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HOW PEOPLE LEARN     Peter Newbury     Center for Teaching Development,     University of California, San Diego     pnewbu...
2   How People Learn (Biology)
Evidence-based teaching    We know How People Learn.1    There is research that informs us. Let’s exploit the    patterns ...
The traditional lecture is based on the          transmissionist learning model4   How People Learn (Biology)   (Image by ...
Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure                      We must abandon the tabula rasa                        ―blan...
Let’s have a learning experience…6   How People Learn (Biology)
Here is an important new number    system. Please learn it.      1=                         4=   7=      2=               ...
Test    What is this number?8   How People Learn (Biology)
New Number System    Here’s the structure of the ―tic-tac-toe‖ code:                                 1   2   3            ...
Test     What is this number?10   How People Learn (Biology)
Constructivist theory of learning      New learning is based on pre-existing knowledge       that you hold.      You sto...
What are the patterns of                   how people learn?                       How do we use them?12   How People Lear...
Key Finding 1     Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about     how the world works. If their initial under...
Key Finding 2     To develop competence in an area, students must:         a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,...
Key Finding 3     A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help     students learn to take control of their own learn...
Aside: metacognition      Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s      own cognitive processes or anythin...
Key Finding 3     A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help     students learn to take control of their own learn...
Please break into groups of 3-4...18     Each set of cards has     3 Key Findings     3 Implications for Teaching     3 De...
19
Key Finding 1     Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about     how the world works. If their initial under...
Implications for Teaching 1     Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting     understandings that their student...
Clicker Question     The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that     forms during the growth of a tree largely come ...
Classroom Environments 1     Schools and classrooms must be learner centered.23   How People Learn (Biology)
Learning requires (good) interaction                                    E.E. Prather, A.L. Rudolph, G. Brissenden and W.M....
Learning requires (good) interaction                                  Learning gain:                                  100%...
Learning requires (good) interaction                    1                                                                 ...
Key Finding 2     To develop competence in an area, students must:         a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,...
Implications for Teaching 2     Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth,     providing many examples in which the...
Development of Mastery            conscious Behavior        unconscious                                incompetent        ...
Development of Mastery                             incompetent              competent                                     ...
Development of Mastery            conscious Behavior        unconscious                              adikko.deviantart.com...
Development of Mastery            conscious Behavior        unconscious                                incompetent        ...
Development of Mastery            conscious Behavior        unconscious                  1                                ...
Development of Mastery            conscious                                     2 Behavior        unconscious             ...
Development of Mastery            conscious                                     2                        3 Behavior       ...
Development of Mastery            conscious                                     2                        3 Behavior       ...
Why Your Students Don’t Understand You     Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:      Lack rich, netwo...
Key Finding 3     A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help     students learn to take control of their own learn...
Implications for Teaching 3     The teaching of metacognitive skills should be     integrated into the curriculum in a var...
Evolution of the Solar System     Today, we’ve been learning about the formation of the     Solar System.     Just like a ...
Clicker question                                       X       Are features X and Y                                       ...
42     Implications for Instructors     and Teaching Assistants
traditional lecture      student-centered instruction43   How People Learn (Biology)
peer instruction w clickers      worksheets      videos      interactive demonstrations      surveys of opinions      read...
Archimedes’ Principle     In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy     and Archimedes’ Principle.          ...
Clicker question     An ice cube is floating in a glass of water     that is filled entirely to the brim. As the ice     c...
Typical episode of peer instruction     Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures,      1. Instructor poses a conceptual...
In effective peer instruction      students teach each other immediately,     students learn       while they may still h...
Clicker Question     Suppose that in the tree below new data were     uncovered indicating that taxon E is sister to a gro...
Which one is the closest match to your phylogeny?     A)                        B)     C)                        D)   Some...
Quiz     Selection is the stimulus/pressure (internal or external)     that affects life and/or the ability to reproduce. ...
Sync with Key Findings?      Does that lesson demand deep foundation of       knowledge, a conceptual framework, organiza...
Clicker question: Selection     How many of the following statements are true?     Plants: Some plants don’t experience se...
Active Learning in Discussion Sections      Think, Pair Share or peer instruction with clickers or       colored ABCD car...
Student-centered instruction takes time     Five minutes of peer instruction every 15 minutes means     25% of class time ...
Traditional classroom                                    learn easy     learn hard                                  stuff ...
Flipped classroom           learn easy               learn hard           stuff alone            stuff together      stud...
How People Learn       Learning is not about what TAs explain.        It’s about what students understand!58
How People Learn       Learning is not about what TAs explain.        It’s about what students understand!      Corollary ...
How People Learn       Learning is not about what TAs explain.        It’s about what students understand!      Corollary ...
If in doubt, ask yourself…        Who is doing the work?         You or the students?61
HOW PEOPLE LEARN     Peter Newbury     Center for Teaching Development,     University of California, San Diego     pnewbu...
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How People Learn (Biology edition)

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How People Learn, for UCSD Biology teaching assistants.

