take in information? Thinking – Feeling T - F Dichotomy How do you make decisions? Judging – Perceiving J - P Dichotomy How do you deal with the outer world?
- The way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation. • Locus of control. • Authoritarianism/dogmatism. • Machiavellianism. • Self-monitoring. Personality Attributes Influencing OB 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Locus of control. - The extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life. - Externals. • More extraverted in their interpersonal relationships and more oriented toward the world around them. - Internals. • More introverted and more oriented towards their own feelings and ideas. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Authoritarianism/dogmatism. - Authoritarianism. • Tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority. - Dogmatism. • Tendency to view the world as a threatening place. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
People with a high-Machiavellian personality: - Approach situations logically and thoughtfully. - Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. – Are rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, past promises, or others’ opinions. - Are skilled at influencing others. - Try to exploit loosely structured situations. - Perform in a perfunctory or detached manner in highly structured situations. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
People with a low-Machiavellian personality: - Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations. – Work hard to do well in highly structured situations. - Are strongly guided by ethical considerations. - Are unlikely to lie or cheat. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Self-monitoring. - A person ’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situational factors. – High self-monitors. • Sensitive to external cues. • Behave differently in different situations. - Low self-monitors. • Not sensitive to external cues. • Not able to disguise their behaviors. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
People often see the same phenomenon differently both with the organizational context and outside the organization. For example, in relation to a strike, a manager may perceive the immediate cause of the strike as trivial, while the workers may see it as very serious.
Similarly, when there is any accident in the factory, the supervisor treat it as the carelessness of workers while the workers may treat it has high handedness of the management and lack of adequate provisions of security measures.
Thus, the situations remaining the same, causes have been assigned differently by different group of persons. In order to understand the significance of this phenomenon, one has to understand perception and its different aspects .
The behaviour of people is according to their perception. Perception is the cognitive process. Cognition is basically a bit of information, and cognitive process involved in ways in which people process that information. Like central processing units (CPU) of a computer, human beings also or information processors with on basic difference. While as the computers process a piece of information in the identical manner with identical output, human beings may differ because of their difference and uniqueness.
Stephen P. Robins has defined perception as “Perception may be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.”
Perception is an intellectual process, through which person selects the data from environment, organizes it and obtains meaning from it. The physical of obtaining data from environment, known as sensation.
Perception is the basic cognitive or psychological process. The manner in which a person perceives the environment affects his behavior. Thus, people’s actions, emotions, thoughts or feelings are triggered by the perception.
Perception, being an intellectual and psychological process, becomes a subjective process and different people may perceive the same environmental event differently based on what particular aspects of the situation they choose to absorb, how they organize this information, and the manner in which they interpret it to obtain their grasp of the situation. Thus, the subjectively perceived “really” in any given setting may be different for different people.
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Why is perception important in the study of O.B?
Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world i.e., behaviorally important.
There has been a great deal of misunderstanding about the relationship between sensation and perception. The physical senses vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste are different from the perception.
The sensation essentially deals with very elementary behavior that is largely determined by physiological functioning. Perception on the other hand, is much more complex and broader than sensation.
It is virtually a cognitive, psychological process of sensing, filtering and modifying the raw data. As sensation plays an important role of people in their private lives, perception plays a crucial part in organizational life.
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When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Perception is a process that operates constantly between reality and us.
There are three well-noted mechanisms of perception – section takes account of only those stimuli that are relevant and appropriate for only those stimuli that are relevant and appropriate for an individual.
Perceptual organization is concerned with harnessing the perceived inputs and converting them into a meaningful shape or form.
The final mechanism – perceptual interpretation, deals with inference from observed meaning from the perceived events or objects. From it emanates the resultant behavior of individual.
Emotions can influence organizational behavior in a number of ways, Some of the ways are direct, such as the triggering of behavior by emotions, whereas other ways are indirect, such as emotions influencing behavior through mediating mechanisms like motivation or cognition.
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Felt Versus Display Emotions What Are Emotions? Emotional Dissonance Important Terms 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
What Are Emotions? Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience. 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Until recently, the topic of emotions had been all but ignored in management scholarship. There are two possible explanations. First, the myth of rationality held that well-run organizations operated without frustration, anger, love, hate, joy, grief, and similar feelings. Since such emotions were the antithesis of rationality, even though researchers and managers tried to create organizations that were emotion-free. Second, when emotions were considered, the strong negative emotions (like anger) took center stage because they interfered with the productivity of employees. So emotions were rarely viewed as being constructive or motivational. But no study of behavior could be comprehensive without studying the role of emotions in the workplace.
