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Foundation of individual      behavior           by    Atif Ahmed     Zain Iqbal   Muhammad Rashid    Mariam Nadir
Ability“An Individual’s capacity to perform various tasks in a                          job”
Types of abilitiesIntellectual abilitiesabilities needed to perform mental activities for thinking reasoning and problem s...
“Dimensions of intellectual ability”Number aptitude       Verbal comprehension     Perceptual speedInductive reasoning    ...
“Dimensions of intellectual ability”    Memory
Physical abilitiesThe capacity to do tasks that demand stamina  , dexterity, strength and similar characteristics
Basic physical abilitiesStrength factors Dynamic strength       Trunk strength  Static strength    Explosive strength
Flexibility factors : Extent flexibility   Dynamic flexibilityOther factorsBody coordination     Balance               Sta...
Biographical characteristicsAge• Most of us belief that job performance declines with age• The older you get the less like...
Gender•   Women perform as well as on job as men do•   Women have higher rate of absenteeism then men•   Women are likely ...
Race• People in organization may favor employees of their own race• On the basis of race people some times got lower ratin...
Social group• Percentage of seats are reserved for individuals to specified  categories• Preference is given according to ...
Other biographical characteristicsTenure• It is expressed as work experience and predict employy  productivity• It explain...
Religion• Religion is a touchy subject• Often people of different religious faiths conflicts• In some countries law prohib...
Learning “Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior occurs as a                            result of experie...
Theories of learning1. Classical conditioning2. Operant conditioning3. Social learning
Operant conditioning“A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to reward or prevents a punishment”
Classical conditioning“A type of conditioning in which an individual responds   to some stimulus that would not ordinarily...
Social learning   “Learning from observation and direct experience”Four processes of social learning are;• Attentional pro...
Attentional process• We attract to those models that are attractive and repeatedly  available and important to us  Retenti...
Motor reproduction processes• The watching must be converted into doing• Individual can perform the modeled activity Reinf...
Methods of shaping behaviorPositive reinforcement• Response with something pleasantNegative reinforcement• response with s...
Punishment• Unpleasant condition an attempt to eliminate an undesirable  behaviorExtinction• When the behavior is not rein...
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Foundation of individual behaviour

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Foundation of individual behaviour

  1. 1. Foundation of individual behavior by Atif Ahmed Zain Iqbal Muhammad Rashid Mariam Nadir
  2. 2. Ability“An Individual’s capacity to perform various tasks in a job”
  3. 3. Types of abilitiesIntellectual abilitiesabilities needed to perform mental activities for thinking reasoning and problem solving.
  4. 4. “Dimensions of intellectual ability”Number aptitude Verbal comprehension Perceptual speedInductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Spatial visualization
  5. 5. “Dimensions of intellectual ability” Memory
  6. 6. Physical abilitiesThe capacity to do tasks that demand stamina , dexterity, strength and similar characteristics
  7. 7. Basic physical abilitiesStrength factors Dynamic strength Trunk strength Static strength Explosive strength
  8. 8. Flexibility factors : Extent flexibility Dynamic flexibilityOther factorsBody coordination Balance Stamina
  9. 9. Biographical characteristicsAge• Most of us belief that job performance declines with age• The older you get the less likely you quit your job• Age is inversely related to absenteeism
  10. 10. Gender• Women perform as well as on job as men do• Women have higher rate of absenteeism then men• Women are likely to perform double duties• There is no differences in male and female regarding problem solving, competitive drive, motivation, stability or learning ability
  11. 11. Race• People in organization may favor employees of their own race• On the basis of race people some times got lower ratings in interview, paid less and promoted less frequently
  12. 12. Social group• Percentage of seats are reserved for individuals to specified categories• Preference is given according to person’s caste and tribes• religion and domicile are also taken in consideration.
  13. 13. Other biographical characteristicsTenure• It is expressed as work experience and predict employy productivity• It explains turnover• The longer a person is in a job the less likely he or she will quit
  14. 14. Religion• Religion is a touchy subject• Often people of different religious faiths conflicts• In some countries law prohibits employers from discriminating against employers based on their religionSexual orientation andgender identity• Dealing with transgender employees requires some special consideration• Many employers practice don’t ask don’t tell military policy
  15. 15. Learning “Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior occurs as a result of experience”Direct experience• Something affect you directly• You gone through with any pleasant or unfavorable situationIndirect experience• When you are not the direct victim• Someone else gone through with any unfavorable or pleasant situation and you learn from them
  16. 16. Theories of learning1. Classical conditioning2. Operant conditioning3. Social learning
  17. 17. Operant conditioning“A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to reward or prevents a punishment”
  18. 18. Classical conditioning“A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such response”
  19. 19. Social learning “Learning from observation and direct experience”Four processes of social learning are;• Attentional processes• Retention process• Motor reproduction processes• Reinforcement processes
  20. 20. Attentional process• We attract to those models that are attractive and repeatedly available and important to us Retention process• Influence depends on how well we remember model’s action
  21. 21. Motor reproduction processes• The watching must be converted into doing• Individual can perform the modeled activity Reinforcement processes• Exhibition of modeled behavior on incentives or reward
  22. 22. Methods of shaping behaviorPositive reinforcement• Response with something pleasantNegative reinforcement• response with something unpleasant
  23. 23. Punishment• Unpleasant condition an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behaviorExtinction• When the behavior is not reinforced it tends to be gradually extinguished

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