Pedagogical aspects of learning technologies Lecture for KAK6003 Kai Pata
ContentsLeading questions:• What proverbs and metaphors have been used for describing learning?• Which learning theories are behind these proverbs and metaphors?• How are learning theories related with instructional designs?
Estonian proverbs about learning• Kes õpib, see ka teab. – Who will study that will know.• Tarkust ei saa kulbiga päha tõsta. _You cannot put wisdom into the head with the ladle.• Harjutamine teeb meistriks. – Practicing makes you a master.• Töö õpetab tegijat. – Work teaches the doer.• Töö õpetab iseennast. – Labour teaches itself.
Estonian proverbs about learning• Ela õppimise tarvis ja õpi elamise tarvis. – Live for learning and learn for living.• Inimene õpib hällist kunni hauani. – Man learns from cradle to the tomb.• Mida Juku ei õpi, seda Juhan ei tea. – What Juku does not learn, Juhan will not know.
Some metaphors about learning• Planting flowers - A seed is planted in my mind which I nurture with water and sun in the faith that it will sprout and grow.• Being a detective - Its all about uncovering the facts, looking for clues and asking the right questions until the whole mystery makes sense.• A quest - Im searching for that illusive something and every step I take brings me closer to what I need to know, but I never get there ... its a continuous journey.
Discussing proverbs and metaphors of learning• Think of one proverb from your country, that describes Learning.• What is your leading metaphor for learning?• Write each of them on the paper clips.• We will organize them according to the learning theories later on.
Learning theories – why and how we learn?• Learning theory is the set of principles about learning: – consisting of the descriptions what initiates learning – how learning process proceeds, – and what is the result of learning (Driscoll, 1994).• Learning theories describe the essence of learning and predict the results of learning.But…• Learning theories are general and give few concrete guidelines how to implement these in certain situations.
Behavioural learningHarjutamine teeb meistriks. – Practicing makes you a master.Töö õpetab tegijat. – Work teaches the doer.Töö õpetab iseennast. – Labour teaches itself.
“Black box” metaphorSkinner (1950) introduced behavioural learning theory:“A science of behavior must eventually deal withbehavior in its relation to certain manipulablevariables.
Principles of behaviourism‘conditioning reflex’Pavlov provided the basis ofbehaviourism highlighting theimportance of stimulus forlearning.Neutral Stimulus (NS) => NoResponse (NR)NS + Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS) => UnconditionedResponse (UCR)Conditioned Stimulus (CS) =>Conditioned Response (CR) Pavlov dog
Principles of behaviouralSkinner, 1950: learning1. Behaviour that is positivelyreinforced will reoccur;intermittent reinforcement isparticularly effective2. Information should bepresented in small amounts so thatresponses can be reinforced("shaping")3. Reinforcements will generalizeacross similar stimuli ("stimulusgeneralization") producingsecondary conditioning Skinner box
“Response strenghtening”metaphor1900-1950 Learning as response strenghtening Teacher gives punishment and rewards, student reacts with teacher defined behaviour Drill, tutorial, assessment test centered learning
General educational implications of behaviorismEmphasis on behavior: students should be activerespondents……people are most likely to learn when they actuallyhave a chance to behave.Student learning must be evaluated……only measurable behavior changes can confirmthat learning has taken place.
Drill and practice• Repetition of stimulus-response habits strengthens those habits.• …Promotes the acquisition of knowledge or skill through repetitive practice.• …Refers to small tasks such as the memorization of spelling or vocabulary words, or the practicing of arithmetic facts and may also be found in more complex learning tasks or physical education games and sports.• …Involves repetition of specific skills.• To be meaningful to learners, the skills built through drill-and- practice should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning.• Drills are usually repetitive and are used as a reinforcement tool.
Proverbs about behavioral learning• Harjutamine teeb meistriks. – Practicing makes you a master.• Töö õpetab tegijat. – Work teaches the doer.• Töö õpetab iseennast. – Labour teaches itself.• Which of your proverbs and metaphors are associated with behavourism?
Advantages of drill programs• personalized• help learners master DRILL program ABC materials at their own pace • recognition of the type of skill being developed• mainly for the beginning learner • use of appropriate strategies to develop• for students who are competencies experiencing learning • use of games to increase problems motivation• interactive nature • provide feedback to students
Cognitive learningKes õpib, see ka teab. – Who willstudy that will know.Tarkust ei saa kulbiga päha tõsta. -You cannot put wisdom into the headwith the ladle.
“Information processing” metaphor1960-1970 learning as information processing(Mayer,1996).Teacher is transmissingknowledge, students arereceivers of knowledge Textbooks and other content management systems.
“Knowledge acquisition” metaphorAnna Sfard 1998• According to the “knowledge-acquisition” metaphor learning is the construction of well-organised knowledge structures that provide students with the means of interacting with the important aspects of the problem situations.• Acquiring scientific knowledge takes place through conceptual change where intuitive knowledge is replaced/modified with scientifically correct knowledge.• “Knowledge acquisition” metaphor is based on the idea that our brain is a container and the learning process is filling this container (Bereiter, 2002).
