SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Attitude- Organisational Behaviour

Attitude- Organisational Behaviour/MBA/BBA

1 of 34
Download to read offline
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
Attitude and Value
Prof. Shrinivas
Prof. SVK
Meaning Of AttitudeMeaning Of Attitude
Attitudes are evaluative statements indicating one’s feeling
either favourably or unfavourably towards
persons,objects,events or situations
Attitude is very complex cognitive process just like
personality of an individual.
 POSITIVE ATTITUDE :- Positive mental attitude is a
psychological term which describes a mental phenomenon
in which the central idea is that one can increase
achievement through optimistic thought processes.
 NEGATIVE ATTITUDE :-A negative attitude is
characterized by a great disdain for everything. Someone
who constantly points out the negative in everything.
Prof. SVK
AttitudeAttitudeAttitudeAttitude
AttitudeAttitude is defined as “a learnedis defined as “a learned
predisposition to respond in apredisposition to respond in a
consistently favorable or unfavorableconsistently favorable or unfavorable
manner with respect to a givenmanner with respect to a given
object.” That is, attitudes affectobject.” That is, attitudes affect
behavior at a different level than dobehavior at a different level than do
values…values…
Prof. SVK
Features of AttitudeFeatures of Attitude
 Attitude can be characterized in Different ways:
Changes with time & situation
Related to feelings & beliefs of people
Effects one’s behaviour positively or negatively
Affect perception
Learned through experiences
May be unconsciously held
Prof. SVK
Nature of AttitudeNature of Attitude
ASPECTS OF VALENCE-the degree of favorableness or
unfavorableness toward the event
ASPECTS OF MULTIPLEXITY-number of element
constituting the attitude
RELATION TO NEED ASPECT-vary in relation to needs
they serve
CENTRALITY ASPECT-importance of attitude object to
someone
Prof. SVK
Attitude ComponentsAttitude ComponentsAttitude ComponentsAttitude Components
Affective Behavior
Cognitive
Prof. SVK
Ad

Recommended

Perception in Organizational Behaviour
Perception in Organizational BehaviourPerception in Organizational Behaviour
Perception in Organizational BehaviourTRILOCHAN BHALLA
 
Learning ( organisational behaviour)
Learning ( organisational behaviour) Learning ( organisational behaviour)
Learning ( organisational behaviour) JYOTI CHADHA
 
Personality - Organisational Behavior
Personality - Organisational BehaviorPersonality - Organisational Behavior
Personality - Organisational Behaviorshrinivas kulkarni
 
Attitude - Organizational Behaviour
Attitude - Organizational Behaviour Attitude - Organizational Behaviour
Attitude - Organizational Behaviour Dr. Rajasshrie Pillai
 
Individual behaviour-Organisational Behaviour
Individual behaviour-Organisational BehaviourIndividual behaviour-Organisational Behaviour
Individual behaviour-Organisational BehaviourRahul Mahida
 
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR- Learning
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR- LearningORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR- Learning
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR- LearningTrinity Dwarka
 
Organizational Behavior : Personality
Organizational Behavior : PersonalityOrganizational Behavior : Personality
Organizational Behavior : PersonalityDr Kiran Kakade
 
Perception.-Organisational Behavior
Perception.-Organisational BehaviorPerception.-Organisational Behavior
Perception.-Organisational Behaviorshrinivas kulkarni
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Organizational Behavior : Learning
Organizational Behavior : Learning Organizational Behavior : Learning
Organizational Behavior : Learning Shruti Pendharkar
 
Ob ppt on motivation
Ob ppt on motivation Ob ppt on motivation
Ob ppt on motivation bilal khan
 
Introduction of organizational behavior
Introduction of organizational behaviorIntroduction of organizational behavior
Introduction of organizational behaviordeepu2000
 
Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values Dr Kiran Kakade
 
Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)
Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)
Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)Yamini Kahaliya
 
Case study on organizational behaviour
Case study on organizational behaviourCase study on organizational behaviour
Case study on organizational behaviourTanu Priya
 