Before going further, we need to clarify three closely-related terms. Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of human feelings. It is an umbrella concept that encompasses both emotions and moods. Emotions are intense feelings which are directed at someone or something. Moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and lack a contextual stimulus.
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Six Universal Emotions Happiness Surprise Fear Sadness Anger Disgust 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL
Research has identified six universal emotions: anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise. These emotions can be conceptualized as existing along a continuum. The closer any two emotions are on this continuum, the more people are likely to confuse them. For example, happiness and surprise are often mistaken, but happiness and disgust are rarely confused.
People give different responses to identical emotion-provoking stimuli. In some cases, this can be attributed to the individual’s personality. Other times it is a result of the job requirements.
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12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL Emotionless People Other Key Issues Gender and Emotions Culture and Emotions
Some people find it hard to express their emotions and to understand the emotions of others. Psychologists call this condition alexithymia (Greek for lack of emotion). Does their inability to express emotions or read others mean that they will be poor workers? Not necessarily. While they are ill-suited for sales or managerial positions, they may be excellent computer programmers.
It is widely assumed that women are more “in touch” with their feelings than men. Is this assumption true? Evidence confirms that women and men differ in their emotional abilities. Women show greater emotional expression than men; they experience emotions more intensely and display them more frequently; they are more comfortable expressing their emotions; and they are better at reading nonverbal cues. Three possible explanations for these differences have been offered:
(1) men and women are socialized differently;
(2) women have more innate ability to read others and express their emotions; and
(3) women have a greater need for social approval and display more positive emotions.
What is acceptable in one culture may be unusual or dysfunctional in another culture. And cultures interpret emotions differently. There tends to be high agreement on what emotions mean within cultures but not between them. Studies show that some cultures lack words for such standard emotions as anxiety, depression, or guilt, for instance, do not have a word directly equivalent to sadness.
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Emotional Intelligence (EI) Decision Making Motivation Leadership Interpersonal Conflict 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL OB Applications
Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a assortment of non-cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. It is composed of five dimensions: self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills. Several studies show that EI can play an important role in job performance, especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction.
Traditional approaches to decision making in organizations have emphasized rationality and downplayed or ignored the role of emotions. Yet, it is naïve to assume that decisions are not influenced by one’s feelings. Indeed, people use emotions as well as rational and intuitive processes when making decisions.
Every employee expends physical and mental labor on the job. But most jobs require emotional labor . This is when an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Emotional labor creates dilemmas for employees when their job requires that they exhibit emotions which are incongruous with their true feelings. Felt emotions are a person’s actual emotions. Displayed emotions are considered appropriate in a given job. The key point is that felt and displayed emotions are often quite different.
An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event—this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question.
Attitudes are acquired from parents, teachers and members of the peer group. The genetic make-up of a child initially determines his personality and attitudes.
However, as the child begins his schooling and interacts with people, his attitudes are influenced by the people whom he admires, respects or fears. Individuals are more willing to modify their behavior and shape their attitude to align with the behavior of people whom they look up to.
This is the reason why companies have their products endorsed by popular personalities such as leading cricket players and film stars. Such endorsement helps develop a positive attitude toward their products among the public.
People are generally not as steadfast about their attitudes as they are about their values.
Thus, the attitudes of people can be easily influenced and altered. Attitudes can be changed by various means: by providing new information, by coercion or threat, by resolving differences, and by involving people (dissatisfied with a situation in the organization) in problem solving.
It is only natural for employees to have a hostile attitude toward change in the organization. However, if the management helps employees understand the competitive threat the organization is facing and makes them realize the need for change and organization development, the employees will, most likely, overcome their hostile attitude and agree to bring about change in the organization.
Attitudes can also be changed by providing the right type of feedback to employees. If a manager always makes only negative remarks in his feedback to employees, the employees may develop a negative attitude towards the job and workplace.
The manager should therefore be trained to give objective feedback (which includes both positive and negative points) in a manner that does not de-motivating employees. This will help change the attitude of employees towards their job and work environment and will go a long way in preventing job dissatisfaction and turnover.
