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Principles of a+p 1112   session 2   - skeletal system (functions of skeletal system and bone structure)
 

Principles of a+p 1112 session 2 - skeletal system (functions of skeletal system and bone structure)

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    Principles of a+p 1112   session 2   - skeletal system (functions of skeletal system and bone structure) Principles of a+p 1112 session 2 - skeletal system (functions of skeletal system and bone structure) Presentation Transcript

    • Principles of Anatomy and Physiology in Sport Session 2 – The Skeletal System
    • Re-Cap Last Session
      • Major bones of the body
      • Axial/Appendicular skeleton
      • Vertebral column - sections
    • Drag the labels to the correct place on the skeleton... The Skeletal System
      • Aim
      • To complete assignment 1
      • Objectives
      • To be able to describe the functions of the skeletal system
      • To be able to describe the structure of a typical long bone
      • To explain the differences between compact and cancellous bone
      Aims & Objectives
    • Activity
      • With your partner work together to list and briefly describe the 6 functions of the skeleton
    • Functions of the Skeleton 3. Blood Production Red blood cells are made in the ribs and limb bones. 1.Protection The rib cage protects the delicate heart and lungs. 6. Movement The bones and joints work with muscles to enable us to walk, run and sprint. 5. Support The vertebrae support the head. 4. Calcium Storage Bone is the largest supply of calcium 1. Protection The cranium protects the soft tissue of the brain. 2. Shape Without the skeleton, the body would be flabby and shapeless.
    • Bone Structure Bone is the hardest tissue in the body
      • Compact Bone
        • Found at the shaft or diaphysis of long bones
        • External layer of bone that copes with the stresses of PA
      • Cancellous Bone
        • Referred to as the spongy part of a bone
        • Found under the external layer of compact bone
        • Bone marrow is found in this part of the bone
    • Ossification
    • Ossification
      • Bones start to grow inside the womb, where they begin as cartilage.
      Cartilage Periosteum Bone Marrow Spongy Bone Compact Bone What are Bones made of?
        • Vitamin D helps build bone.
        • Calcium is a mineral which helps keep bones strong.
      • Even as a fully-grown adult, the bone structure is always changing, as vitamins and minerals are constantly replaced.
      • As you get older this turns into hard bone by a process called ossification.
      • Bones will only grow properly as long as certain minerals and vitamins are eaten:
      • A poor diet will result in soft bones, whilst a balanced diet and exercise will make the bones harder.
    • Structure of a Long Bone
      • Consists of a diaphysis (shaft) with a bulge called the epiphysis at either end
      • Longitudinal growth occurs between these structures
      • The medullary or marrow cavity is situated in middle of the shaft beneath the compact bone; it contains either red or yellow marrow
    • Bone Marrow
      • Age is a dependant factor on the colour of the marrow. At birth all bones are filled with red bone marrow which produces both red & white blood cells
      • With age there is a progressive replacement of the red marrow by that of yellow marrow, which is fatty and non-blood producing
    • Periosteum
      • Each bone is enclosed in a dense layer of fibrous tissue known as periosteum
      • There are 2 layers
        • Outer layer
          • Blood vessels & nerves
        • Inner layer
          • Responsible for bone development
      • Bones change in size & shape throughout life and they are denser in males
    • Compact Bone
      • Is dense , has few spaces and appears solid to the naked eye
      • Forms the external layer of the bones of the body, and the bulk of the shaft (diaphysis) of long bones
      • Provides support & protection and helps the long bones resist the stresses of weight placed upon them
      • ‘ Haversian Systems ’ are patterns that can be seen under a microscope
    • Cancellous Bone
      • Known as spongy bone
      • Made up of large interconnected spaces, like comic book cheese
      • Is the make up of most flat, short, irregular and the end of long bones
      • It has a criss cross structure that gives strength without excess weight, this is known as trabeculae
      • The spaces between the trabeculae are filled with red bone marrow
    • Essentials
      • Diaphysis
        • Shaft of bone
      • Periosteum
        • Layer around the bone (like a sleeve)
      • Compact bone
        • Found in the bulk of the shaft
      • Medullary cavity
        • Marrow cavity in the middle of the shaft beneath the compact bone
      • Epiphysis
        • Ends of bone
      • Cancellous bone
        • Has interconnected spaces (spongy)
      • Hyaline/Articular cartilage
        • Found at the ends of the epiphysis
      • Epiphyseal plate
        • Appears as a line across the cancellous bone
    • Summary
      • Functions of skeleton
      • Ossification
      • Cartilage
      • Periosteum
      • Epiphysis
      • Bone Marrow
      • Compact bone
      • Cancellous bone
    • Session objectives
      • To be able to describe the functions of the skeletal system
      • To be able to describe the structure of a typical long bone
      • To explain the differences between compact and cancellous bone
    • Next session
      • Classifications of bone
      • Functions of each classification of bone