February 5, 2013

Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development
University of California, San Diego
ctd.ucsd.edu

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How People Learn (Biology edition)

  1. 1. HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd February 5, 2013
  2. 2. 2 How People Learn (Biology)
  3. 3. Evidence-based teaching We know How People Learn.1 There is research that informs us. Let’s exploit the patterns of learning to make instruction more effective. 1. National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.3 How People Learn (Biology)
  4. 4. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model4 How People Learn (Biology) (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)
  5. 5. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure We must abandon the tabula rasa ―blank slate‖ and ―students as empty vessels‖ models of teaching and learning.5 How People Learn (Biology)
  6. 6. Let’s have a learning experience…6 How People Learn (Biology)
  7. 7. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. 1= 4= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 6= 9=7 How People Learn (Biology)
  8. 8. Test What is this number?8 How People Learn (Biology)
  9. 9. New Number System Here’s the structure of the ―tic-tac-toe‖ code: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 99 How People Learn (Biology)
  10. 10. Test What is this number?10 How People Learn (Biology)
  11. 11. Constructivist theory of learning  New learning is based on pre-existing knowledge that you hold.  You store things in long term memory through a set of connections that are made with previous existing memories.  Higher-level learning = brain development Physical changes occur in your brain when you learn. T.J. Shors, ―Saving New Brain Cells‖ Sci. Amer. 300, 46-54 (March 2009).11 How People Learn (Biology)
  12. 12. What are the patterns of how people learn? How do we use them?12 How People Learn (Biology)
  13. 13. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 14.13 How People Learn (Biology)
  14. 14. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 16.14 How People Learn (Biology)
  15. 15. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 18.15 How People Learn (Biology)
  16. 16. Aside: metacognition Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them…. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. (Flavell1,2, 1976, p. 232) 1. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 2. Brame, C. (2013) Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-about-metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013].16 How People Learn (Biology)
  17. 17. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 18.17 How People Learn (Biology)
  18. 18. Please break into groups of 3-4...18 Each set of cards has 3 Key Findings 3 Implications for Teaching 3 Designing Classroom Environments TASK: For each Key Finding, match one Implication for Teaching and one Designing Classroom Environment.
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 14.20 How People Learn (Biology)
  21. 21. Implications for Teaching 1 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them.21 How People Learn (Biology)
  22. 22. Clicker Question The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from A) sunlight. B) the air. C) the seed. D) the soil. Veritasium (Derek Muller) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg Question credit: Bill Wood22
  23. 23. Classroom Environments 1 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered.23 How People Learn (Biology)
  24. 24. Learning requires (good) interaction E.E. Prather, A.L. Rudolph, G. Brissenden and W.M. Schlingman, ―A national study assessing the teaching and24 How People Learn (Biology) learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction,‖ Am. J. Phys 66, 64-74 (1998).
  25. 25. Learning requires (good) interaction Learning gain: 100% 0.50 % of class time NOT lecturing 0 pre-test post-test E.E. Prather, A.L. Rudolph, G. Brissenden and W.M. Schlingman, ―A national study assessing the teaching and25 How People Learn (Biology) learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction,‖ Am. J. Phys 66, 64-74 (1998).
  26. 26. Learning requires (good) interaction 1 2 3 4 E.E. Prather, A.L. Rudolph, G. Brissenden and W.M. Schlingman, ―A national study assessing the teaching and26 How People Learn (Biology) learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction,‖ Am. J. Phys 66, 64-74 (1998).
  27. 27. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 16. These are characteristics of expertize.27 How People Learn (Biology)
  28. 28. Implications for Teaching 2 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like.28 How People Learn (Biology)
  29. 29. Development of Mastery conscious Behavior unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX:29 How People Learn (Biology) Harcourt College Publishers.
  30. 30. Development of Mastery incompetent competent Level of Expertise30 How People Learn (Biology)
  31. 31. Development of Mastery conscious Behavior unconscious adikko.deviantart.com31 How People Learn (Biology)
  32. 32. Development of Mastery conscious Behavior unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise32 How People Learn (Biology)
  33. 33. Development of Mastery conscious Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise33 How People Learn (Biology)
  34. 34. Development of Mastery conscious 2 Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise34 How People Learn (Biology)
  35. 35. Development of Mastery conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise35 How People Learn (Biology)
  36. 36. Development of Mastery conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 4 incompetent competent Level of Expertise36 How People Learn (Biology)
  37. 37. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  Lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences  Have preconceptions that distract or confuse  Lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload37 How People Learn (Biology)