People come into contact with objects in their everyday environment. Some are familiar while others are new. We evaluate the new and reevaluate the old and this evaluation process assists in developing attitudes toward objects.
Needs: Because needs differ and also vary over time, people can develop different attitudes toward the same object at different points in their life.
Selective perception: We have seen that people operate on their personal interpretation of reality.
Personality is another factor influencing how people process their direct experiences with objects. How aggressive passive introverted extroverted and so on that people are will affect the attitudes they form.
All people are influenced to one degree or another by other members in the groups to which they belong. Attitudes are one target for this influence. Our attitudes toward products ethics warfare and a multitude of other subjects are influenced strongly by groups that we value and with which we do or wish to associate. Several groups, including family, work, and peer groups, and cultural and sub-cultural groups, are important in affecting a person’s attitude development.
A individual’s attitude can be formed and changed through personal contact with influential persons such as respected friends relatives and experts. Opinion leaders are examples of people who are respected by their followers and who may strongly influence the attitudes.
One of the tasks of managers is to provide satisfaction to employees from their respective jobs. The term Job-satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude towards his job. A person with high job satisfaction holds positive attitude towards his job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his job holds a negative attitude more often than not they mean job satisfaction. In fact, the two terms are used interchangeably.
The term job involvement refers to the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his job and considers his perceived performance level important to his self worth. A person with a high degree of involvement will identify with his job and will care about the kind of work he does on his job.
If job involvement refers to one’s identification with particular job, organizational commitments means one’s involvement with his employing organization. Being another name for organizational loyalty, organizational commitment results in a stable work force. As with job involvement, attitude is an important variable in determining organizational commitment.
One obstacle to the change of attitude is the attitude theory of balance and consistency. That is, human beings prefer their attitudes bout people, and things to be in line (i.e., balanced, consistent) with their behaviors towards each other objects.
When attitudes or behaviors are not consistence, people usually seek to reduce the inconsistency rewarding internally. Leon Festinger has developed a theory in support of attitude consistency called cognitive dissonance.
Festinger’s theory states that dissonance makes an individual feel uncomfortable. This feeling makes the individual try to reduce dissonance.
Cognitive dissonance also occurs when a person behaves in fashion that is inconsistent with his or her attitude. For example, a person may realize that smoking and overeating are dangerous, yet continue to do both.
Because the attitude and behaviors are not consistent with each other, the person probably will experience a certain amount of tension and discomfort and may engage in dissonance reduction, seeking ways to reduce the dissonance and tension it causes.
The dissonance associated with smoking might be resolved rationalizing.” Just a pack a day will not affect my health”, or “I can quit when I have to do”. With regard to overrating, the person may decide to go on a diet “Next week”. In general, the person attempts to change the attitude, alter the behavior, or perceptually distort the circumstances to reduce tension and discomfort.
In the organizational setting cognitive dissonance occur when an employee desires to leave the present job as there is no use in continuing and working hard. The individual may rationalize his or her stay with such explanations as, “Organisation is not bad, after all”, or “what is the alternative?”
The second barrier to change of attitude is prior commitments. This occurs when people feel a commitment to a particular course of action and are unwilling to change.
The third barrier results from insufficient information. Sometimes people see no reason why they should change their attitudes. The boss may not like a subordinate’s negative attitude, but the latter may be quite pleased with his behaviour. Unless the boss can show the individual why a negative attitude is detrimental to career progress or salary increases of some other personal objective, the subordinates may continue to have negative.
1. Providing New Information : New information will help change attitudes. Negative attitudes are mainly formed owing to lack of or insufficient information. Workers generally become pro-union because of the ignorance about the good intentions of the management. Once they come to know how the management cares for the welfare of the workers, they change their attitude and might turn pro-management.
2. Use of Fear : Fear can change attitude. However, the change depends on the degree of fear. For example, if low levels of fear arousal are used, people often ignore them. The warnings are not strong enough to warrant attention. If moderate levels of fear arousal are used, people often become aware of the situation and will change their attitude.
3. Influence of Friends or Peers : Change of attitude can come about through persuasion of friends or peers. Credibility of the others, especially peers, is important to effect change. Peers with high creditability shall exercise significant influence on change. The same is not true with peers who have low credibility.
4. The co-opting Approach : Co-opting is another way of changing attitude. This means taking people who are dissatisfied with a situation and getting them involved in improving things.