Organization Behaviour chapter 2: Values
Organization Behaviour chapter 2: ValuesOrganization Behaviour chapter 2: Values
Organization Behaviour chapter 2: ValuesFree Talk 2 Other
 
Foundations of individual behaviour
Foundations of individual behaviourFoundations of individual behaviour
Foundations of individual behavioursuneel0880
 
PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURPERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURKriace Ward
 
Nature of Organisational behaviour
Nature of Organisational behaviourNature of Organisational behaviour
Nature of Organisational behaviourRajThakuri
 
Models of Organisational Behaviour
Models of Organisational Behaviour Models of Organisational Behaviour
Models of Organisational Behaviour Dr.Aravind TS
 
MBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour Notes
MBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour NotesMBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour Notes
MBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour NotesSuman Poudel
 
SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES
SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES
SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES Anuroop vs
 
Notes on Attitude & Values in Organisation Behavior
Notes on Attitude & Values in Organisation BehaviorNotes on Attitude & Values in Organisation Behavior
Notes on Attitude & Values in Organisation BehaviorYamini Kahaliya
 
Leadership - Organisational Behavior
Leadership - Organisational BehaviorLeadership - Organisational Behavior
Leadership - Organisational Behaviorshrinivas kulkarni
 

What's hot (20)

Organizational Behavior : Learning
Organizational Behavior : Learning Organizational Behavior : Learning
Organizational Behavior : Learning
 
Ob ppt on motivation
Ob ppt on motivation Ob ppt on motivation
Ob ppt on motivation
 
Introduction of organizational behavior
Introduction of organizational behaviorIntroduction of organizational behavior
Introduction of organizational behavior
 
Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values
 
Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)
Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)
Notes on Perception in organisation Behavior (Notes for BBA/B.com Students)
 
Case study on organizational behaviour
Case study on organizational behaviourCase study on organizational behaviour
Case study on organizational behaviour
 
Organization Behaviour chapter 2: Values
Organization Behaviour chapter 2: ValuesOrganization Behaviour chapter 2: Values
Organization Behaviour chapter 2: Values
 
Foundations of individual behaviour
Foundations of individual behaviourFoundations of individual behaviour
Foundations of individual behaviour
 
PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURPERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
 
Ob model
Ob  modelOb  model
Ob model
 
Challenges of ob
Challenges of obChallenges of ob
Challenges of ob
 
Nature of Organisational behaviour
Nature of Organisational behaviourNature of Organisational behaviour
Nature of Organisational behaviour
 
Group behaviour ppt
Group behaviour pptGroup behaviour ppt
Group behaviour ppt
 
Models of Organisational Behaviour
Models of Organisational Behaviour Models of Organisational Behaviour
Models of Organisational Behaviour
 
MBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour Notes
MBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour NotesMBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour Notes
MBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour Notes
 
Organizational behaviour, nature & levels of organizational behaviour
Organizational behaviour, nature & levels of organizational behaviourOrganizational behaviour, nature & levels of organizational behaviour
Organizational behaviour, nature & levels of organizational behaviour
 
SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES
SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES
SPIRITUAL& SECULAR VALUES
 
Notes on Attitude & Values in Organisation Behavior
Notes on Attitude & Values in Organisation BehaviorNotes on Attitude & Values in Organisation Behavior
Notes on Attitude & Values in Organisation Behavior
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 
Leadership - Organisational Behavior
Leadership - Organisational BehaviorLeadership - Organisational Behavior
Leadership - Organisational Behavior
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (18)

Unit 4
Unit 4Unit 4
Unit 4
 
Q3L01 - Attitude: definition and components
Q3L01 - Attitude: definition and componentsQ3L01 - Attitude: definition and components
Q3L01 - Attitude: definition and components
 
Type theory
Type theoryType theory
Type theory
 
Attitude
AttitudeAttitude
Attitude
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
 
Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
 
psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theorypsychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theory
 
Attitudes and values
Attitudes and valuesAttitudes and values
Attitudes and values
 
Attitude ppt(mba hons.)
Attitude ppt(mba hons.)Attitude ppt(mba hons.)
Attitude ppt(mba hons.)
 
Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy 101
Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy 101Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy 101
Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy 101
 
Attitude
AttitudeAttitude
Attitude
 
Positive attitude ppt
Positive attitude pptPositive attitude ppt
Positive attitude ppt
 
psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theorypsychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theory
 
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund FreudPpt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
 
Attitude
AttitudeAttitude
Attitude
 
Power point presentation on attitude
Power point presentation on attitudePower point presentation on attitude
Power point presentation on attitude
 

Similar to Attitude- Organisational Behaviour

Similar to Attitude- Organisational Behaviour (20)

attitude-160403112216.pdf
attitude-160403112216.pdfattitude-160403112216.pdf
attitude-160403112216.pdf
 
Attitude
Attitude Attitude
Attitude
 
Attitude III SEM B.Com for Bangalore University
Attitude III SEM B.Com for Bangalore UniversityAttitude III SEM B.Com for Bangalore University
Attitude III SEM B.Com for Bangalore University
 
Attitude makes personality
Attitude makes personalityAttitude makes personality
Attitude makes personality
 
ATTITUDES.pptx
ATTITUDES.pptxATTITUDES.pptx
ATTITUDES.pptx
 
ATTITUDES in OB
ATTITUDES in OBATTITUDES in OB
ATTITUDES in OB
 
Values and attitudes
Values and attitudesValues and attitudes
Values and attitudes
 
Dynamic and Pro Active Attitude
Dynamic and Pro Active AttitudeDynamic and Pro Active Attitude
Dynamic and Pro Active Attitude
 
Attitude by Aijaz Aryan
Attitude by Aijaz AryanAttitude by Aijaz Aryan
Attitude by Aijaz Aryan
 
Attitude
AttitudeAttitude
Attitude
 
Organisational Attitude
Organisational AttitudeOrganisational Attitude
Organisational Attitude
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 
Attitude
AttitudeAttitude
Attitude
 
Attitude report
Attitude reportAttitude report
Attitude report
 
attitude ppt.pdf
attitude ppt.pdfattitude ppt.pdf
attitude ppt.pdf
 
Values and attitudes
Values and attitudesValues and attitudes
Values and attitudes
 
Attitudes & Job Satisfaction
Attitudes & Job SatisfactionAttitudes & Job Satisfaction
Attitudes & Job Satisfaction
 
Attitude
AttitudeAttitude
Attitude
 

More from shrinivas kulkarni

Information technology in marketing
Information technology in marketingInformation technology in marketing
Information technology in marketingshrinivas kulkarni
 
Promotion, marketing and society
Promotion, marketing and societyPromotion, marketing and society
Promotion, marketing and societyshrinivas kulkarni
 
Marketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, Distribution
Marketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, DistributionMarketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, Distribution
Marketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, Distributionshrinivas kulkarni
 
Introduction to Marketing Management
Introduction to Marketing ManagementIntroduction to Marketing Management
Introduction to Marketing Managementshrinivas kulkarni
 
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social ResponsibilityCorporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social Responsibilityshrinivas kulkarni
 
Sustainability Reporting- Business Ethics
Sustainability Reporting- Business EthicsSustainability Reporting- Business Ethics
Sustainability Reporting- Business Ethicsshrinivas kulkarni
 
Maintenance management- Production Management
Maintenance management- Production ManagementMaintenance management- Production Management
Maintenance management- Production Managementshrinivas kulkarni
 
Production Planning and Control
Production Planning and ControlProduction Planning and Control
Production Planning and Controlshrinivas kulkarni
 
Emerging and contemporary themes in global organizational behavior
Emerging and contemporary  themes in global organizational  behaviorEmerging and contemporary  themes in global organizational  behavior
Emerging and contemporary themes in global organizational behaviorshrinivas kulkarni
 
Managing diversity and cross cultural issues
Managing diversity and  cross cultural issuesManaging diversity and  cross cultural issues
Managing diversity and cross cultural issuesshrinivas kulkarni
 
New product development strategy
New product development strategyNew product development strategy
New product development strategyshrinivas kulkarni
 

More from shrinivas kulkarni (20)

