To exchange gases with the surrounding environment
Mechanism CO 2 is a waste product of cellular respiration It is carried in the blood as a Carbonate (carbonic acid)
The medulla oblongata keeps track of blood acidity
Protection From External Environment All passageways of the respiratory system are kept moist, and most are lined with mucous This is to keep air flowing freely, and to trap dirt and bacteria
We also have some cilia lined air passageways to prevent dirt from entering our lungs (nasal passages, and Trachea)
How does it work?
Air rushes in to fill up empty space
How does it work? Exhaling is generally a passive process
You can also use the muscles around your ribcage to constrict your chest more, expelling more air
Diffusion Confusion Alveoli are to the respiratory system like villi to the digestive system, and like the nephron to the excretory system
INCREASED SURFACE AREA LEADS TO MORE GAS EXCHANGE!!
Diffusion Alveoli are where circulatory system meet the respiratory system High concentration to low concentration
Same process drive absorption of nutrients and wastes
Homeostatic Control Increased muscular activity leads to more cellular respiration Increased cellular respiration leads to increased levels of Carbon Dioxide in the blood Leads to high acid levels
Medulla sends signal to increase respiratory rate
Immune System Pathogens can get into the body
Lymph system and Circulatory system
The ability of an organism to resist foreign organisms or invaders which enter its body.
Layered Defense Humans have three layers of protection against pathogens 2- Innate immune response
3- Adaptive immune response
Innate Immune System A non-specific response to pathogens Phagocytes , mast cells , eosinophils , basophils , and natural killer cells .
Attack and destroy (phagocytosis)
Adaptive Immunity Immune system has a memory It can produce antibodies to certain pathogens
Next time pathogen enters body antibodies deactivate, and tag it for destruction
Vaccines Rely on adaptive immunity
If invaded, you already have the antibodies to fight it off
Allergies Body identifies harmless substance as a pathogen
Produces immune defense (sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, mucus production increase)
Autoimmune Diseases Disease in which the immune system targets it’s own body cells for destruction
AIDS is a viral disease which destroys the ability of the immune system to produce antibodies, so the afflicted individual is unable to cope with infections and cancer cells which arise within the body.