5. Others: Research has shown that an individual is more likely to change a privately held attitude than one he has stated publicly. It is, therefore, necessary that a situation is avoided where the individual makes his attitude public prior to change attempt.
The individual from a culturally deprived environment, who holds an array of hostile attitudes, may change when he is given opportunities for education. A person form a privileged subculture, who has always held to a democratic attitude, may become negative towards some group because of one unfortunate experience.
Again, through continued association with others holding similar attitude, one can be influenced in a positive or negative direction. Here the attitude of both the reference group and the social climate are important.
A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based. Those values which are not physiologically determined and normally considered objective, such as a desire to avoid physical pain, seek pleasure, etc., are considered subjective, vary across individuals and cultures and are in many ways aligned with belief and belief systems.
Instrumental values: It relates to means for achieving desired ends. It is a tool for acquiring a terminal value.
E.g., Ambition, capable, clean, loving, logical etc.
Formation of values:
Values are learned & acquired primarily through experience with people & institutions.
Values are also taught & reinforced in schools, religious organizations & social group.
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Mean value of Executives, Union Members & Activists ( Top five) 12/25/11 SANDHYA ANIL Executives Union Members Activists Terminal Instrumental Terminal Instrumental Terminal Instrumental Self-respect Honest Family Security Responsible Equality Honest Family-security Responsible Freedom Honest A world of peace Helpful Freedom Capable Happiness Courage's Family Security Courage's A sense of accomplishment Ambitious Self-respect Independent Self respect Responsible Happiness Independent Mature love Capable Freedom Capable
Over the last thirty years, a variety of definitions for loyalty have appeared in the organizational literature. Some descriptions can be traced to earlier on the relationship between firms and their employees (Lawrence, 1958; Whyte, 1956), which emphasized the devotion of workers to their organizations as reflected in their compliance with instructions from supervisors.
Other definitions have emerged more recently from research on organizational commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1991; Mowday et al., 1982; O'Reilly and Chatman, 1986) and related variables (Bhappu, 2000; Werhane, 1999a), in which loyalty has sometimes been used as a synonym for one or more forms of commitment.
Today, definitions of loyalty range from specific to broad, and capture attitudes and behaviors involving a variety of foci (Butler and Cantrell, 1984; Fletcher, 1993).
As the set of definitions continues to expand, it becomes increasingly difficult to determine exactly what is meant by "loyalty" and how it should be measured. This leads to contradictory findings about the presence or absence of loyalty in organizations and makes it more difficult to identify loyalty's antecedents and outcomes.
First, the notion that loyal individuals select values highlights the fact that loyalty involves a voluntary decision about what standards to use in evaluating potential courses of action in the workplace.
Second, Allport's (1933) suggestion that loyalty involves adherence indicates the importance of on going behavior among loyal individuals.
Finally, his view that loyalty involves adherence to some principle of conduct we consider good emphasizes loyalty's moral nature. Though a variety of definitions for morality exist, they generally refer to behavior that conforms to principles of right conduct (Dunfee, 2001).
By evaluating various principles of conduct and adhering to those viewed as good, the loyal individual engages in moral judgment prior to action.
The inclusion of "moral principles" in the new definition is based on Oldenquist's (1982) conceptualization of loyalty. It is meant to suggest that a loyal individual decides upon appropriate courses of action by focusing on a community's moral principles.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who developed an interest in how children think. He proposed that childrens' thought processes develop from birth through a series of stages.
He stated that children think in a different way to adults. He felt that the child had to progress through the stages by interacting with their environment .
He proposed the notion of schema - a set of interrelated ideas about a concept. These schemas (or schemata) develop from the basic reflexes that the infant is born with, through the interaction with their environment.
So a baby is born with a sucking reflex, which is applied to any object that the baby grasps; in doing so the baby notices and absorbs other characteristics of the object
Piaget focused on the active nature of learning. The individual is naturally interested in exploring the environment and will learn through discovery.
Piaget never applied his ideas to education, but others have. Discovery learning focuses on the active nature of the learner, using interaction with the environment. The teacher must set up an appropriate environment to ensure that learning occurs.
Discovery learning is one of the most important of the learning approaches because it can be highly motivating and can help children to structure what they are learning. It is also one of the most difficult to use well and creating situations in which children can make discoveries which are within their capacity is a fascinating professional task.