Sales Management
Sales ManagementSales Management
Sales Management
 
Sustainability reporting
Sustainability reporting Sustainability reporting
Sustainability reporting
 
Ethics in finance
Ethics in financeEthics in finance
Ethics in finance
 
Bes lmr notes (1)
Bes lmr notes (1)Bes lmr notes (1)
Bes lmr notes (1)
 
International Finance
International FinanceInternational Finance
International Finance
 
Social venture creation
Social venture creationSocial venture creation
Social venture creation
 
Family business in india
Family business in indiaFamily business in india
Family business in india
 
Information technology in marketing
Information technology in marketingInformation technology in marketing
Information technology in marketing
 
Promotion, marketing and society
Promotion, marketing and societyPromotion, marketing and society
Promotion, marketing and society
 
Marketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, Distribution
Marketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, DistributionMarketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, Distribution
Marketing process, Mktg mix, NPD,PLC, STP, Distribution
 
Introduction to Marketing Management
Introduction to Marketing ManagementIntroduction to Marketing Management
Introduction to Marketing Management
 
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social ResponsibilityCorporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social Responsibility
 
Sustainability Reporting- Business Ethics
Sustainability Reporting- Business EthicsSustainability Reporting- Business Ethics
Sustainability Reporting- Business Ethics
 
Waste management-Production
Waste management-ProductionWaste management-Production
Waste management-Production
 
Maintenance management- Production Management
Maintenance management- Production ManagementMaintenance management- Production Management
Maintenance management- Production Management
 
Production Planning and Control
Production Planning and ControlProduction Planning and Control
Production Planning and Control
 
PhD Viva PPT
PhD Viva PPTPhD Viva PPT
PhD Viva PPT
 
Emerging and contemporary themes in global organizational behavior
Emerging and contemporary  themes in global organizational  behaviorEmerging and contemporary  themes in global organizational  behavior
Emerging and contemporary themes in global organizational behavior
 
Managing diversity and cross cultural issues
Managing diversity and  cross cultural issuesManaging diversity and  cross cultural issues
Managing diversity and cross cultural issues
 
New product development strategy
New product development strategyNew product development strategy
New product development strategy
 

Recently uploaded

Centre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdf
Centre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdfCentre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdf
Centre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdfObaid Ali / Roohi B. Obaid
 
The Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdf
The Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdfThe Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdf
The Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdfPMIUKChapter
 
Editable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT Slide
Editable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT SlideEditable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT Slide
Editable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT SlideAstroniverse
 
The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...
The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...
The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...Dr. Sukanta Mishra
 
PMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed Outline
PMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed OutlinePMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed Outline
PMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed OutlineMd. Masudur Rahman, PMP
 
US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....
US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....
US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....Praloy Chowdhury
 
Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...
Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...
Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...vwbinternational045
 

Recently uploaded (10)

Centre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdf
Centre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdfCentre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdf
Centre for Quality Sciences-Information File-2024.pdf
 
The Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdf
The Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdfThe Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdf
The Tay Bridge Disaster presentation pdf
 
Editable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT Slide
Editable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT SlideEditable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT Slide
Editable Events Calendar for 2024 PPT Slide
 
The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...
The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...
The Essence of OD: An Exploration on Organization Development & Organizationa...
 
PMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed Outline
PMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed OutlinePMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed Outline
PMP Exam Preparation Course Detailed Outline
 
BoSON22 | Tony Ulwick | The ‘JTBD Needs’ Framework
BoSON22 | Tony Ulwick | The ‘JTBD Needs’ FrameworkBoSON22 | Tony Ulwick | The ‘JTBD Needs’ Framework
BoSON22 | Tony Ulwick | The ‘JTBD Needs’ Framework
 
BoSUSA22 | Mikey Trafton | Finding Your Super Powers
BoSUSA22 | Mikey Trafton | Finding Your Super PowersBoSUSA22 | Mikey Trafton | Finding Your Super Powers
BoSUSA22 | Mikey Trafton | Finding Your Super Powers
 
PPMA Excellence in People Management Awards 2024 - SHORTLISTED ENTRIES
PPMA Excellence in People Management Awards 2024 - SHORTLISTED ENTRIESPPMA Excellence in People Management Awards 2024 - SHORTLISTED ENTRIES
PPMA Excellence in People Management Awards 2024 - SHORTLISTED ENTRIES
 
US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....
US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....
US Supply Chain Management Degree: Gateway to top-paying rolls in Bangladesh....
 
Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...
Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...
Myanmar is one of Asia's greatest civilizations and one of the most diverse c...
 

Attitude- Organisational Behaviour

  • 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Attitude and Value Prof. Shrinivas Prof. SVK
  • 2. Meaning Of AttitudeMeaning Of Attitude Attitudes are evaluative statements indicating one’s feeling either favourably or unfavourably towards persons,objects,events or situations Attitude is very complex cognitive process just like personality of an individual.  POSITIVE ATTITUDE :- Positive mental attitude is a psychological term which describes a mental phenomenon in which the central idea is that one can increase achievement through optimistic thought processes.  NEGATIVE ATTITUDE :-A negative attitude is characterized by a great disdain for everything. Someone who constantly points out the negative in everything. Prof. SVK
  • 3. AttitudeAttitudeAttitudeAttitude AttitudeAttitude is defined as “a learnedis defined as “a learned predisposition to respond in apredisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorableconsistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a givenmanner with respect to a given object.” That is, attitudes affectobject.” That is, attitudes affect behavior at a different level than dobehavior at a different level than do values…values… Prof. SVK
  • 4. Features of AttitudeFeatures of Attitude  Attitude can be characterized in Different ways: Changes with time & situation Related to feelings & beliefs of people Effects one’s behaviour positively or negatively Affect perception Learned through experiences May be unconsciously held Prof. SVK
  • 5. Nature of AttitudeNature of Attitude ASPECTS OF VALENCE-the degree of favorableness or unfavorableness toward the event ASPECTS OF MULTIPLEXITY-number of element constituting the attitude RELATION TO NEED ASPECT-vary in relation to needs they serve CENTRALITY ASPECT-importance of attitude object to someone Prof. SVK
  • 6. Attitude ComponentsAttitude ComponentsAttitude ComponentsAttitude Components Affective Behavior Cognitive Prof. SVK
  • 7. Attitude ComponentsAttitude ComponentsAttitude ComponentsAttitude Components Affective ComponentAffective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive componentCognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude based onThe opinion or belief segment of an attitude based on the knowledge or information.the knowledge or information. Behavioral ComponentBehavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone orAn intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.something. Prof. SVK
  • 8. ABC Model of AttitudeABC Model of Attitude ABC, the three letters stands for affect, behaviour & cognition. Emphasizes the inter relationship among knowing, feeling & doing. Relative importance of component depends upon level of motivation. Prof. SVK
  • 9. The Theory of Cognitive DissonanceThe Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance Prof. SVK
  • 10. DefinitionDefinition  Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors.  This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc.  For example, when people smoke (behavior) and they know that smoking causes cancer (cognition). Prof. SVK
  • 11. Festinger's (1957)Festinger's (1957)  cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and beliefs in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance).  Attitudes may change because of factors within the person.  An important factor here is the principle of cognitive consistency, the focus of Festinger's (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance.  This theory starts from the idea that we seek consistency in our beliefs and attitudes in any situation where two cognitions are inconsistent. Prof. SVK
  • 12.  A cognition can be considered a belief.  If you like to smoke then this can be considered a cognition.  For example if you like to smoke but you know that smoking is harmful then that would result in Cognitive dissonance.  The Cognitive dissonance theory states that when two cognitions become dissonant Cognitive dissonance happens. Prof. SVK
  • 13.  Example 1: Knowing that smoking is harmful (First cognition) while liking to smoke (second cognition). The Cognitive dissonance theory's conditions were met because those cognitions are dissonant  Example 2: Believing that lying is bad (First cognition) and being forced to lie (second cognition) Prof. SVK
  • 14. Functions Of AttitudeFunctions Of Attitude Attitude Ego Defensive Adjustment Knowledge Value expression Prof. SVK
