A cyclical 4stage model of learning, based on theexperiential learning theory, which provides a holistic perspective that includes experience, perception, cognition, and behaviour.Approaches towards grasping experience – Concrete experience & Abstract ConceptualisationApproaches towards transforming experience – Reflective observation & Active ExperimentationOther models have been adapted from Kolb’s.. Honey & Mumford’s model, was renamed/adapted to suit reflective in managerial positions.. Adapted from: Kolb learning styles. (n.d.). Retrieved December 20, 2011, from Business Balls: http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htmlLearning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, December). Learning Theories & Models at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved December 20th, 2011 from http://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.htmlImage sourced from: http://www.learning-theories.com/experiential-learning-kolb.html
Katherine Benziger – Personality assessment NOT testing as such, also studies in the area of brain function..Adapted from: Howard Garden multiple intelligences. (n.d.). Retrieved December 20, 2011, from Business Balls: http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences.htmBenziger personality test. (n.d.). Retrieved December 20, 2011, from Business Balls: http://www.businessballs.com/benzigerpersonalityassessment.htm
The theory is based on three assumptions primarily.. There are 2 channels available for information processing - Visual & Auditory“Limited channel capacity” exists Learning is an active process, in which the theory suggests we must - Filter>Selecting>Organise>Integrate infromationMayer - “multimedia principle” states that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone”The theory also talks about the notion of different memory stores.. Sensory – Short working & Receiver of stimuliWorking – Processing the information/stimuli, to create “mental constructs”Long-term – Is the information learnt, a repositoryAdapted from:Mayer, R. E.; R. Moreno (1998). “A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles”. http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf.Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. (1999). “Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity”. Journal of Educational Psychology 91: 358–368.Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press
Results of this- Learners/students, may be more likely to remember information & knowledge, that is discovered by one’s selfAlso, models based on it – case based learning, such as our course, less structured than problem based learning, incidental learning etc..**Piaget, cognitive theories of development – the nature and development of human intelligence... Also addresses the way we acquire it, construct & use it** Personal note**Adapted from:Bruner, J.S. (1967). On knowing: Essays for the left hand. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. -
Adapted from:Barrows, H. S. & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer.Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16, 235-266.Hmelo-Silver, C. E. & Barrows, H. S. (2006). Goals and strategies of a problem-based learning facilitator. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1. 21-39.Savery, J. R., and Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35, 31-38.Schmidt HG: Foundations of problem-based learning: some explanatory notes. Medical Education 27:422-432, 1993.
-Social interaction and collaboration are essential components of situated learningBrown, Collins & Duguid (1989) emphasize the idea of cognitive apprenticeship: “Cognitive apprenticeship supports learning in a domain by enabling students to acquire, develop and use cognitive tools in authentic domain activity. Learning, both outside and inside school, advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge.”Adapted from:Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, S. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42.Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in Practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Periperal Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
How do people learn..
Nothing that is worth knowing can be taught. -Oscar Wilde
Fleming’s VAK model •People will utilise a preferred way of learning Visual •Mixed/balanced combination of the three styles •Dependent on the Audio individual -Creativity vs Logic -Personality -Katherine Benzigers brain dominanceKinaesthetic model
Cognitive theories of multimedia learning - MayerVisual Auditory Capacity Integrate Filter Select Organise Information Long- Sensory Working term
Discovery learning - Bruner“Discovery learning believes that it is best for learners to discover facts and relationships for themselves” More likely to remember! Problem -based learning is one model, is based upon the theory of discovery learning..
Problem-based learning Outcomes of PBLOpen -ended problems Self-directed •Develops learning -problem solving skills -critical thinking skills -creative skills •Heightens motivation Student as problem Tutor •Enables the learners/students solver = to apply learnt knowledge to Facilitator new situations
Situated learning theory - Lave Classroom Contextual learning learning“..learning is situated; that is, as it normally occurs, learning is embedded within activity, context and culture.”