  38. 38. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. How People Learn – Chapter 1, p 18.38 How People Learn (Biology)
  39. 39. Implications for Teaching 3 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students — are essential. Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive – thinking about their own thinking39 How People Learn (Biology)
  40. 40. Evolution of the Solar System Today, we’ve been learning about the formation of the Solar System. Just like a geologist studies the exposed layers on a cliff-face, we study landforms on other planets and moons to find the chronology (sequence) of processes. (Image: NASA)40 How People Learn (Biology)
  41. 41. Clicker question X Are features X and Y ridges or valleys? A) X=ridge, Y=valley B) X=valley, Y=ridge C) both are ridges Y D) both are valleys crater (EOS/CWSEI - UBC)41 How People Learn (Biology)
  42. 42. 42 Implications for Instructors and Teaching Assistants
  43. 43. traditional lecture student-centered instruction43 How People Learn (Biology)
  44. 44. peer instruction w clickers worksheets videos interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussions student-centered instruction44 How People Learn (Biology)
  45. 45. Archimedes’ Principle In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle. (Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain)45 How People Learn (Biology)
  46. 46. Clicker question An ice cube is floating in a glass of water that is filled entirely to the brim. As the ice cube melts, the water level will A) stay the same, remain at the brim. B) rise, causing the water to spill. C) fall to a level below the brim. D) cannot say without knowing the density of ice. (Physics and Astronomy/CWSEI - UBC)46 How People Learn (Biology)
  47. 47. Typical episode of peer instruction Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures, 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, colored/ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.47 How People Learn (Biology)
  48. 48. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other immediately, students learn while they may still hold or remember and practice their novice misconceptions how to think,  students discuss the concepts in their communicate own (novice) language like experts  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts48 How People Learn (Biology)
  49. 49. Clicker Question Suppose that in the tree below new data were uncovered indicating that taxon E is sister to a group consisting of taxa D and F. Draw the new phylogeny. (Biology/CWSEI - UBC)49
  50. 50. Which one is the closest match to your phylogeny? A) B) C) D) Some other phylogeny50
  51. 51. Quiz Selection is the stimulus/pressure (internal or external) that affects life and/or the ability to reproduce. True or False? T F 1. Some plants don’t experience selection. T F 2. Insects often experience a different type of selection as larvae than as adults. T F 3. Birds can experience different directions of selection in different years. T F 4. Selection in mammals always operates more strongly on survival than on reproduction.51
  52. 52. Sync with Key Findings?  Does that lesson demand deep foundation of knowledge, a conceptual framework, organization of knowledge?  Did instructor teach in depth, multiple examples of concept, provide firm foundation?  Is attention given to what is taught, why it’s taught and what mastery looks like?  Is there an opportunity for students to be metacognitive?52
  53. 53. Clicker question: Selection How many of the following statements are true? Plants: Some plants don’t experience selection. Insects: Insects often experience a different type of selection as larvae than as adults. Birds: Birds can experience different directions of selection in different years. Mammals: Selection in mammals always operates more strongly on survival than on reproduction. A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D)3 E)453
  54. 54. Active Learning in Discussion Sections  Think, Pair Share or peer instruction with clickers or colored ABCD cards  One-Minute papers: What is most confusing right now?  Problem Solving in Groups  Provide scaffold/structure  Ask what steps would you take to solve problem (versus actually solving them)  Critique or ―fix‖ sample work/problem  overhead slides, document cameras, board?54
  55. 55. Student-centered instruction takes time Five minutes of peer instruction every 15 minutes means 25% of class time is spent on interactive, students- centered instruction. Where does that time come from?55 How People Learn (Biology)
  56. 56. Traditional classroom learn easy learn hard stuff together stuff alone  first exposure to material is in class, content is transmitted from instructor to student  learning occurs later when student struggles alone to complete homework, essay, project56 How People Learn (Biology)
  57. 57. Flipped classroom learn easy learn hard stuff alone stuff together  student learns easy content at home: definitions, basis skills, simple examples. Frees up class time for...  students come to class prepared to tackle challenging concepts in class, with immediate feedback from peers, instructor57 How People Learn (Biology)
  58. 58. How People Learn Learning is not about what TAs explain. It’s about what students understand!58
  59. 59. How People Learn Learning is not about what TAs explain. It’s about what students understand! Corollary 1: Students will not understand (just) by watching the TA solve problems.59
  60. 60. How People Learn Learning is not about what TAs explain. It’s about what students understand! Corollary 1: Students will not understand (just) by watching the TA solve problems. Corollary 2: BE LESS HELPFUL.60
  61. 61. If in doubt, ask yourself… Who is doing the work? You or the students?61
  62. 62. HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Monday, February 4, 2013 Eleanor Roosevelt College

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