COGNITIVE THEORY Similar to traditional psychological concepts and beliefs of thinking, remembering, deciding, etc. Views them in terms of how they underline behavior Thinking and remembering relate to a behavior Created as a reaction to a behaviorist theory in disagreement Cognitive theorists include “Thinking plays a role.”
ALLAN PAIVIO Visual and verbal presentation increases recall and recognition Dual Coding Theory Processing of images Processing of language Sub processes Representational: directly influenced Referential: activated by verbal and nonverbal communication Associative: text and graphics trigger associations
ROBERT GAGNE Developed theories from behaviorists Identified five different learning categories Developed three principles on successful instruction Believed all students must process through a hierarchy of skills Identified nine events of instruction “Instruction is an external condition for learning that leads to the internal process of learning”
WHAT THE TEACHER DOES: WITHTECHNOLOGY Provide pictures with the discussions to get students thinking in different ways Use online interactive activities that encourage critical thinking ex: virtual field trip Use word processors to take and organize notes Provide concept maps and digital references such as videos
WHAT THE TEACHER DOES: WITHOUTTECHNOLOGY Analyze what students already know Design a lesson plan to complement known information and build upon it Emphasize important points to make students want to learn the information; students motivate themselves Provide study questions to guide learning, rather than just testing Provide hands-on activities such as experiments or presentations
WHAT THE STUDENTS DO: WITHTECHNOLOGY Utilize the myriad of electronic resources for studying, such as online games, educational apps, etc. Use electronic study tools such as Powerpoint, Anki, etc. for more effective studying Find online resources for understanding difficult material, such as KhanAcademy, Wolfram Alpha, http://www.youtube.com/education, etc.
WHAT THE STUDENT DO: WITHOUTTECHNOLOGY Students can identify what kind of learner they are and utilize this information when studying Students can study in groups for more effective learning Students can use alternative study methods such as games, puzzles, et cetera, to learn the material easier and faster
COGNITIVE THEORY IN MY OWNTEACHING "Learners are not simply passive recipients of information; they actively construct their own understanding.” I agree with the cognitive theory and believe that students decide what they take out of information, and make conscience efforts to focus on the information in which they find important. Teachers must act as facilitators of learning, for they are not just passing a message along. By practicing numerous activities throughout a lesson, the students are able to receive the information in different ways that they may find more meaningful, and the information is best grasped. This way, students can also discover the ways in which they learn best, in case they ever have a teacher that doesn’t teach in a way that best suits their leaning ability. I plan on using various techniques in the classroom so that students can incorporate the new information into their existing memories. Every student has a different way of thinking, but by incorporating lessons into different activities and examples, it gives more chance for students to compare the information to real-world scenarios and adhere the learning concepts to things that will allow them to remember the lesson at hand.
SOURCES Curry, Scott. img_00831.jpg. August 16th 2007. Pics4Learning. 20 Apr 2013 http://pics.tech4learning.com Hedges, Kathryn. dsc00023.jpg. 2007. Pics4Learning. 20 Apr 2013 http://pics.tech4learning.com n.d. Cognitivism. Learning-Theories.com. April 20,2013. http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html n.d. Theories of Learning Cognitive Constructivism. Teaching Guide for Graduate Student Instruction. April 20,2013. http://gsi.berkeley.edu/teachingguide/theories/cognitive.html Ronquillo, Ulysses. July 13,2009. Cognitive Learning Theory and Technology. A Teacher Affects Eternity. April 20,2013. http://derrickmgreen.wordpress.com/2009/07/13/cognitive- learning-theory-and-technology/