  • 15. Functions Of AttitudeFunctions Of Attitude  The Adjustment Function : Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment.  Ego-Defensive Function : Attitudes help people to retain their dignity and self- image.  The Value-Expressive Function : Attitudes provide individuals with a basis for expressing their values.  The Knowledge Function : Attitudes provide standards and frames of reference that allow people to understand and perceive the world around him. Prof. SVK
  • 16. Formation Of AttitudeFormation Of Attitude Mass Communication Classical Conditioning Vicarious Learning Neighbourhood Experience with Object Family and Peer Groups Attitude Operant Conditioning Economic Status Prof. SVK
  • 17. Formation Of AttitudeFormation Of Attitude  Experience with Object : Attitude can develop from a personally rewarding or punishing experience with a object.  Classical Conditioning :It involves involuntary responses and is acquired through the pairing of two stimuli.  Operant Conditioning : It is based on the “Law of Effect” and involves voluntary responses ,Behaviors.  Vicarious Learning : Formation of attitude by observing behaviour of others and consequences of that behaviour. Prof. SVK
  • 18. Continued….Continued….  Family and Peer Groups : A person may learn attitudes through imitation of parents. – Neighbourhood : Involves being told what attitudes to have by parents, schools, community organizations, religious doctrine, friends, etc. – Economic Status : Our Economical and occupational positions also contribute to attitude formation.  Mass Communication : Television, Radio, Newspaper and magazine feed their audiences large quantities of information. Prof. SVK
  • 19. Work -Related AttitudesWork -Related Attitudes Prof. SVK
  • 20. Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction  Measuring Job Satisfaction – Rating scale – Interviews – Surveys  How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? – Job satisfaction declined to 50.7% in 2010 – Decline attributed to: • Pressures to increase productivity • Less control over work Prof. SVK
  • 21. The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance  Satisfaction and Productivity – Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. – Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.  Satisfaction and Absenteeism – Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.  Satisfaction and Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. – Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers. Prof. SVK
  • 22. Responses to Job DissatisfactionResponses to Job Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 3-6 Prof. SVK
  • 23. How Employees Can Express DissatisfactionHow Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Prof. SVK
  • 24. Job Satisfaction and OCBJob Satisfaction and OCB  Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. Prof. SVK
  • 25. Methods To Bring Attitude ChangeMethods To Bring Attitude Change  Providing Information  Use of Fear  Resolving Discrepancies  Influence of Friends and Peers  Communication  Society Prof. SVK
  • 26. Barriers To Attitude ChangeBarriers To Attitude Change  Prior and strong commitment  Low credibility  Insufficient information  Degree of fear Prof. SVK
  • 27. Ways To Overcome The BarriersWays To Overcome The Barriers  Providing new information  Use of fear  Resolving discrepancies  Influence of friends and peers  The co-opting approach Prof. SVK
  • 28. WHAT IS VALUES??WHAT IS VALUES??  Values are abstract ideals that act as anchors for our ethical beliefs and conduct  Values carry an individual’s concept of right and wrong.  Principles that guide our lives. They are designed to lead us to our ideal world.  Values define what is of worth, what is beneficial and what is harmful.  Values are standards to guide our action, judgement and attitudes.  Values are relatively stable and deep stated Prof. SVK
  • 29. Common personal valuesCommon personal values  Adventure  Commitment  Discipline  Equality  Fun  Gratitude  Hard work  Integrity  Openness  Perfection  Progress  Responsibility  Service  Speed  Success  Tolerance  Truth  Trust Prof. SVK
  • 30. VALUES VS FACTSVALUES VS FACTS VALUES FACTS Values are things we feel “should”, “ought”, or “are supposed to” influence our lives. Facts simply state what actually are. It is easy to confuse values with facts. VALUE: The best time to buy clothing is when the price is discounted. FACT: The most economical time to buy clothing is when the seasons change and the price is reduced. A value is a statement of one’s personal beliefs FACT: A fact is established by observation and measurement. Prof. SVK
  • 31. “IF YOU STAND FOR NOTHING, YOU FALL FOR ANYTHING” “IT’S NOT DOING THINGS RIGHT, BUT DOING THE RIGHT THINGS” Prof. SVK