“Brain as the computer” metaphorComputer has information inputs and action outputssimilarly as we receive signals from the environmentwith our sensory organs and react with behavours thatemerge in response to the outside signalsInformation is recorded, decoded and processed bothinside the computer and the brain, this processingprovides the output behaviours. information reaction
“Dual-coding” theoryA dual coding theory of learning from visual and verbalmaterials. (Mayer, 1993)
“Cognitive load” theory• Provides guidelines to assist in the presentation of information in such a way that helps learners to optimize their intellectual performance.• Is based on the assumptions of: – an effectively unlimited longterm memory and – a limited working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986),• Aims at designing instructions that do not overburden the learners’ cognitive capabilities.
Proverbs about cognitivel learning• Kes õpib, see ka teab. – Who will study that will know.• Tarkust ei saa kulbiga päha tõsta. - You cannot put wisdom into the head with the ladle.• Which of your proverbs and metaphors are associated with behavourism?
Constructivist and social- constructivist learningEla õppimise tarvis ja õpi elamise tarvis. – Live forlearning and learn for living.Mida Juku ei õpi, seda Juhan ei tea. – What Juku does notlearn, Juhan will not know.
“Knowledge construction” metaphor1980-1990 learning as knowledge construction (Mayer,1996). guided inquiry discussions Student is constructing knowledge on the basis of earlier knowledge in real situations, teacher is guiding the learning process
“Discovery” metaphor• Discovery learning is based on the "Aha!“ method.• Dewey wrote: "There is an intimate and necessary relation between the processes of actual experience and education".• Bruner believed that students learn best by discovery and that the learner is a problem solver who interacts with the environment testing hypotheses and developing generalizations.
“Experiental learning” metaphor• The foundation of learning is experience.• Learning is the transformation of our experiences into knowledge, skills, attitudes, values• Reflection helps to transform the experiences. (Kolb)
“Anchoring” metaphor• Anchored instruction is a major paradigm for technology-based learning that has been developed by the Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV) under the leadership of John Bransford. KNOWLEDGE• Learning and teaching activities should be designed around an anchor which should be some sort of case-study or problem situation. Adventures of Jasper Woodbury http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/preview/AdvJW.html
“Knowledge building” metaphor Scardamalia and Bereiter (1994)• Knowledge building refers to collective work for the advancement and elaboration of conceptual artifacts (product plans, business strategies, marketing plans, theories, ideas, and models) (the world of cultural knowledge).• An important aspect of Bereiter’s theory is to make a conceptual distinction between learning, which operates in the realm of mental states (Popper’s World 2), and knowledge building, which operates in the realm of theories and ideas (Popper’s World 3). Knowledge Forum (KF, see www.learn.motion.com)
“Negotiations” metaphorSince 1990…The social-constructive learning has been illustrated withthe “negotiations” metaphor (Mayer,1996).According to this metaphorknowledge is always builtin the dialogue where the actorscreate shared knowledge of eachothers’knowledge, that enablesshared activity and supportsindividual knowledge creation.
Community role in learning• The development of content alone does not lead to more effective learning and there is the need to structure and foster learning environments to enable communities to develop.• Learning happens through mediating artefacts within a framework of activity within a wider socio-cultural context of the rules of the community.
“Participation” metaphor• Social-constructivist learning has been illustrated with the participation metaphor (Sfard, 1998) that suggests that all learners are part of communities of practice that have certain common knowledge and skills (Lave ja Wenger).• Learning in the communities of practice is directed from the older members of the community towards the new members who as a result of learning move from the peripherial areas of the system towards the core of the community and become themselves the experts who can transfer the community practice.
“Communities of Practice”Raub, S. (2002). Communities of Practice: A New Challenge for HumanResources Management, Research and Practice in Human ResourceManagement, 10(2), 16-35.
Knowledge is “embedded inEngeström, 1999 practices”• Human beings do not live in a vacuum but are embedded in their sociocultural context, and that their behavior cannot be understood independently of that context.• Human activity is mediated through the conceptual and material cultural artifacts people use.• The participants focus on reconceptualizing their own activity system in relation to their shared objects of activity, both the objects and the existing scripts are reconceptualized; the activity system is transformed; and new motives and objects for the activity system are created.• Knowledge is always embedded in practices, in contrast to the mentalistic tradition of “knowledge in the head”.
“Innovative learning”• Innovative learning and knowledge advancement are characterized as cyclical and iterative processes, which have several implications.• Knowledge creation often requires sustained periods of time and is not correctly described by traditional narratives of heroic individuals making ingenious discoveries through sudden moments of insight.• Moreover, knowledge creation is not linear (Engeström, 1987) but a process of ambiguity and “creative chaos” (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995), involving the sense of progress.• Knowledge creation does not start from scratch but is a process of transforming and developing— sometimes in a radical way— existing ideas and practices. Hakkarainen et al., 2004
Knowledge creation in organisations Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)
Principles of social-constructivist learning environment• Learners build their own mental structures by interacting with the real environment.• Learners have access to resources and expertise and they can sequence the learning activity according to their own needs.• This enables to develop more engaging and student- centered, active and authentic learning environments.• Toolkits and other support systems guide and inform users through a process of activities. (Duffy and Jonassen)
Principles of social-constructivist learning environments• Learning takes place in communication acts where the information is transmissed, processed, recombinated, contrasted in problem-solving situations.• The cognition is always distributed, this leads to the construction of shared knowledge between individuals and the surrounded information-rich environment of resources and relationships.
Complexity of thinking operations Social-constructivist learningintergrated knowledge Cases and problemsComplex skills and shared knoweledge construction and expertise inquiry and decision-making Cognitive learning e-content, drill program or tutorial assesment testBasic skillsknowledge Behavioural learning conditioning transmissing constructing Teaching paradigm
Self-directed and lifelong and networked learning in digital open ecosystems• Inimene õpib hällist kunni hauani. – Man learns from cradle to the tomb.
“Self-directing” metaphor• ’Self-directed learning’ describes a process by which individuals take the initiative, with our without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identify human and material resources for learning, choosing and implement appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes. (Knowles, 1972)“
“Connectivist knowledge” metaphor• A property of one entity must lead to or become a property of another entity in order for them to be considered connected; the knowledge that results from such connections is connective knowledge. The act of learning is one of creating an external network of nodes – where we connect and form information and knowledge sources.• The pipe is more important than the content in the pipe. ‘Know where’ and ‘know who’ are more important today that ‘knowing what’ and ‘how’ (Siemens, 2006).
“Free-floating” metaphor by Steven WeinbergConstructivism has been illustrated by using the “free floating”metaphor that emphasises that the rules to construct individualknowledge as well as the paths of learning are unpredictable inadvance.The “free-floating” ideahas recently been used in elearningto describe the knowledge-management: “this is thebeast that is combiningthe e-learning practices with the free-floating knowledge created andshared by learning organisations during their activities (Barron, 2000)”
“Rhizomic” metaphor• Rhizomic metaphor describes the endless connections in the structure of knowledge, culture, language, and thinking that is common to social-constructivist learning.• Differently from the roots of the tree that serve as the controlling spot for the whole tree, the rhizome has many connection-points, it has no starting- or endingpoint, it is an intermediate being, always in between two spots, describing the alliance, the connection with the idea: ..more..and more..and more…Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari: "Rhizome" (1976), “A Thousand Plateaus” (1980)
Ecosystem metaphor and adaptive learning • Learning in open learning ecosystems is the process in which learner and the system (community, culture) detects and corrects errors in order to fit and be responsive. accumulationKnowledge, Learning nicheideas, PLE- for aconfigurations community/and learning cultureapproaches NETWORK OF LEARNERS LEARNER adaptation
“Ubiquitous learning” metaphor Mobile learning has ubiquitous ("anytime, anywhere“) nature.Ubiquity is the ability to be present everywhere or atseveral places at once. The term is derived from Latin ubiquewhich means everywhere. Wikipedia
Possibilities for ubiquitous learning (Patten et al., 2006)
Individual in digital ecosystemADAPTING TO THE COMMUNITY NICHE DIRECT PATHS TO COMMUNITY MEMBERS COMMUNITY AND KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE NETWORK SOCIAL NETWORK SEMANTIC NAVIGATION COMMUNITY BROWSING NAVIGATING IN NICHE SWARMING MASHING REMIXING CO-CREATING PARTICIPATORY SURVEILLANCE SOCIAL NAVIGATION INTEROPERABLE TOOLS SOFTWARE 2 SOFTWARE 1 PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Pata, 2010
Principles of learning technologies in open digital ecosystems• facilitating learning as a process of navigating, growing and pruning connections and interactions within distributed networks, and generating coherence, resonance and synchronization in knowledge (Siemens, 2012).• engaging self-directed and self-organized learners and leading practitioners in the field• fostering open enrollment, open curriculum, open and partially learner-defined learning goals and -outcomes, the usage of open resources and open learning environment, and the enabled open monitoring of learning activities (Kop, 2011)
Changes in the focus of learning technologies 1975 1985 1990 2005 Being embodied into self-Acquiring knowledge Reconstructing knowledge organizing knowledgeDe-contextualized knowledge Learning in authentic context ecosystem Other-directed learning Self-directed learning Memorizing alone Constructing socially Adapting to the communityDrill programs and tutorials Forums, Personal learning environments learning management systems Personal networks Communities Authentic simulations Virtual worlds Predetermined closed learning environment Self-organizing open learning environment Institutionally owned Public